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Case study solution, project report, assignment answers

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COST AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING ISBM ONGOING EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

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COST & MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
CASE STUDY : 1
J P Ltd manufacturers of a special product, follows the policy of EOQ for one of its components. The
components’s details are as follows.
Purchase price per component, Rs 200
Cost of an order Rs 100
Annual cost of carrying one unit in inventory,
10 per cent of purchase price
Annual usage of components, 4000
The company has been offered a discount of 2 per cent on the price of the component provided the lot size is
2000 components at a time.
Q1) You are required to compute the EOQ?
Q2) Advise whether the quantity discount offer can be accepted (assume that the inventory carrying cost
does not vary according to discount policy).
Q3) Would your advise differ if the company is offered 5 per cent discount on a single order?
Q4) Explain the term EOQ?
CASE STUDY : 2
In an engineering concern, the employees are paid incentive bonus in addition to their normal wages at
hourly rates. Incentive bonus is calculated in proportion of time taken to time allowed, of the time saved.
The following details are made available in respect of employees X, Y & Z for a particular week.
X Y Z
Normal Wages (Per hour) (Rs) 4 5 6
Completed units of Production 6000 3000 4800
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Time allowed per 100 Units
(hour)
0.8 1.5 1.0
Actual time taken (hours) 42 40 48
Q1) You are required to work out for each employee the amount of bonus earned?
Q2) Explain the term incentive?
Q3) You are required to work out for each employee the total amount of wages received?
Q4) You are required to work out for each employee the total wages cost per 100 units of output?
CASE STUDY : 3
Following particulars have been extracted from the books of Supreme Engineers Ltd.
Time allowed for the job (hours) 15 15 15
Time take (hours) 15 12 9
Bonus ratio for Halsey (per cent) 50
Rate per Hour Rs. 2
Q1) You are required to compute the quantum of wages under Halsey Scheme and Rowon Scheme?
Q2) Which of these schemes would you like to introduce in this company if the time taken to complete the
job is likely to reduce to 6 hours after three months.
Q3) An alternative method of payment by results by a straight piece work rate for completion of the job in 7
hours is feasible. Would you like to switch over to this method of payment given further that hourly rate
would be reckoned at Rs 1.50 for fixation of the price rate?
Q4) Give reasons for your advice?
CASE STUDY : 4
The soft flow Ink Ltd’s income statement for the preceding year is presented below. Expect as noted the cost
/ revenue relationship for the coming year is expected to follow the same pattern as in the preceding year.
Income statement for the year ending March 31 is as follows.
Rs. Rs.
Sales (2,00,000 bottles @ Rs 2.5
paise each)
5,00,000
Variable Costs 3,00,000
Fixed Costs 1,00,000 4,00,000
Pre-Tax Profit 1,00,000
Less : Taxes 35,000
Profit After Tax 65,000
Q1) What is the break-even point in account and units?
Q2) Suppose that a plant expansion will add Rs 50,000 to fixed costs and increase capacity by 60 per cent.
How many bottles would have to be sold after the addition to break even?
Q3) At what level of sales will the company be able to maintain its present pre-tax profit provision even
after expansion?
Q4) Suppose the plant operates at full capacity after the expansion, what profit will be earned?


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BANKING MANAGEMENT
Total Marks—80
Q.1) The exchange rate and forward rate of rupee against US dollar on 3rd November, 2008 is given below:
(20 marks)
Spot rate 1 US dollar Rs 45.36
One month forward 3.72%
Three months forward 3.27%
Six months forward 2.76%
Twelve months forward 2.26%
Calculate the forward rate, forward premium rate and swap rate from the given data.
Q.2) In May beginning you decide that shares in X Ltd. will rise over the next month or so. The current price
is Rs 100 and you hope that the shares will be at Rs. 150 by the end of July. Give your comments if the
Option is traded and if the option is not traded. Make assumptions.
(20 marks)
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Q.3) (15 marks)
A) The unit price of TSS scheme of a mutual fund is Rs 10. The public offer price (POP) of the unit is Rs
10.204 and the redemption price is Rs 9.80.
Calculate
i) Front-end load and
ii) Back-end load.
B) Mr. A can earn a return of 16% by investing in equity shares on his own. Now he is considering a recently
announced equity based mutual fund scheme in which initial expenses are 5.5 percent and annual recurring
expenses are 1.5 percent. How much should the mutual fund earn to provide Mr. A a return of 16%
(5 Marks)
Q.4) The closing price of the stock of Veryfine Ltd. at the stock exchange for 20 successive days was as
follows: (20 Marks)
Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Closing
Price(Rs.)
25
26
25
24
26
26
28
26
25
27
You are required to calculate a 7 day moving average of stock price of the company and comment on its short-term
trend
Day 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Closing
price(Rs)
27
25
26
28
26
26
24
25
26
25


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CONTACT:
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AUTOMOBILE MANAGEMENT
TOTAL MARKS :80 MARKS 10 marks each
1. What are the main components used in an automobile?
2. On What basis are automobile engines classified?
3. What is the function of the Joints in piston ring? Give reasons for providing joints in a piston ring?
4. What are two ways of cooling an engine? Explain briefly?
5. State the two purpose of the Flywheel , Camshaft & Manifolds?
6. What is Octane number? How is it determined?
7. Describe the function of a combustion chamber & the constructional details of different types of
combustion chambers?
8. How is it possible to remove harmful liquids from the lubricating oil through a crankcase ventilator?

BANKING MANAGEMENT
Total Marks—80
Q.1) The exchange rate and forward rate of rupee against US dollar on 3rd November, 2008 is given below:
(20 marks)
Spot rate 1 US dollar Rs 45.36
One month forward 3.72%
Three months forward 3.27%
Six months forward 2.76%
Twelve months forward 2.26%
Calculate the forward rate, forward premium rate and swap rate from the given data.
Q.2) In May beginning you decide that shares in X Ltd. will rise over the next month or so. The current price
is Rs 100 and you hope that the shares will be at Rs. 150 by the end of July. Give your comments if the
Option is traded and if the option is not traded. Make assumptions.
(20 marks)
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Q.3) (15 marks)
A) The unit price of TSS scheme of a mutual fund is Rs 10. The public offer price (POP) of the unit is Rs
10.204 and the redemption price is Rs 9.80.
Calculate
i) Front-end load and
ii) Back-end load.
B) Mr. A can earn a return of 16% by investing in equity shares on his own. Now he is considering a recently
announced equity based mutual fund scheme in which initial expenses are 5.5 percent and annual recurring
expenses are 1.5 percent. How much should the mutual fund earn to provide Mr. A a return of 16%
(5 Marks)
Q.4) The closing price of the stock of Veryfine Ltd. at the stock exchange for 20 successive days was as
follows: (20 Marks)
Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Closing
Price(Rs.)
25
26
25
24
26
26
28
26
25
27
You are required to calculate a 7 day moving average of stock price of the company and comment on its short-term
trend
Day 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Closing
price(Rs)
27
25
26
28
26
26
24
25
26
25

BIO-TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT
N. B.: 1. Attempt any 16 Questions
2. All questions carry equal marks.
Q1) Define Bio technology and explain the meaning of old and new biotechnologies. Comment on
the multidisciplinary nature and the commercial potential of bio technology?
Q2) Discuss the scope and importance of biotechnology in promoting human Welfare?
Q3) Define vector. Briefly describe the various kinds of vector in E. coli?
Q4) Describe in some detail the various strategies for the integration of DNA inserts into the vector?
Q5) Explain PCR procedure under the following heads:-
a) PCR primers
b) PCR efficiency
c) Annealing temperature and
d) Amplicon size.
Q6) List various variations of PCR Procedure and briefly describe the methods, logic and
applications of any tow of these variations?
Q7) Briefly describe the various approaches for the production of virus resistant transgenic plants and
compare their merits, demerits, and applications?
Q8) Discuss the various applications of transgenic plants, and the problems encountered in their
productivity utilization?
Q9) Briefly describe the meaning of oil quality and explain the various approaches for the
modification of oil quality through genetic transformation?
Q10) Briefly describe the meaning of starch quality and explain the various strategies for starch quality
modification?
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Q11) Discuss the role of biotechnology in health care giving suitable examples to support your views?
Q12) Define Vaccine. Briefly Explain the different types of vaccine and enumerate their advantages
and limitations?
Q13) Define genetic disease. Briefly explain the techniques for their detection and modes of their
therapy?
Q14) What Is drug Targeting?
Q15) Briefly outline the procedure for isolation?
Q16) Define downstream processing. Briefly describe the various steps in down stream processing?
Q17) Define enzyme. Briefly describe the major categories of fermentation, their requirements and
applications.
Q18) What is bioreactor. Briefly describe major categories of fermentation, their requirements and
application?
Q19) List down various types of metabolites produced of enzymes from microbes.
Q20) What are bio-control agents? Discuss their applications using suitable examples?
Q21) Define strain improvement and briefly discuss the various approaches used for strain
improvement?


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Business Communication
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is Communication policy? What are its Specifications (10 marks)
Q2. What are the essential points in writing Minutes (10 marks)
Q3. State some Strategies to overcome Stage fear (10 marks)
Q4. Write a short note on Planning &Drafting Speech (10 marks)
Q5. Which are the 6 great helpers of Presentation (10 marks)
Q6. Mention & Explain any 5 attributes for Communication (10 marks)
Q7. Mention the characteristics of written Communication . (10 marks)
Q8. What are the advantages of Oral Communication ? (10 marks)

Business Ethics
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give measures to control pollution. (10 marks)
Q2. Give importance and use of ISO 9000 standard. (10 marks)
Q3. What are some ethical problems in business. (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss managers role in business ethics. (10 marks)
Q5. Give SWOT analysis in Indian scenario. (10 marks)
Q6. Write a note on national consumer duputes redressal commission (10 marks)
Q7. Write a note on human culture and civilization. (10 marks)
Q8. How promotion of ethical values occur. (10 marks)

Corporate Law
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is the mode of giving a public notice. (10 marks)
Q2. What do you mean by consent and free consent . (10 marks)
Q3. What are the essentials of contract . (10 marks)
Q4. What are brokerage contracts . (10 marks)
Q5. What are features of a company . (10 marks)
Q6. What is FERA? (10 marks)
Q7. What is personal liability of agent. (10 marks)
Q8. Explain concept need not be in writing. (10 marks)

Financial and Cost Accounting
Answer the following question.
Q1. Which ratios will help in determining the long term solvency of a business and how? (10
marks)
Q2. Explain the term Convention of materiality. (10
marks)
Q3. Define Budgetary Control and explain the pre-requisites for its successful introduction and implementation? (10
marks)
Q4. Explain the advantages of cost accounting. (10
marks)
Q5. How cost accounting is superior over financial accounting? Explain the techniques of costing and their application
and suitability.
(10
marks)
Q6. What do you mean by installation of costing system? Explain the practical difficulties involved in installing such a
system in a manufacturing concern
(10
marks)
Q7. Cost accounting has become an essential tool of management. Mention the steps to be taken while installing cost
accounting system in a manufacturing concern.
(10
marks)
Q8. What is the different between cost accounting and management accounting? (10
marks)

Operations Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is ISO-9000 Series Standards? List key quality awards. (10
marks)
Q2. How does productivity measurement differ between manufacturing and service operations? (10
marks)
Q3. . What are the major decision areas in P/OM? (10
marks)
Q4. A firm uses exponential smoothing with a very high value of alpha. What does this indicate with respect to the
emphasis if placed on past data
(10
marks)
Q5. A Turkish manufacturing company operating a subsidiary in TRNC shows the following results: (10
marks)
Q6.
Ahmet grows domatoes in his 100 by 100 meters garden. He then sells the crop at the local farmer’s market. Two
summers ago, he was able to produce and sell 1200 kgs of tomatoes. Last summer, he tried a new fertilizer that
promised a 20% increase in yield. He harvested 1350 kgs. Did the fertilizer live up to its promise?
(10
marks)
Q7. “Expenditure’ incurred for advertising is wasteful. Its results are unpredictable”. Comment. (10
marks)
Q8. What do you mean by the term Physical Distribution? Explain briefly the nature & importation in the sphere of
physical distribution.
(10
marks)

Personnel Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. explain QWL with respect to women? (10 marks)
Q2. what is audit? (10 marks)
Q3. What is the effectiveness of workers participation? (10 marks)
Q4. Follow up judges the value or worth of the activity. Throw a light on the statement w.r.t. evaluation and its
process. (10 marks)
Q5. Why is there need for training in industry? (10 marks)
Q6. What is an interview? Explain the kinds of interviews along with the process. (10 marks)
Q7. Explain in detail the McClellands Need theories. (10 marks)
Q8. Critically compare Rational system model and social system model. (10 marks)


INVENTORY MANAGEMENT ISBM ADMTM ONGOING EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

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Inventory Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are the advantages of implementing E-procurement? (10 marks)
Q2. What is WIP? & also explain its five basic process. (10 marks)
Q3. Describe disposal of scrap, surplus & non-moving inventory. (10 marks)
Q4. What is inventory management? & explain objectives of inventory management. (10 marks)
Q5. What is DRP? (10 marks)
Q6. What is lead time & time phasing? (10 marks)
Q7. What is semi dependent demand? (10 marks)
Q8. What is MRO inventory? (10 marks)

Production Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is service design ? (10 marks)
Q2. Illustrate how you will estimate time in CPM. (10 marks)
Q3. Explain how you will draw network diagrams in CPM. (10 marks)
Q4. Explain the purpose of TOC. (10 marks)
Q5. Identify the different ways in which you can analyse cost while selecting a plant location. (10 marks)
Q6. What are the key documents maintained by the dispatching systems ? (10 marks)
Q7. What is the purpose of dispatching ? (10 marks)
Q8. What are planning quality standards ? (10 marks)

Purchasing & Material Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Describe any five points of location & layout in warehousing management. (10 marks)
Q2. Explain about periodic review system. (10 marks)
Q3. What are the factors of source selection? (10 marks)
Q4. What are the features of contract? (10 marks)
Q5. List out ten ways of ideal relations. (10 marks)
Q6. Discuss about quality & buyer. (10 marks)
Q7. Explain about bulk material handling. (10 marks)
Q8. Describe about centralized set-up in materials function. (10 marks)

Supply Chain Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Write the note on radio frequency identification? (10 marks)
Q2. What are the issues of 3PL implementation issues? (10 marks)
Q3. What is portfolio contract? (10 marks)
Q4. Give methods of coping with the bullwhip effect? (10 marks)
Q5. States the issues in international supply chain management? (10 marks)
Q6. What is periodic review policy? (10 marks)
Q7. Discuss the development chain? (10 marks)
Q8. Discuss periodic review policy? (10 marks)


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Quantitative Techniques
Case Studies
A monte Carlo Case Study (20
Marks)
Laura,’ a 57 year old unmarried woman, earns around 68,000 dollars per year with expenditure of 37,500 dollars. She hit away
14,000 dollars each year and collected 330,000 dollars in her RRSP and TFSA, and also a rented apartment worth 250,000 dollars.
She has a iixed pension given by her employer, although it is not indicated to price rise, and Is entitled to get complete benefits of
Canada Pension Plan and Old Age Security, for retirement. She did not have a very competent portfolio: one fourth of cash is there,
and most of it was in contracted sector ETFs, single stocks and business bonds. Due to wrong entry of ETFs in the account,
unnecessary taxes were charged. Even before reconstructing Laura’s portfolio,”he had to make certain that it matched with.her
financial aims. Laura’s main aim was to ascertain if she could retire before the age of 65, maybe as early as 60, therefore she had to
know if her investments could produce enough flow of cash after she retires. Monte Carlo may show a top possibility of success with
the allotment of equity of 70% ot 80%. Through a risky questionnaire and art open interview, Justin Ill ‘ascertain that Laura was the
best person for a portfolio of 60% fixed income and 40% equities. Through Monte Carlo software, Justin entered the current
portfolio . size of Laura, her rate of savings, projected retirement expenditure, and other employer income and government pensions.
If Laura feels that working till the age of 63 was unpleasant, she could go for the reproduction again and with different estimation.
Increasing her anticipated returns or bringing down the rate of inflation, is only a thought, therefore, she will have to make some
stronger decisions: she will have to making some more savings, or bring down her rate of planned expenses after retirement.
Amazingly, by bringing up the allotment to fixed salary could increase her opportunity to succeed: in spite of th returns being lower
than the equities, the volatility is also less, which lessens the risk of helpless decline in the early years. At last, Laura decided to work
for 6 more years and plan her retirement at the age of 63. After this, Justin decided to help her make a fresh ETF portfolio to match
that goal: it was finalized at 30% short term business bonds, 30% GICs, and the rest of it was divided among Canadian, L’S and
global equities. Laura was able to make a notified decision through the Monte Carlo simulation, but this wasn’t the end of the
procedure. In two or three years time, she will have to visit the location again to see that she is still on the right path of her retirement
goal, as many issues like, loss of job, a legacy, new connections, increase in the interest rates, all these could bring a change in the
main suppositions and she will have to redo her plans. The possibilities are different before the age of 63. For each added year that
Laura works, her portfolio will addition instead of a decrease and this will lead to a thrilling difference: the success rate will rise up
by 25% points if she continues to work till the age of 61 instead of 60.
Answer the following question.
Q1. How much was Laura earning at the age of 57? (Hint: 68,000 dollars per year)
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The price P per unit at which a company can sell all that it produces is given by the function P(x) = 300 — 4x. The cost function is
c(x) = 500 + 28x where x is the number of units produced. Find x so that the profit is maximum.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Find the value of x.
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Q2. In using regression analysis for making predictions what are the assumptions involved.
Q3. What is a simple linear regression model?
Q4. What is a scatter diagram method?
Stock out analysis at PT, Combiphar, Indonesia (20
Marks)
Due to the changing requirements for the products, the inventory management has become a vital component, particularly for the
safety of the stock. The four elements for evaluating the Not just prediction, lead time also is the main component for ascertaining
the safety stock and aspects which can bring down the stock out case. “Lead time is the time elapsed in between the receipt of
customer order until the delivery of finished goods to the customer”. Some of the issues of lead time are: demand, order of .quantity,
product quality, reorder spot, safety stock, and other price issues such as discount, permit shortage or not, price rise and the value of
time of money, and should be considered in deduction of lead time. On the basis of the stock out occurrences, there is an issue which
affects the case. Forecasting and re-order point also affect the safety stock. When the safety stock reaches the right stage, the stock
level is brought down. Nevertheless, forecasting influences the estimation of safety stock, as the level of safety stock is ascertained
on the basis of forecasting estimations. Not only this, the reorder point can ascertain the level of safety stock.A stock out or pending
orders is a state which the company experiences for not meeting the requirements of the customer within the required time period.
Each month, PT. Combiphar acquired stock outs in very high levels and values. Research was done on CTS3 or Omtusi, since they
have their quantity, rate and value is very high. Contusion Syrup is a cough syrup which is produced by PT. Combiphar, Padalarang,
Indonesia. It is prepared for hospital purposes and pharmacists, and comes in 60ml pack.The quantity of total stoke out in 2012 was
1,390,698 units, and the total value was Rp 35,229,335. The total stock out quantity of CTS3 is at the rate of 9%; the quantity is
equal to 128,036 units. The percentage of this product is 9.75% from the total value, which is Rp 3,424,963,000. Due to the above
case of stock out, the capital and total profit came down. The above estimations show considerable difference in the profits because
of stock out case. The company did not face any loss, but the profits came down. Because of stock out in 2012, the loss of Rp 1,
888,383,500 was seen by the company. According to the above evaluation, it is clear that the company had to face the dilapidated
profits because of stock out condition.
Answer the following question.
Q1.
Write a short note on Forecasting, Re-Order Point and Safety Stock Level at PT. Combiphar, Indonesia. (Hint: The
four elements for evaluating the stock safety are: forecast requirement, level of service, start time and the definite
demand, The purpose of safety stock is to safeguard against this probability, but the problem is more than the high
safety stock and the need can increase the operational costs)
Q2. Which cough syrup does PT. Combiphar make? (Hint: contusion)
case study (20
Marks)
For the development of any country, transportations play a very vital and planned role, especially for distributing the goods of the
progress of all the citizens. Traffic jam is the most common problem in transportation in urban are;s. One of the main causes of
traffic jam is making the road diameter smaller for creating street parking on one side of the road. If seen expansively, traffic jam has
a great affect. For example, one of the affects is due to extensive usage of fuel which leads to huge amount ‘Of financial loss.
Therefore, there is a great need for• reducing te traffic jam, and one of them is the problem of on street parking. The on-street
parking is the most serious problem and is the reason for problem of smooth traffic flow. Yosritzal and Widanengsih did a survey on
the demand for parking based on the parking sites: They also recommended that the method of deterioration could be used to
ascertain the level of parking area around the hospitals. • The parking according to the area, has been divided into r,vo groups: street
parking and off street parking. PCU (parking control unit) is rhe space for parking vehicles, that depends on the dimension of that
vehicle and the• added space required for maneuvering the vehicle, depending upon the angle of parking. •This survey was done at
Jln.T.Panglima Polem Peunayong Banda Aceh, and was started in the morning at 7 and went on till 6 in the evening. . The technique
of getting geometric data for parking space and the present parking space capacity is taken by measuring the area and space
allocation of parking for each vehicle. The data collection for each vehicle which enters and leaves the parking lot along with the
parking duration is taken after • making walking field survey along the parking lot and counting the vehicles and the time duration of
parking. According th.e field survey data, model evaluation is done by involving the demand of user parking lot to average of
accumulation of parking and of the duration of parking. The average of accumulation of parking is calculated after each 15 minutes
for every vehicle. The solution to this problem is to increase the space capacity at Jalan T. PanglimaPolem in relation to the parking
space availability, and meet the requirement of parking lor for each vehicle. The average of accumulation of parking in every 15
minutes for every vehicle is calculated from the average accumulation divided by the sum of average accumulation for all the
vehicles and multiplied by the capacity of the parking space. The outcome of this study shows that the formulation of maximizing
the allocation of parking lot gives considerable ,atious results when the formulation regards different \•iewpoints of the needs and
demands of parking. Maximizing problem occurs on fulfilling all the demands and needs of parking without any possible area in the
maximization ..The most significant feature comes within the formulation before taking consideration the other features to look for
actual maximum outcome for the problem.
Answer the following question.
Q1. What remedy was taken for solving the problem of parking space at Jalan T. Panglima Polem? (Hint: to increase
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the space, the average of accumulation of parking in every 15 minutes for every vehicle is calculated from the
average accumulation dhided by the sum of average accumulation for all the vehicles and multiplied by the
capacity of the parking space.)
Q2. Traffic jam is the most common problem in transportation in urban areas. True/False (Hint: True)


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Business Environment
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give graph of Quality Assurance – Product life stage model, explain. (10 marks)
Q2. What are the attributes of characterization of “The New Competition”. (10 marks)
Q3. Give highlights of Management of Foreign Exchange. (10 marks)
Q4. What are the consequences of expansion in the money supply. (10 marks)
Q5. Business decision making and the impact of the macro-environment, Discuss. (10 marks)
Q6. Market decisions do not ensure optimum allocation of resources. (10 marks)
Q7. Give a block diagram in establishing the design and quality standards of technology recipient site. (10 marks)
Q8. Throw light on decision making and the impact of micro-environment. (10 marks)

Business Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain types of business (10 marks)
Q2. Explain financing the business (10 marks)
Q3. Explain preparation of the product (10 marks)
Q4. Explain size of business enterprise (10 marks)
Q5. Give content of partnership deed (10 marks)
Q6. Give the benefits of admitting a partner (10 marks)
Q7. Write a note on staffing (10 marks)
Q8. Give stages of current state of management theory (10 marks)

Business Planning and Policy
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is the criteria for strategic control? (10 marks)
Q2. Explain cultural web. (10 marks)
Q3. How does the internet add value? (10 marks)
Q4. Why Globalization is necessary? (10 marks)
Q5. What are the types of joint ventures? (10 marks)
Q6. Analyse the BCG matrix. (10 marks)
Q7. Explain SPACE matrix (10 marks)
Q8. What is the importance of environmental analysis? (10 marks)

Corporate Law
Answer the following question.
Q1. State the Rights of partners (10 marks)
Q2. Classify substantial law and procedural law (10 marks)
Q3. What are different segments constituting environment of business. (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss special user rights (10 marks)
Q5. What are government companies (10 marks)
Q6. Discuss complaint (10 marks)
Q7. Give rights of a bailee (10 marks)
Q8. Explain concept of possession (10 marks)

Research Methodology
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss Interview as a technique of data collection. (10
marks)
Q2. Compare the steps of a qualitative & quantitative research. (10
marks)
Q3. Why is questionnaire still widely used in spite of its limitations? Mention some important points to be kept in mind
while constructing a questionnaire.
(10
marks)
Q4. Explain ‘Data Reduction’ and ‘Data Display’ in Qualitative Research (10
marks)
Q5. The monthly income of two persons are in the ratio 4:5 and their monthy expenditures are in the ratio 7:9. If each
saves rs. 50 per montrh, find their monthly incomes.
(10
marks)
Q6. Discuss the purpose of ‘Research Design’. (10
marks)
Q7.
There are two branches of an establishment employing 200 and 160 persons respectively. If the AMs of the monthly
salaries paid by the two branches are rs. 550 and rs. 450 respectivvely, find AM of the salaries of the employees of the
establishment as a whole.
(10
marks)
Q8. The monthly income of two persons are in the ratio 4:5 and their monthy expenditures are in the ratio 7:9. If each
saves rs. 50 per montrh, find their monthly incomes.
(10
marks)

Project Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. If cash flows of different years are perfectly correlated, how is the standard deviation of NPV defined by the Hillier
model?
(10
marks)
Q2. Explain major issues in Financing of Projects? (10
marks)
Q3. Explain what is the consumer willingness to pay? (10
marks)
Q4. What are the differences between BAC & EAC? (10
marks)
Q5. Discuss the common mistakes characterizing real option valuation in practice? (10
marks)
Q6. What is Risk Analysis and explain in brief Firm Risk and Market Risk? (10
marks)
Q7. Distinguish between Market Analysis and Demand Analysis? (10
marks)
Q8. Write short notes:-a) Investment Criteria b) Generation and Screening of Project Ideas (10
marks)


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Business Environment
Answer the following question.
Q1. What steps must be promoted to bring new capacities in Hydel power? (10 marks)
Q2. Give graph of Quality Assurance – Product life stage model, explain. (10 marks)
Q3. What are the attributes of characterization of “The New Competition”. (10 marks)
Q4. Give highlights of Management of Foreign Exchange. (10 marks)
Q5. Discuss strategic Human Resource Management. (10 marks)
Q6. Business decision making and the impact of the macro-environment, Discuss. (10 marks)
Q7. What are steps taken by government to improve agricultural marketing? (10 marks)
Q8. Give a block diagram in establishing the design and quality standards of technology recipient site. (10 marks)

Business Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain types of indexing (10 marks)
Q2. How to set a new project (10 marks)
Q3. what are the essentials of partnership (10 marks)
Q4. What are the shortcomings of appointing an employee (10 marks)
Q5. Discuss procedures (10 marks)
Q6. Explain discovery of an idea (10 marks)
Q7. Discuss reward of entrepreneurship (10 marks)
Q8. Write a note on planning (10 marks)

Business Planning and Policy
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are the areas of CSR? (10 marks)
Q2. What are the responsibilities of business? (10 marks)
Q3. How to formulate R&D strategy? (10 marks)
Q4. Why Globalization is necessary? (10 marks)
Q5. What are the types of joint ventures? (10 marks)
Q6. Explain TOWS Matrix. (10 marks)
Q7. What are teh advantages and limitations of strategic management model? (10 marks)
Q8. What is the difference between strategic management and operational management? (10 marks)

Corporate Law
Answer the following question.
Q1. Distinguish between Managing Director and Manager (10 marks)
Q2. What do you mean by consent and free consent (10 marks)
Q3. What is an unlimited company (10 marks)
Q4. Explain gifting of Corporate veil (10 marks)
Q5. What is personal liability of agent (10 marks)
Q6. Give kinds of bailment (10 marks)
Q7. Give rights of a bailee (10 marks)
Q8. Is it safe to go in for oral contracts? (10 marks)

Financial Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Describe how society’s interests can influence financial managers (10 marks)
Q2. What are the determinant of capital structure of a company? (10 marks)
Q3. How does ‘Interest coverage ratio’ affects the capital structure. (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss how Working capital affects both the liquidity and profitability of a business. (10 marks)
Q5. How does production cycle effect working capital? (10 marks)
Q6. Different types of investments time horizons. (10 marks)
Q7. How risk and expected return is compared in two distributions? (10 marks)
Q8. Explain the equation of EBIT when it is equal to Break Even Point (10 marks)

Human Resource Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discus the role of advertisement in recruitment? (10 marks)
Q2. State the factors affecting Job Design? (10 marks)
Q3. Who should conduct job analysis? (10 marks)
Q4. Write the various methods of training? (10 marks)
Q5. Explain the term – Training, Development and Education? (10 marks)
Q6. What is Management By Objectives (MBO)? (10 marks)
Q7. Give the various techniques of forecasting demand of Human resources? (10 marks)
Q8. Define HRM? explain. (10 marks)

International Business
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are the factors that affect international pricing ? (10 marks)
Q2. How would you categorise International Business Risk ? (10 marks)
Q3. What do you mean by risk ? (10 marks)
Q4. Explain the 3 classical theory of trade. (10 marks)
Q5. What is comparative advantage in international business ? (10 marks)
Q6. What is meant by Technology? What is its influence on business? (10 marks)
Q7. Describe technical & advisory assistance of IBRD. (10 marks)
Q8. What are the IT projects you have implemented in last one year? (10 marks)

Marketing Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Advertisement expenses are usually wasteful, with no guarantee of enhanced sales or higher loyalty from among the
target audience” .Do you agree with this statement ?Present your view – point.
(10
marks)
Q2. Present a scheme4 of your choice of the distribution channels for a low-price, ‘low – tech’ domestic consumption
product . Margins could be small but sales quantum will be huge .justify each channel option.
(10
marks)
Q3. A New brand of a ‘Tyre –that-Never –punctures’ is to be launched in India by a multinational company with your
advice about concept – testing and test – marketing Justify your contention.
(10
marks)
Q4.
‘Rush-Mush Foods (P) Ltd.’ plans to launch a new line of mushroom, -based instant food products. They already have
a popular line of (non-instant) mushroom products, in the market. Which steps will you recommend to the
management of ‘Rush-Mush” to enable their launch in the Indian market. Make necessary assumptions and justify
your answer.
(10
marks)
Q5. What are the various types of Brand Extensions. Explain with necessary examples wherever required. (10
marks)
Q6. “Effective advertising and aggressive sales promotional schemes help the salesmen in performing their duties and
reaching their sales targets.” Discuss.
(10
marks)
Q7.
What do you mean by the term product Life Cycle (PLC) Explain the stages of PLC. Find out in which stage of PLC
are are the Following product in India, and suggest suitable marketing strategies for each- a) Tooth Powder b) Microwave
Ovens c) Bicycles d) VCRs.
(10
marks)
Q8.
“Success of of several consumer products in the Indian market in the recent Past Was directly of indirectly related to
packing decisions.” Critically evaluate the Statement describing the nature and importance of packing decisions. Give
suitable illustrations from Indian consumer market.
(10
marks)

Operation Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. What do you see as the main problem with qualitative (judgmental) forecasts? Are they ever better than “objective”
methods.
(10
marks)
Q2. Magusa Metal Works produces cast bronze valves on an assembly line. On a recent day, 160 valves were produced
during an 8-hour shift. Calculate the productivity of the line.
(10
marks)
Q3. What factors distinguish between production and service operations? (10
marks)
Q4.
Ahmet grows domatoes in his 100 by 100 meters garden. He then sells the crop at the local farmer’s market. Two
summers ago, he was able to produce and sell 1200 kgs of tomatoes. Last summer, he tried a new fertilizer that
promised a 20% increase in yield. He harvested 1350 kgs. Did the fertilizer live up to its promise.
(10
marks)
Q5. List four basic operations strategies. (10
marks)
Q6. Describe briefly the steps to develop a forecasting system. (10
marks)
Q7. What is ISO-9000 Series Standards? List key quality awards. (10
marks)
Q8. Is there a difference between forecasting demand and forecasting sales. (10
marks)

Quantitative Methods
Page 1 Out of 1
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks
1. Three numbers, whose sum is 12, are in AP. If 1,2 and 6 are added to them, the resultin g
numbers are in GP. Find the numbers
2. Average rainfall on a city from Monday to Saturday is 0.3 inch. Due to heavy rainfall on
Sunday, the average rainfall for the week increased to 0.5 inch. What was the rainfall on
Sunday?
3. Calculate median from the following data
Marks 10-25 25-40 40-55 50-70 70-85 85-100
Frequency 6 20 44 26 3 1
4. Given the following results of the height and weight of 1000 students. The mean height is 170
cm, the mean weight is 75 kg. the standard deviation of the height and weight are 6 cm and 6
kg respectively r = 0.6. amit weighs 50 kg, sumeet is 1.5 m tall. Estimate the height of Amit
from his weight and the weight of sumeet from his height
5. In a sample of 500 people from a village in rajasthan, 280 are found to be rice eaters and rest
wheat eaters. Can we assume that both the food articles are equally popular?
6. In a binomial distribution 31% of the items are under 45 and 8% are over 64. Find the mean
and variance of the distribution
7. In a large number of group of children 55% are under 60 cm heighty nd 40% are between 60
and 65 cm. Assuming a normal distribution, find the mean and SD of height
8. Construct index number form the data by applying Marshall edge worthmethod
Commodity Price 2004 Quantity Price 2006 quantity
A 2 8 4 6
B 5 10 6 5
C 4 14 5 10
D 2 19 2 13

Research Methodology
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss ‘Case Study’ method in Qualitative Methodology. (10
marks)
Q2. Distinguish between ‘Descriptive Statistics’ and ‘Inferential Statistics’. (10
marks)
Q3. What is a Projective Test? What is the advantage of this test over the other forms of tests? (10
marks)
Q4. Discuss the concept of hypothesis, in the light of ‘Falsifiability Criterion’ of Karl Popper. (10
marks)
Q5. A manufacturer can sell x items per month at a price of P = 300 – 2x rupees. Producing x items cost the manufacturer
y rupees where y = 2x + 1000. How much production will yield maximum profit.
(10
marks)
Q6. A man borrows rs. 1500 and agrees to repay the debt in 5 equal instalmenst with 6% interest, compounded annually. If
the first payment is to be made at the end of the first year, how much should each payment be?
(10
marks)
Q7.
There are two branches of an establishment employing 200 and 160 persons respectively. If the AMs of the monthly
salaries paid by the two branches are rs. 550 and rs. 450 respectivvely, find AM of the salaries of the employees of the
establishment as a whole.
(10
marks)
Q8.
A tour operator charges rs. 136 per passenger for 100 passengers with a discount of rs. 4 for each 10 passengers in
excess of 100. Determine the number of passengers that will maximize the amount of money the tour operator
services.
(10
marks)


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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Cases Carries Equal Marks
GROUP A:
CASE 1
Q1) Imagine that you are in-charge of a major chemical plant, manufacturing points. At
present, the general awareness about the mandatory requirements for chemical
industry is very low. Even if the compliance record is maintained, it is not disclosed to
all employees. (25 marks)
In a recent seminar of the company, many experts from industry associations like
Confederation of Indian Industries (CII), conducted the seminar. The dangers of noncompliance
of ISO 14001 EMS certification and Trade Sanctions, which are likely to
increase, were discussed. Even the senior managers were involved and a lot of serious
discussions took place.
After a span of one month, the In-charge (i.e. you!) received a call from the top
management, who want you to find out more about the ISO Certification. The
management, wants to help you, with the help of other employees to list the critical
aspects that have potential environmental impact.
You may be feeling that you have only some vague ideas about air pollution in
paint industry and water pollution, due to paint manufacture. You may also recall the
newspaper clipping on internationalization of paint manufacturing practices, which
states the following points:
i) What are the activities that are critical to the company’s environmental
management certification?
ii) List the activities which have potential environmental impacts in a pint industry.
iii) List the legal requirements.
iv) Is there a trade related issue involved in this case
v) Explain, how your company can prepare itself towards certification.
CASE 2 :
Q2) XYZ company is an equal opportunity employer. XYZ Co has always upheld the
spirits of freedom, human welfare, fair practices and fair treatment to all employees. It
has the image of a socially responsible company in India. XYZ Co., has never involved
itself in any study deals, even if it could bring good profits. (15 Marks)
Also, XYZ Co. is a major IT solution provider. XYZ has
immense consultancy services in the African nations
and South East Asian countries. from an African
country, stating that they have an assignment for two
conditions are to be fulfilled.
potential for
providing A
request was
received years.
The following
a) Employees should not bring families with them during the assignment.
b) Women managers should not accompany the team.
c) The country and the collaborating company are not responsible if any accident
or any other untoward incidents take place.
Please answer the following questions :
i) Should XYZ Co take up the assignment?
ii) How can XYZ Co maintain business viability and growth without compromising on
basic rights and values enshrined? In the mission statement of the company?
iii) What alterations may be sought in the agreement and why?
GROUP – B
Environmental Pollution:
CASE 3
Q3) On the night of December 23, 1983 a dangerous chemical reation occurred in the
Union Carbide factory in Bhopal, when a large amount of water got into the MIC i.e.
Methyl Isocyanate storage tank. When the leak was detected by workers at 11.30 pm,
their eyes began to tear and burn. The rest is history. About 40 tons of MIC poured out
of the tank for nearly 2 hours and escaped into air, spreading within 8 km down wind,
About 4000 people were killed in sleep or as they fled in terror, hundreds of thousands
were injured or effected the victims who were almost entirely the poorest members of
the population. The poisonous gas, caused death and left the survivors with lingering
disability and diseases.
The Bhopal disaster was a result of the combination of legal, technological,
organizational and human errors. The long term effects were made worse by the
absence of systems to care for and compensate the victims. Also, the safety standards
and maintenance procedure at the Union Carbide plant had been deteriorating and
ignored for months.
Questions :
i) From Bhopal Tragedy, what an industrial manager learns? What safety procedures
are to be followed. Study the case deeply and state what were the defects of MIL unit.
In view of this case, prepare a disaster management plan, which could cover be useful
to a chemical company. (10 Marks)
Q 4)
i) List the methods of waste management in the order of preference. (5
Marks)
ii) What are the advantages of solid waste incernaton? (5 Marks)
iii) Define hazardous waste
(5 Marks)
iv) List the legal provisions in the Environment Protection Act pertaining to hazardous
waste
(5 Marks)
Q 5)
i) Discuss the role of CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) in the pollution control
activities in
India. (2
Marks)
ii) Mention the salient points of the 3 Acts : (2
Marks)
The Air (prevention and control of pollution) Act 1981
The Water (prevention and control of pollution)
Act 1974 The Environment (Protection) Act 1986
iii) Explain the very elements of EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) –
different types of Impact Assessments – the benefits of EIA – The EIA process, key
points to remember while
conducting an effective EIA. (2 Marks)
iv)
Compare and contrast “polluter pays principle” with “beneficiary pays
principle”. (2 Marks)
v)
What are the tenets of Risk management – explain the steps involved
through a chart. (2Marks)

Human Resource Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are the pay-surveys? And whats its usefulness? (10 marks)
Q2. What are the factors affecting Job Design? (10 marks)
Q3. Write short note on Manpower planning? Forecasting manpower requirements (10 marks)
Q4. What is compensation? And what are the main objectives of compensation? (10 marks)
Q5. Discus the role of employee referrals in recruitment? (10 marks)
Q6. Why there is need of Human Resource Planning? (10 marks)
Q7. Write short note on Executive pay. (10 marks)
Q8. What is Management By Objectives (MBO)? (10 marks)

Management Control System
Answer the following question.
Q1. Describe the various short-term and long-term incentive plans. (10
marks)
Q2. Define Transfer pricing. Describe the various transfer pricing methods in detail (10
marks)
Q3. What do you understand by the term responsibility center? (10
marks)
Q4. Explain, in detail, the various corporate level strategies and business unit, ‘strategies with detail (10
marks)
Q5. Explain Mix and Volume Variance (10
marks)
Q6. Explain Balance Score Card (10
marks)
Q7.
25. Describe the need for MIS in a business organization focusing on Management Control System. Also explain the
important considerations in designing Management Information System (M l S) for the purpose of Management
Control
(10
marks)
Q8. Give performance measurement in service organisation. (10
marks)


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Quantitative Methods
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the concept of goal congruence (informal and formal) (10
marks)
Q2. Explain Management by Objectives (10
marks)
Q3.
compute chain index number with 2000 price base from the following table given the average wholesale price of
commodities A, B and C for the year 2000 to 2004 Commodity Average wholesale price in rs. 2000 2001 2002 2003
2004 A 20 16 28 35 21 B 25 30 24 36 45 C 20 25 30 24 30
(10
marks)
Q4. from the data given below, fit a straight line trend by the method of least squares Years 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
1980 1981 1982 Sales 00,00000 6.7 5.3 4.3 6.1 5.6 7.9 5.8 6.1
(10
marks)
Q5. in a sample of 500 people from a village in rajasthan, 280 are found to be rice eaters and rest wheat eaters. Can we
assume that both the food articles are equally popular?
(10
marks)
Q6. A machine puts out 16 imperfect articles in a sample of 500. After the machine is overhauled, it puts out 3 imperfect
articles in abatch of 100. Has the machine improved?
(10
marks)
Q7. intelligence test on two boys and girls give the following results: mean Sd N Girls 75 15 150 Boys 70 20 250 Is there a
significant difference in the mean scores obtained by boys and girls?
(10
marks)
Q8.
a certain drug is claimed to be effective in curing cold. In an experiment on 328 people with cold, half of them were
given the drug and half of them given sugar pills. The patients reactioms to the treatment are recorded in the following
table. Test the hypothesis that the drug is no better than sugar pils for curing colds(given v = 2 ϕ2 = 5.99)
(10
marks)


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ACCOUNTING
Total Marks: 80
N.B. : 1) All questions are compulsory
Q1) ABC Ltd. Produces room coolers. The company is considering whether it should continue to
manufacture air circulating fans itself or purchase them from outside. Its annual requirement is
25000 units. An outsider vendor is prepared to supply fans for Rs 285 each. In addition, ABC Ltd
will have to incur costs of Rs 1.50 per unit for freight and Rs 10,000 per year for quality inspection,
storing etc of the product.
{25 Marks }
In the most recent year ABC Ltd. Produced 25000 fans at the following total cost :
Material Rs. 50,00,000
Labour Rs. 20,00,000
Supervision & other indirect labour Rs. 2,00,000
Power and Light Rs. 50,000
Depreciation Rs. 20,000
Factory Rent Rs. 5,000
Supplies Rs. 75,000
Power and light includes Rs 20,000 for general heating and lighting, which is an allocation based on
the light points. Indirect labour is attributed mainly to the manufacturing of fans. About 75% of it
can be dispensed with along with direct labour if manufacturing is discontinued. However, the
supervisor who receives annual salary of Rs 75,000 will have to be retained. The machines used for
manufacturing fans which have a book value of Rs 3,00,000 can be sold for Rs 1,25,000 and the
amount realized can be invested at 15% return. Factory rent is allocated on the basis of area, and the
company is not able to see an alternative use for the space which would be released. Should ABC
Ltd. Manufacture the fans or buy them?
AN ISO 9001 : 2000 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Page 1 Out of 1
Q2) Usha Company produces three consumer products : P, Q and R. The management of the
company wants to determine the most profitable mix. The cost accountant has supplied the following
data. {30 Marks }
Usha Company : Sales and Cost Data
Description Product Total
P Q R
Material Cost per unit
Quantity (Kg) 1.0 1.2 1.4
Rate per Kg (Rs) 50 50 50
Cost per unit (Rs) 50 60 70
Labour Cost per unit 30 90 90
Variable Overheads per unit 15 10 25
Fixed Overheads (Rs .000) 9,175
Current Sales (Units ,000) 100 50 60 210
Projected Sales (Units ,000) 109 55 125 289
Selling Price per unit (Rs) 150 200 270
Raw material used by the firm is in short supply and the firm can expect a maximum supply of 350
lakh kg for next year. Is the company’s projected sales mix most profitable or can it be changed for
the better?
Q3) DSQ Company Ltd, a diversified company, has three divisions, cement, fertilizers and
textiles. The summary of the company’s profit is given below : {25 Marks }
(Rs/Crore)
Cement Fertilizer Textiles Total
Sales 20.0 12.0 18.0 50.0
Less : Variable Cost 8.0 9.6 5.4 23.0
Contribution 12.0 2.4 12.6 27.0
Less : Fixed Cost (allocated to
divisions in proportion to
volumes of Sales)
8.0 4.8 7.2 20.0
Profit (Loss) 4.0 (2.4) 5.4 7.0
After allocating the company’s fixed overheads to products the Fertilizers, division incurs a loss of
Rs 2.4 crore. Should the company drop this division?

Corporate Finance
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Explain in detail about Corporate Firm
2. Write a note on Short term solvency & Long-Term Solvency Measures
3. Explain Definition & Example of a Bond & Explain How to Value Bonds
4. Write a note on Growth Opportunities & Give one suitable example
5. You purchase a bond with an invoice price of $1,140. The bond has a coupon rate of 7.2 percent, and there are five months to the next semiannual coupon date. What is the clean price of the bond?
6. Explain in Detail about Monte Carlo Simulation
7. Calculating Future Values Compute the future value of $1,000 compounded annually for
a) 10 years at 5 percent
b) 10 years at 7 percent
c) 20 years at 5 percent
d) Why is the interest earned in part(C) not twice the amount earned in part(A)
8. Explain in Detail about Different types of Efficiency

Corporate Law
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. What are the functions of controller.
2. Distinguish cheque and bill of exchange
3. Discuss power to impose lesser penalty
4. State the miscellaneous provisions as regards charges.
5. How to convert public company in to a private company.
6. How to employ a controller and other officers.
7. What are the liability of members
8. How to determine the value of assets

Cost & Management Accountancy
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Discuss the different methods of calculating depreciation.
2. Bring out the difference between FIFO and LIFO method.
3. What are the components of the Standard Costs ?
4. Differentiate between the Direct Labour Costs and Indirect Labour costs.
5. Explain the methods of preparing the Cash Flow Statements.
6. Discuss the various Accounting concepts & What are the various Accounting Principles ?
7. What do you mean by depreciation & Explain the requirement of depreciation.
8. Explain the causes of differences between the cash book and pass book.

Finance Institution
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks (10 Marks)
1. What is the implication for cross-border trades if it can be shown that interest rate parity is maintained consistently across different markets and different currencies ?
2. What forms of protection and regulation are imposed by regulators of CBs to ensure their safety and soundness ?
3. How has the composition of the assets of U.S. life insurance companies changed over time ?
4. Describe the difference between a defined benefit pension fund and a defined contribution pension fund.
5. Why is the length of time selected for repricing assets and liabilities important when using the repricing model ?
6. Contrast the use of financial futures options with the use of options on cash instruments to construct interest rate hedges.
7. What is a mortgage-backed bond ? Why do financial institutions issue MBBs ?
8. What is the difference between loan participations and loan assignments ?


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Subject : Quantitative Techniques
Case Studies
Case (20
Marks)
Since 9/11•terrorism has cased threat attacks which have drawn the attention of political and media world. The US had to launch. a
‘war on terror’ and applied a range of counteract terrorism safety measures towards aviation, public transportation, ports, borders,
public Hermie places, etc. While these steps may show cheap course of act!on by government and security services, it is quite
expensive. According to the calculations done by Mueller and Stewart (2011), the expenditure of US homeland and security has
gone over 1.1 trillion dollars, which includes federal, state and domestic government, and private sector, and also the cost of
opportunity. The Iraq an Afghanistan wars have added 1.2 trillion dollars to this expenditure. The expenditure of federal, state and
local US government on home ground security has been estimated to 75 billion dollars more than the last levels of 2001. It is seen
that US is not the only country to be in these high level of expenses, even though no other country can match its per capita or GDP
expenditure. For example, increased expenditure• on homeland security in UK, Canada and Australia is nearly one half to one
quarter of US expenditure per capita or GDP. Nevertheless, in 2009, the government spent nearly 141.6 billion dollars each year on
homeland security. This figure is expected to reach about 300 billion dollars by 2016. After 9/11, the main objective has been to
prevent or alleviate any harm or casualty as a result of terrorism. The main issue is, if this expenditure of counteracting terrorism
been invest.ed in a way that has increased the cost of security of the public efficiently or not. Hence, the commission report of 9/11,
among other issues, was called upon • the US government to execute safety measures which show evaluation of risks and
effectiveness of expenditure. Nevertheless, while the US needs to. evaluate expenditure benefits for government regulations, such
evaluation seems co have not been done for homeland security in general, or for the DHS (department of homeland security). One of
the causes could be that DHS is not able to take up such evaluation. The NRC (national research council) committee of the National
Academics of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, made a request through S Congress to evaluate the functions of DHS, which was
working on the project for almost 2 years, came up with some surprising result-. Besides e’•aluation of natural disasters, the
committee ‘did not find any DHS risk analysis capabilities and methods that are yet adequate for supporting DHS decision making.’
Due to which, very less confidence could be had in most of the risk evaluation done by DHS. The committee said that “it is not yet
clear that DHS is on a I ! trajectory for development of methods and capability that is sufficient to ensure reliable risk analyses”.
usually the government and their rigid agencies shoo a neutral behavior towards their decision making. Stewart says that “the
standard criterion for deciding whether a government; programmer can be justified on economic principles is net present value – the
discounted monetized value of expected net benefits (i.e., benefits minus costs)” and that “expected values (an unbiased estimate) is
the appropriate estimate for use” (UMB, 1992).
Answer the following question.
Q1.
What are the reasons that show that DHS is incapable in evaluating the risks of national security? (Hint: while the
US needs to evaluate expenditure benefits for government regulations, such evaluation seem to have not been done
for homeland security in general, DHS is not able to take up such evaluation.)
Q2. The government spent nearly 141.6 billion dollars each year on (Hint: homeland security)
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
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The bulbs manufactured by a company gave a mean life of 3000 hours with standard deviation of 400 hours. If a bulb is selected at
random, what is the probability it will have a mean life less than 2000 hours?
Answer the following question.
Q1. Calculate the probability.
Q2. In what situation does one need probability theory?
Q3. Define the concept of sample space, sample points and events in context of probability theory.
Q4. What is the difference between objective and subjective probability?
Stock out analysis at PT, Combiphar, Indonesia (20
Marks)
Due to the changing requirements for the products, the inventory management has become a vital component, particularly for the
safety of the stock. The four elements for evaluating the Not just prediction, lead time also is the main component for ascertaining
the safety stock and aspects which can bring down the stock out case. “Lead time is the time elapsed in between the receipt of
customer order until the delivery of finished goods to the customer”. Some of the issues of lead time are: demand, order of .quantity,
product quality, reorder spot, safety stock, and other price issues such as discount, permit shortage or not, price rise and the value of
time of money, and should be considered in deduction of lead time. On the basis of the stock out occurrences, there is an issue which
affects the case. Forecasting and re-order point also affect the safety stock. When the safety stock reaches the right stage, the stock
level is brought down. Nevertheless, forecasting influences the estimation of safety stock, as the level of safety stock is ascertained
on the basis of forecasting estimations. Not only this, the reorder point can ascertain the level of safety stock.A stock out or pending
orders is a state which the company experiences for not meeting the requirements of the customer within the required time period.
Each month, PT. Combiphar acquired stock outs in very high levels and values. Research was done on CTS3 or Omtusi, since they
have their quantity, rate and value is very high. Contusion Syrup is a cough syrup which is produced by PT. Combiphar, Padalarang,
Indonesia. It is prepared for hospital purposes and pharmacists, and comes in 60ml pack.The quantity of total stoke out in 2012 was
1,390,698 units, and the total value was Rp 35,229,335. The total stock out quantity of CTS3 is at the rate of 9%; the quantity is
equal to 128,036 units. The percentage of this product is 9.75% from the total value, which is Rp 3,424,963,000. Due to the above
case of stock out, the capital and total profit came down. The above estimations show considerable difference in the profits because
of stock out case. The company did not face any loss, but the profits came down. Because of stock out in 2012, the loss of Rp 1,
888,383,500 was seen by the company. According to the above evaluation, it is clear that the company had to face the dilapidated
profits because of stock out condition.
Answer the following question.
Q1.Write a short note on Forecasting, Re-Order Point and Safety Stock Level at PT. Combiphar, Indonesia. (Hint: The
four elements for evaluating the stock safety are: forecast requirement, level of service, start time and the definite
demand, The purpose of safety stock is to safeguard against this probability, but the problem is more than the high
safety stock and the need can increase the operational costs)
Q2. Which cough syrup does PT. Combiphar make? (Hint: contusion)
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The cost of fuel in running of an engine is proportional to the square of the speed and is Rs 48 per hour for speed of 16 kilometers
per hour. Other expenses amount to Rs 300 per hour. What is the most economical speed?
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is most economical speed?
Q2. What is a chi-square test?
Q3. What is sampling and what are its uses.
Q4. Is there any alternative formula to find the value of Chi-square?

Subject : Research Methodology
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the philosophical foundation of Qualitative Methodology. (10
marks)
Q2. Explain ‘Data Reduction’ and ‘Data Display’ in Qualitative Research (10
marks)
Q3. For the cost function y = 500x – 40×2 + 3×3 for x units, find the average cost, marginal cost and marginal average cost. (10
marks)
Q4. The monthly income of two persons are in the ratio 4:5 and their monthy expenditures are in the ratio 7:9. If each
saves rs. 50 per montrh, find their monthly incomes.
(10
marks)
Q5. Discuss the purpose of ‘Research Design’. (10
marks)
Q6. A manufacturer can sell x items per month at a price of P = 300 – 2x rupees. Producing x items cost the manufacturer
y rupees where y = 2x + 1000. How much production will yield maximum profit.
(10
marks)
Q7.
There are two branches of an establishment employing 200 and 160 persons respectively. If the AMs of the monthly
salaries paid by the two branches are rs. 550 and rs. 450 respectivvely, find AM of the salaries of the employees of the
establishment as a whole.
(10
marks)
Q8. The monthly income of two persons are in the ratio 4:5 and their monthy expenditures are in the ratio 7:9. If each
saves rs. 50 per montrh, find their monthly incomes.
(10
marks)


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International Business
Answer the following question.
Q1. Describe European Investment Bank (EIB) ? (10
marks)
Q2. Describe concept of countries risk in FDI. (10
marks)
Q3. Why do you need international trade ? (10
marks)
Q4. How do you define international business ? (10
marks)
Q5. What are the disadvantages of globalisation ? (10
marks)
Q6. What are the advantages of globalisation ? (10
marks)
Q7. List out organizations related with international economic environment affiliated with UN. (10
marks)
Q8. How the rupee value is determined in foreign exchange market? Examine the effects of undervaluation and
overvaluation of Current on trade and investments flows of a country?
(10
marks)

Marketing Management
Case Studies
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
In 2002, Luxor Writing Instruments Private Limited (LWIPL) had emerged as the market leader in the premium pens segment in
India, with a market share of 60%. The company held a 10% share in the writing instruments industry, next only to the market
leader, Reynolds that held 12%. LWIPL had been in the pen industry for nearly four decades. The company adopted innovative
marketing strategies that had made it one of the most popular pen manufacturers in India. LWIPL offered a widest range of pens with
leading brands including Luxor, Pilot, Papermate and Parker. In December 2002, LWIPL launched the world renowned ‘Waterman’
brand of premium pens in India. This was possible after LWIPL’s acquisition of a 50% stake in the Indian operations of Newell
Rubbermaid3. The company planned to sell imported ‘Waterman’ pens for the next couple of years and then start indigenous
production for these pens. The price of these pens ranged between Rs.3,500 to Rs.50,000 and was made available in nine sub-brands.
LWIPL planned to sell these pens to corporate customers. Commenting on the prospects of the ‘Waterman’ brand, DK Jain, Chairman
of LWIPL said, “Because of its price and brand name, Waterman will certainly have an edge over other premium brands in India.”4
The company planned to launch an international advertising campaign for these pens. LWIPL was known for its heavy spending on
advertising its products. It had entered into several tie-ups with multinational pen companies that helped in leveraging its current
position in the industry. The fact that LWIPL was a debt-free company was another significant achievement. However, with the
rising competition and negligible presence in the faster growing gel pens segment, analysts felt that LWIPL had an uncertain future.
Analysts also feared that LWIPL’s decision to diversify into the hospitality and packaged foods business in 2001-02, might lead to a
loss in market share in its core business.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case.
Q2. Explain in details the marketing strategy adopted by Luxor Writing Instruments Private Limited (LWIPL).
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
This case study’s primary objective is to debate and discuss on: Does it make sense for a single-business firm from an emerging
country like India, to transform itself into a conglomerate when the reverse trend is witnessed in other countries – both developed as
well as developing? With the inception of Bharti Telecom (Bharti) in 1985, Sunil Bharti Mittal laid the foundations of an
organisation that would emerge as India’s ‘telecom conglomerate giant’. The company made a humble beginning with the
manufacture of push button handsets. However, 1992 marked the turn of events for Bharti. The liberalization of the Indian telecom
sector in that year unleashed numerous opportunities for domestic and international players to tap the lucrative Indian telecom
market Notwithstanding its small size, Bharti plunged into the bidding war for cellular licenses, successfully capturing the license for
providing cellular network service in New Delhi (Delhi). Making a mark with its brand, Airtel, in the Delhi market, Bharti was
confident of a triumphant journey. Contradictory to its aspirations, this early victory was followed by a string of downturns. The
company lost most of the subsequent cellular bids and found itself in troubled waters. Nevertheless, competitors’ inability to exploit
their winning cellular bids proved a boon to Bharti. The eagerness of these companies to sell their cellular licenses to Bharti brought
the company back into limelight. Bnking on the opportunity, the company spread its cellular service to new regions in the country.
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From being a handset manufacturer, Bharti transformed itself into a full cellular service provider with a whopping 4.5 million
customers in March 2003. However, the company is not content with being only a ‘telecom conglomerate’. In 2008, to gratify its
growing aspirations, Bharti declared its intentions of becoming India’s ‘finest conglomerate by 2020’. Equipped with a youthful logo
and new brand identity, Bharti is determined to unveil another success story. However, many challenges lie ahead.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Analyze the critical success factors in building conglomerates and to understand the role of brand building in a
conglomerate.
Q2. Examine the challenges that Bharti would face in operating as a conglomerate when a reverse trend is being
witnessed all across the globe.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Davidson (Harley) is the leading motorcycle manufacturer in the US with over 50% market share. Hailed as the classic example of a
cult brand, Harley depends on innovative product, premium pricing, unique retail environment and experiential and relationship
marketing to maintain its status as a cult brand. It enjoys huge brand loyalty. Deeply connected to American culture and values,
Harley has become a symbol of rugged individualism, freedom and rebellion. Harley has cultivated its image and relationships over
a long period of time and effectively wrapped itself around its customers using multiple marketing techniques. Every touch point –
the product itself, its distribution channels, sales, customer service, design, communications and brand extensions has been
harnessed to enhance the company’s brand identity. Harley has historically controlled the demand – supply gap of its products to
create a scarcity value for the brand With the changing demographic and market scenario, Harley is slowly hanging its strategy on all
fronts. In 2005, all the eyes are trained on Harley as it made the transition from operating in the unique, high growth selling
environment that it experienced in the 1990s and early 2000s, to one that is sustainable on an ongoing basis. In the recent times, the
scarcity value has reduced as a result of its aggressive strategy to match demand and supply. Although the company’s efforts to
correct the demand – supply gap are going in the right direction, they are also leading to rising dealer inventory and reduced value of
pre-owned vehicles. The case discusses Harley’s product development strategy, brand merchandising, pricing, its promotion Brands
and Branding
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the emergence of Harley Davidson as a cult brand.
Q2. Explain the challenges that Harley Davidson faced from competitors, over the years
Q3. Discuss the strategies adopted by Harley to maintain its status as a cult brand.
Q4. Give an overview of the case.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Fizzy Fruit is a carbonated fruit which intensifies a particular fruit’s flavor with effervescences without altering its nutritional value.
Neurobiologist Galen Kaufman with the help of a food scientist perfected the method of carbonating fruit and established the Fizzy
Fruit Company in 2005. The company had the mission to promote health, wellness and fitness among children thereby reducing
childhood obesity. Fizzy Fruit was launched in US in 2005 and the initial feedback was very heartening. The company made many
strategic promotional tie-ups and had plans to make Fizzy Fruit available throughout US in a short time. Worldwide, 22 million
children were overweight among which the share of US was the highest. Some of the factors that had led to increasing obesity
among kids in US were unhealthy eating habits, peer pressure and influence of television advertising. Marketers were increasingly
targeting kids, as kids influenced the spending of over $1.88 trillion globally in 2002 and the figure was rapidly increasing. While
the consumption of snack and junk food was ever increasing, many healthy and ‘good-for-you’ products were also being launched
due to the rising awareness and pressure to curb obesity. The case initiates discussion on the future marketing strategies of The Fizzy
Fruit Company to popularize Fizzy Fruit given the dynamic challenges involved in marketing to kids.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Analyze the buying behavior of kids and their growing influence in making purchase decisions
Q2. Debate on the role of ethics in marketing to kids.
Q3. Discuss the opportunities and challenges involved in marketing Fizzy fruits to kids.
Q4. Give an overview of the case.

Operation Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Describe the steps involved in considering a time study and discuss any difficulties you might envision at various
steps?
(10
marks)
Q2. How are the location decisions for service operations and manufacturing operations similar, and how are they
different?
(10
marks)
Q3. What is ISO-9000 Series Standards? List key quality awards. (10
marks)
Q4. Contrast the world class view with the traditional view in quality control. (10
marks)
Q5. How does productivity measurement differ between manufacturing and service operations? (10
marks)
Q6. What are the major components of a production system? Give two examples. (10
marks)
Q7. Describe briefly the “Delphi Method”. (10
marks)
Q8. Describe briefly the steps to develop a forecasting system. (10
marks)

Principles and Practice of Management
Case Studies
Case (20
Marks)
You are the head of a large department and several supervisors report to you. Recently you were confronted with a knotty problem. It
seems that one of the supervisors had gotten into a loud and disagreeable argument with an employee. You called the supervisor to
your office to hear his story. The supervisor admitted losing his temper and shouting at the employee, but he believed it was justified.
He had been observing the employee over the year the man had been with the company. During this period the employee had been
frequently late, and his absentee rate was above average. In addition, the supervisor went on to say that the employee was a
socializer on the job, frequently leaving his work to talk to other employees and to use the telephone for personal calls. The
supervisor then said that the proverbial last straw caused his outburst. The employee had come in late, and after about an hour of
work he made a telephone call which the supervisor had timed as lasting 14 minutes. The supervisor then started his tirade. The
employee denied being on the telephone that long, the supervisor called him a liar, and they continued the vituperative exchange
which ended when you called the supervisor to your office. After listening to the supervisor, you asked him if he had disciplined the
employee before, since apparently he had a poor record. You also asked if the employee had been placed on probation or had been
warned. The supervisor looked at you sheepishly and seemed reluctant to answer. You pressed him, for an answer, and he finally
blurted out that he was afraid to discipline the employee because he was black. He stated that the impression he had from you and
higher management was that black employees should be given special treatment so that they would feel welcome and not
discriminated against. He felt the company wanted to impress the public with its forward-looking employment practices and didn’t
want any trouble with the black community. As a result, he was lax in discipline and had kept a hands-off approach with all black
employees until his outburst. He said he couldn’t stand it anymore, and the 14-mintue telephone call caused him to lose his temper.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Why would a supervisor find it difficult to communicate with a black employee?
Q2. Could the company have done anything to offset the misunderstanding the supervisor apparently had about the
treatment of black employees?
Q3. To what extent did the supervisor’s lack of communication encourage the employee to think his behavior was
satisfactory? Explain.
Q4. What would you now tell the supervisor?
Case (20
Marks)
The modern Corporation Limited produces and distributes packaged food products, such as cereals, spices, puddings, jellies,
crackers, salad dressings, etc. The company sells nationwide and conducts a very large national advertising campaign. It has 75
plants located throughout the country and markets 65 different products, each under its own trademark. These are all food products,
but are not otherwise closely related. They vary from long-margin specialities with comparatively small volume to larger volume
items with similar profit margins. Different raw materials and commodities are used in their processing. All products, however, have
the common factor of being sold throughout retail grocery stores. Gross sales are Rs. 2,500 lakhs and total assets are Rs. 1,250 lakhs.
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Management is centralized. The chairman of the board, the President, and four Vice-Presidents with responsibility for sales,
production, purchasing, and law, make up the executive top of the company and operate as a committee on all general policy matters.
Sales, advertising, and sales promotion are all under the jurisdiction of the sales Vice-President. All plant operations, as well as
research and engineering, report to the production Vice-President. Purchasing is the responsibility of its Vice-President, Who also
governs traffic. Public relations, law and corporate functions are under the general counsel. Financial responsibilities are handled by
the president, and employee relations are covered by each Vice-President in his own area of responsibility. Each plant is operated by
a superintendent whose authority is over wages, maintenance cost, output, quality, hiring, inspection and the other normal plant
operation responsibilities. Superintendents report to 8 regional production managers who are responsible to the production Vice-
President. The volume of production in each plant is scheduled by the production control group reporting to the operating Vice-
President. Final Schedules are set after consulting the sales Vice-president. Opportunities for increasing the line of products and
expanding the business are being lost because of lack of executive’s time to study them to manage new products. In any business
where specialties sold under trademark brands are the major business of a company, it is necessary for that company to continually
bring out new products and to study old ones to determine, the point of no return with regard to promotion and advertising expenses.
The Modern Corporation management feels that, in addition to lost opportunities for sound expansion, profit opportunities in present
products are not being fully recognized. The business may have grown too big for the form of management.
Answer the following question.
Q1. How have changed conditions in this company affected the appropriateness of its organization structures?
Q2. What changes do you recommend to be made in the company organization structure?
Case (20
Marks)
General Electric Company (GE) was a major conglomerate and one of the biggest companies in the world. One of the factors that
was believed to be responsible for the company’s steady growth for more than a century was its tradition of stable and long term
leadership. One of the most successful phases in GE’s history began when Jack Welch became its CEO in 1981. Welch attempted to
make GE one of the top companies in every segment in which it operated. He also supervised several acquisitions that added value
to the business portfolio and was instrumental in creating a performance oriented culture at the company. Welch retired in 2001 after
20 years at the helm. He was succeeded by Jeffrey Immelt, who was chosen by GE’s board after a long and careful succession
planning activity supervised by Welch himself. In September 2001, Jeffrey Immelt (Immelt) became the Chief Executive Officer
(CEO) of the General Electric Company (GE). He succeeded Jack Welch (Welch), who was acknowledged as one of the most
successful CEOs in business history for his management of GE in the twenty years he headed the company (1981 to 2001). Welch
studied chemical engineering at the University of Massachusetts, from where he graduated in 1957. He then moved to the University
of Illinois, where he received his Masters and PhD in chemical engineering. Welch joined GE in 1960 as a junior engineer. After a
year, Welch wanted to leave the company, unhappy with the bureaucratic culture of the company, but was convinced by his superior
to stay back… This case discusses the strategic and cultural changes at GE as a result of the change in leadership. It compares GE’s
strategy and operations under Welch, with those under Immelt. It also talks about the changes in the company’s culture under Immelt.
The case concludes with a discussion on the challenges facing Immelt, as of mid-2006.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the relationship between leadership and growth in large and diversified companies.
Q2. Debate the effects of a change in leadership on company strategy and culture.
Q3. Compare the leadership styles of two leaders in the above case.
Q4. Analyze the effectiveness of their individual styles.
Case (20
Marks)
Cliff Morton, a recent college graduate, was hired by the Capital Casualty Company as a trainee in the safety engineering
department. After completing a six-month training program, his function would be to conduct inspections of prospective
policyholders’ places of business to determine whether or not safety practices and equipment were in use and to make appropriate
recommendations to the Capital underwriters about the extent of the risk involved. Morton progressed through the program
effectively and was now in the last stage. He was being introduced to the territory he would take over by an experienced safety
engineer who was being transferred to a larger territory. Each engineer worked out of his home, appearing at the office only on
Mondays for a departmental discussion meeting. The requests for inspections were mailed to the experienced engineer’s home, and
rush inspections were telephoned to him. Each engineer planned his own daily itinerary of inspections, completing the reports at
home and mailing them in to the office each day. Cliff Morton found that by carefully planning his daily route in the territory, he
could easily make 16 to 18 inspections and complete the reports in a normal work day. During his first week alone in the territory, he
averaged 16 inspections a days. The following Monday, at the departmental discussion meeting the engineer who had introduced him
to the territory called him aside and admonished him for turning in so many inspections each. “You’ll ruin it for us; we only turn in 8
or 10 each day. If you want to do 16 or 18 a day, go ahead, but only turn in 8 and then take a day off. No one will know”. Cliff didn’t
know what to say or do. He was ambitious, but he also knew he had to get along with his fellow employees.
Answer the following question.
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Q1. How should Cliff Morton handle this situation?
Q2. Is peer pressure to slow down something that management can control? Explain.
Q3. How can such a situation arise?
Q4. Can a new employee be effective if he resists group pressure? Justify your answer.


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CONTACT:
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Advertising
Case Studies
case (20
Marks)
1. Much has been researched and written about how advertising works and produces its effects,but it is important to appreciate that
there are few definitive answers because of the nature of the subject itself.According to exposure and familiarity modle,simply
repeated exposure to advertising can develop preferences in the audience.The exposure effect occurs at some preconscious level as a
result of pictures,text,or colour in the ads.Another explanation is that repeated exposure to ads creates a feeling of familiarity with
the advertised product or service and familiarity leads to favourable evaluation and liking.Yet another explanation is that consumers
view high frequency of advertising or larger size of ads indicator of brand’s quality.Hierarchy models suggest that advertising
produces its effects by moving the consumer through a series of steps in a sequence_from becoming aware to ultimate purchase of
product or service.The sequential order suggests that advertising effects are produced over a period of time and that advertising may
not produse desired effects immediately.The type of purchase behavior depicted by these models is usually more relevant to highinvolvement
purchases.According to low-involvement learning modle, TV is described as low-involvement medium.Audience have
little opportunity to think about any commercial.It is just a fleeting moment in time.The commercial cannot be slowed down or
stopped as per the convenience of the audience.It is believed that frequent repetition of an ad on TV can impart reliability to the
product that can build brand preference,Many scholars view consumer involvement as an important variable that can help in
explaining message processing and purchase decision by consumers.Consumer involvement could be high or low and its nature may
be rational or emotional.Based on this view,Foote,Cone & Belding agency developed an advertising planning model.Kim-Lord grid
proposes that consumer may be simultaneously involved rationally and emotionally.The location… of product on Kim –Lord grid
can help determining whether the ad copy should be more emotional or rational .Cognitive response model proposes that at the time
of exposure to an ad ,the thoughts that emerge in consumers mind,called cognitive responses,can be counter-arguments or support
arguments and these thought influence consumer’s attitudes positively or negatively.According to ELM model,the depth of
information processing by the audience as a result of exposure to advertisement is a key factor in persuasion by influencing
attitudes.The depth of information processing would depend on the motivation and ability of the audience member.If either is
missing ,peripheral route to persuasion will result.But if the audience member has both the motivation and the ability to process
information,the central route to persuasion will occur.Attitudes formed as a result of central route to information processing are more
resistant to subsequent efforts to change with respect to attitude object.
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is the case all about?
Q2. What are the advantages of repeated exposure to ads?
case (20
Marks)
10. Shoppers ‘Delight’a large retail store,had above-average quality and competitive prices.It advertised its retail promotions in local
newspapers.Its TV advertising was mainly aimed at building store image and did not address retail promotions.The management
kewn it well that they had to advertise their retail promotions more,but they did not feel comfortable with the effectiveness of persent
efforts and wanted to better understand the impact of their present promotions.To better understand the effectiveness of the present
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efforts,a study of advertising exposure,interpretation,and purchases was undertaken.Researchers conducted 50 in-depth interviews
with customers of the store’s target market to determine the appropriate product mix,price,ad copy and media,In addition,the store,s
image and that of its two competitors were measured.Based on the research findings,different product lines that would appeal to the
target customer were selected.The retail promotion was run for a full week.Full-page advertisements were released each day in the
two local Hindi newspapers,and also in one English newapaper that devotes six pages to the coverage of the state.Each evening,a
sample of 100 target market customers were interviewed by telephone as follows:1 .Target customers were asked if they had read the
newspaper that day .This was done to determine their exposure to advertisement.2.After a general description of the product lines,the
respondents were asked to recall any related retail advertisements they had seen or read.3.if the respondents were able to recall,they
were asked to describle the ad,the promoted products,sale prices,and the name of the sponsoring store.4.If the respondents were
accurate in their ad interpretation ,they were asked to express their intentions to purchase.5.Respondents were also asked for
suggestions to be incorporated in future promotions targeted at this consumer segment .Immediately after the close of
promotion,500target market customers were surveyed to determine what percentage of the target market actually purchased the
promoted products.It also determined which sources of information influenced them in their decision to purchase and the amount of
their purchase.Results of the study showed that ad exposure was 75% and ad awareness level was 68% and was considered as
high.Only 43% respondents exposed to and aware of the ad copay could accurately recall important details,such as the name of the
store promoting the retail sale.Just 43% correct interpretation was considered as low.Of those who could accurately interpret the ad
copay ,32% said they intended to respond by purchasing the advertised products and 68 per cent sad they had no intention to
buy.This yields an overall intention to buy of 7%.The largest area of lost opportunity was due to those who did not accurately
interpret the ad copay.The post-promotion survey indicated that only 4.2% of the target market customers made purchasesof the
promoted products during the promotion period.In terms of how these buyers learned of the promotion,46% mentioned newspaper
A(Hindi) ,27% newspaper B (Hindi),8% newspaper c( English), and 15% learned about sale through word-of-mouth
communication.The retail promotion was judged as successful in many ways,besides yielding sales worth Rs.900,000.However
,management was concerned about not achieving a higher level of ad comprehension,missing a significant sales opportunity.It was
believed that a better ad would have at least 75% correct comprehension among those aware of the ad .This in turn would almost
double sales without any additional cost.
Answer the following question.
Q1. give an overview of the case.
Q2. How and why the retail promotion was run for a full week?
case (20
Marks)
9. ”A while ago UK’s Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) told Liverpool-based Halewood international that their ad part of a 2
million pound campaign for their Lambrini drink was too sexy.ASA issued guidelines suggesting they use balding paunchy,middleaged
men instead of someone who was attractive and desirable.”The ad is in danger of implying that the drink may bring
sexual/social success, because the man in question looks quite attractive and desirable,”
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the above case.
Q2. What is the role of ASA?
case (20
Marks)
15. . Unethical judgements lead to misleading and false advertising.Let us understand what is unethical and what is a lapse in the
application of ethics.Ethical dilemma is the outcome of an uneresolved interpretation of an ethical issue.We must appreciate the
difference between “having a right”and the “right thing to do “.For example should advertisers strive to persuade not so well-to-do
youth in urban and semi-urban areas to buy expensive sports shoes or brandedjeans?there is no law against such advertising but the
socially and morally responsible behavior may be to refrain,and so we have an ethical dilemma.It seems advertising professionals
find largely synonymous with legality and many consider advertising expensive jeans or sports shoes to all markets,including those
who should not buy them is “acceptable”ethical behavior.We must appreciate that one can be ethical only when there is the option of
being ethical.One cannot choose to be ethical when one cannot choose at all.Thus,ethics begins only where the law ends.Ethical
dilemmas can occur because advertisers typically sell brands,not just products.Even though functionally the products from different
manufacturers may be the same,advertisers present their brands as being different from other brands.In this process advertisers are
tempted to create false differences.Another situation creates dilemma when advertisers highlight only the good things about their
brand and omit any shortcomings.Whatever is said is not false,yet the ad dose not tell the whole truth.In contrast ethical lapse is
typically a clear of illegal behavior,not permitted by the law of the land.Plenty of laws govern what is legal in advertising but laws
ultimately reflect ethical judgements.As for the self-regulation,advertising and media associations,councils,and societies focus on
legalities rather than philosophies.The eternal question of when how by whom are these laws to be enforced in resolving ethical
dilemmas and lapses still remains.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the above case.
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Q2. What is ethical lpase in ads?

Business Ethics
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give measures to control pollution (10 marks)
Q2. Write a note on value education. (10 marks)
Q3. Write note on electrification of villages. (10 marks)
Q4. Can exhibitions help in product promotion ? If yes, explain. (10 marks)
Q5. What is comparative advantage in international business ? (10 marks)
Q6. What is DDU? (10 marks)
Q7. Explain insta online account facility. (10 marks)
Q8. Explain global human resource management (10 marks)

Consumer Behaviour
Answer the following question.
Q1. Briefly describe the changing trends in consumer behaviour in Indian context (10 marks)
Q2. Discuss the role of reference groups for patronising a new magazine? (10 marks)
Q3. What is classical conditioning theory of learning? How does this theory apply to consumers? (10 marks)
Q4. What are approaches to activating problem recognition (10 marks)
Q5. Discuss McGuire’s comprehensive scheme of psychological motives. (10 marks)
Q6. Discuss self concept theory (10 marks)
Q7. Give consumer attitudes towards the product (10 marks)
Q8. Give attributes of alternative. (10 marks)

Finance Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Who owns a credit union? Explain. (10 marks)
Q2. Where will you show purchase of furniture in cash flow statement ? (10 marks)
Q3. Define current assets and Give four examples (10 marks)
Q4. What are Strike Price and Option Price? (10 marks)
Q5. What is Merger ? Is it harmful or beneficial? Explain n Justify (10 marks)
Q6. Explain the impact of interest rate on long term and short term bonds? (10 marks)
Q7. What is correlation of coefficient? (10 marks)
Q8. What is the future of Financial Risk Management? (10 marks)

Human Resource Management
Case Studies
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
In today’s rapidly changing business environment, organizations have to respond quickly to requirements for people. Hence, it is
important to have a well-defined recruitment policy in place, which can be executed effectively to get the best fits for the vacant
positions. Selecting the wrong candidate or rejecting the right candidate could turn out to be costly mistakes for the organization.
Selection is one area where the interference of external factors is minimal. Hence the HR department can use its discretion in
framing its selection policy and using various selection tools for the best results. Most of the organizations now know the importance
of having an effective recruitment and selection policy. The importance of a good selection process that starts with gathering
complete information about the applicant from his application form and ends with inducting the candidate into the organization.
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is the importance of having an effective recruitment and selection policy in an organization?
Q2. Explain the recent trends that have influenced the process of recruitment and selection in an organization.
Q3. What are the various challenges faced by organizations in the process of recruiting and selecting employees
Q4. Give an overview off the case.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
A project involved the creation of a Wage & Salary Program. The company had over 25 different positions without any salary
structure or career ladder for the employees. Our first task was to identify the Anchor Jobs of the business, which were the positions
that best represented the core competencies of the organization. We then bench-marked these positions using regional data, and in a
few cases national data, and ranked the salaries of the employees in the Anchor Jobs to this data. Using an objective point system
that we created, we had the managers assign points using 9 compensable factors for the Anchor Jobs and then all company positions.
Next, we tallied the points for each position and assigned jobs to specific pay grades. Finally, we met with senior management to: 1.
identify the company’s compensation philosophy moving forward, 2. develop a Wage & Salary Manual to train managers in the new
system, 3. create a methodology for adjusting salaries in the future as determined by the market conditions that affect the Anchor
Jobs, 4. implement a point system for objectively assessing whether additional or changed responsibilities of a position would be
eligible for an increase in salary, 5. confirm our assignment of positions to the pay grades, and 6. determine how to handle Green
Circle Salaries that were below the minimum of a pay grade and Red Circle Salaries that were above the maximum of a pay grade.
This project was designed to use Human Resource job analysis strategies to improve the cash flow of the business. We flowcharted
the process and conducted an extensive job analysis of the work required to process invoices. Usually such invoices are mailed to
clients within the first 5 to 10 business days of the new month. In this firm, invoices sat on the desks of the 15 Engineers waiting for
approval for 30 to 60 days, which pushed Accounts Receivable (AR) for this firm into an AR average of 85 days. By changing the
way information was gathered for the invoices and by implementing specific incentives, disincentives, and consequences for
Engineers, the firm began sending out 90% of invoices within the first 10 business days of the new month, starting with the second
month after the implementation.
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Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case
Q2. Analyze the project work in the case and opine how the firm began sending out 90% of invoices within the first 10
business days of the new month.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
In a pharmacy company manufacturing and marketing drugs and medicines, the research staff has developed a number of new
products and formulations which are effective. But at the same time it has to meet severe competition from stalwarts with foreign
collaboration. Mr. Shah, the Vice President Marketing, has a very successful Pharmacy Marketing background. He has been with the
company for the past 4 years. Mr. Shah had made ambitious plans for capturing a sizeable share of the market in Gujarat. The
company being medium sized, Mr. Shah had kept his marketing department and the marketing team lean and trim. The field sales
staff was given aggressive targets and was virtually pushed to reach the respective targets. The field staff worked to their best
abilities to complete their respective targets. Mr. Shah had himself been working almost 11-12 hours a day. There was no formal
appraisal and reward system in the company. During last 5 years more than 60 Medical Representatives and Area Supervisors had
left the company due to unsatisfactory increments and promotions. Those who left the company were star workers. But Mr. Shah did
not care for this high turnover. He was over confident that he would be able to hire fresher’s and also select Candidates who were not
happy with their remuneration in their respective companies. Mr. Shah had never communicated to the field sales staff about their
performance or reasons for not recognizing their outstanding performance in a few cases. There was on the whole great
dissatisfaction and good performers were leaving the company.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Enumerate the steps you will take to correct the situation?
Q2. . In the event of your suggesting a Performance Appraisal System, what type of appraisal system would be suitable
and why.
Q3. Discuss, if the appraisal system should also include merit, rewards and promotions.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
General Energy is start-up oil and gas company, the global HR Director, who is based in Turkey was keen to recruit an HR and
Reward Manager to be based in the London office. The role is fairly unique as the ideal candidate required a strong reward
background with some HR generalist experience. Given the uniqueness of the role, the Global HRD was not sure exactly what
background and career path the possible candidates might have taken. She initially pitched the role between £50-£100k. The client
was aware of Hudson as we are the preferred supplier with the previous organization she worked for – Thames Water. We agreed that
we would work on this role on an exclusive basis and dedicate the time fully to finding the right candidate. As this was a brand new
role within a start-up company we suggested to the client that we would send CVs of candidates at various levels to enable the hiring
manager to assess the level and experience required. Filtering through CVs, the hiring manager was able to identify the type of
individual from a technical and cultural perspective that would suit the organization. We agreed that a candidate at the more senior
end was required as this role would need a candidate who has experience of designing and implementing reward projects. We did
offer a candidate the role but unfortunately the candidate was not confident in moving to a start-up organization. We however did
find another candidate who had previous oil and gas and start-up experience who was a better fit for the role. The candidate accepted
the offer and has enjoyed joining General Energy.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Debate the difficulties being faced by the organization in recruiting a reward manager.
Q2. Explain the selection procedure used in the recruitment of HR and Reward Manager.


BRAND MANAGEMENT ISBM ONGOING EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

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CONTACT: DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

BRAND MANAGEMENT
COURSE : Total Marks : 80
Case Studies for Analyzing :
1) There are six cases
2) Case 4 (compulsory) : 24 marks
3) You have to attempt only other four cases, which carries 14 marks each (i.e 14 x 4 = 56 Marks)
CASE – 1 (14 Marks)
OLD SPICE COSMETICS FOR MEN
Old Spice has been a global brand of cosmetics for men. Their range includes, after-shave lotion, lather
shaving cream, talcum powder, shampoos and hair cream. In India the first and most successful product
launched was after-shave lotion.
In the year 1986 the market share of Old Spice products in India was as follows:
• After-shave lotion 65 per cent
• Lather shaving cream 9 per cent
• Talcum powder 1 per cent
• Shampoo — trace
• Hair cream — trace
Colfax Laboratory Ltd., the manufacturers had been marketing the products in the west through departmental
stores. They planned strategy to boost their products sales in India in 1987. They decided to reduce reliance on
after shave lotion and promote other products as well, as they had found there was good market for other
products too.
• Shampoo — As Colfax had only one type of shampoo, whereas competitors had several types, they decided
to lie low on this product.
• Talcum powder — As talcum powder was purchased mostly by women, and Old Spice was a brand for men
the sale were restricted.
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Hence, it was decided to promote lather shaving cream along with aftershave lotion as the two products
complemented each other.
Market survey gave the following figures of use of cosmetics by men:
• Shaving cream is used by 94 per cent men
Table : Success of Campaign
Year 1986 1987 1988 1989
Volume 100 131 158 213
Value 100 134 180 277
The market share also improved as can be seen from the Table above (given in percentage).
Table : Market Share
Year 1988(%) 1989(%) 1990(%) 1991(%) 1992(%)
Old Spice 13.1 16.2 19.2 26.8 33.5
Palmolive 34.5 33.4 36.9 35.5 33.6
Godrej 19.5 20.2 18.7 18.6 19.3
Old Spice brand has remained one of the most respected brands worldwide. In 1988, lather shaving cream
advertisement was among top ten advertisements in the world.
a) Make an alternative advertising plans for Old Spice. Has the advertising helped the
brand to gain grounds in India? Please give your comments.
CASE 2 (Marks 14)
KINETIC HONDA
Before Kinetic Honda 100 cc scooter was introduced in the Indian market, all the other scooters looked almost
alike. Kinetic was a differentiated scooter, because of its sleek looks, aerodynamic styling and it manufacturers
felt these attributes were enough to outsell other scooters in the market like Bajaj, and LML. However, the
scooter sales did not pick up the envisaged volumes in the market. In April 1986, the position was as follows:
• Kinetic Honda had sold 11,000 scooters with 2.1 per cent of market share.
• Bajaj Auto lead with 3,80,000 scooters sold with 73 per cent market share.
• LML sold 1,09,000 scooters with market share of 21 per cent.
Kinetic had launched their scooter with unique features, electronic start, automatic gear shift, automatic choke,
built-in turning indicators, wind tested streamlines design, and plastic bright colours.
The market survey conducted by the marketeers indicated that the reasons for poor market acceptance were as
given:
• Unfamiliar design
• Was considered lightweight and therefore flimsy
• Power of the scooter at 100 cc was considered less strong than Bajaj’s 150 cc scooter
• Electronic was also looked at with suspicion as it was taken only as a ladies scooter.
Hence the firm’s objective was to correct the misconceptions. For this purpose the marketeers had to
physically demonstrate that the scooters body was metallic and not made of plastic and then had to advertise
the same for wider acceptance from the buyer group of their product. In 1988, several scooters including, Bajaj
Super 150 cc, LML, Kinetic Honda and Vespa 150 were put on a grueling 20,000 km test run.
Kinetic Honda was adjudged the best scooter in that test. Massive advertising campaign was launched with
facts of the test and sales increased. Kinetic Honda won three more raffles and reached the high Khardungla
pass.
Kinetic Honda got established as a premium product for a customer who is a social somebody with age group
between 25—40 years, and income of Rs 15,000 pm. Customers of Kinetic Honda are different than the
customers of Bajaj and LML as they are upward mobile, quality conscious not willing to settle for less
then the best. Market share has improved to 11 per cent and according to them ‘future belongs to us’.
a) Please attempt restructure the firm’s brand objective and then build their
marketing strategy with focus on their brand.
CASE 3 (14 Marks)
LA BELLE COSMETICS
Sri Krishna Sarin walked out of his office into the production area, which only twenty months back he had set
up with the active help and support of his wife Rani. He saw his wife helping the worker with his task and
called her out.
‘It seems we really have a winner. We started with no business experience, only our determination and
technology with us, my dear.’ The couple was sure that the success is the outcome of their quality policy If not
100 per cent perfect, the product is sent to the research and development laboratory. The key was the quality
check of the raw materials they used and stored in totally hygienic conditions. Since the output was small all
their customers were from the town and they believed they could not face them if any one complained of bad
product.
The Sarin couple had used only herbal ingredients, safe for the skin. This meant higher cost of raw materials
and fewer suppliers. They had, therefore, priced their products slightly higher than their national brand rivals.
They also had a lot of pride in the cleanliness and upkeep of their factory. They were fond of saying that both
the product and their factory represent their own selves. The marketing of the products had been carried out
through local retailers and word of mouth publicity.
There are five products produced by the Sarins: lipstick, gloss, eyeliner, eye shadow and blush-on. Since their
production line was not very big they took manufacture one by one, but each month all the products were
made in various proportions as per their demand. Since the couple met their customers socially also they were
able to get instant feedback from them. They had kept a lean set-up and each person had to work hard. Lot was
done on the basis of personal relationship with the employees.
As is normal, the new factory made a loss in the first year of operation. Although the loss was expected, Sarins
were worried as they had put their entire savings in the venture. They felt that perhaps, two-shift operation
with bigger sales would take them out of the woods. They were, however, apprehensive if increasing
production would lead to lowering of quality, their main weapon against the national brands. The discussion
now boiled down to the fact that they could perhaps reduce the number of products and then with no time lost
in changing product in the production line, they could increase production to an extent. Table 11.5 gives the
cosmetic line.
Table : Cosmetic Line, May 2005
Item Unit Price (Rs) Material Cost
(Rs)
Margin (Rs) Sales (Kg)
Lipstick 120 43.5 76.5 95
Gloss 130 64.7 65.3 60
Eyeliner 65 37.4 27.6 4
Eye shadow 120 73.5 46.5 12
Blush on 130 67.2 62.8 9
The couple felt that while they will have to trim the product line, they were afraid of losing customers who
were keen to buy the whole range from them. The case is a hypothetical one, and yet it is close to reality in the
corporate world.
Looking at the case, what advise would you offer to the Sarins on the following points:
• Have Sarins taken care to use the brand value in their sales efforts?
• Should they trim the product range?
• Should they increase production by adding more people and if yes, where and how will
they sell the additional production?
• Are they missing out on any of the marketing mix factors? Please explain how they can
improve their operations.
• Plan an advertising campaign for the range of products, assuming the benefits they would
provide to the users.
CASE – 4 (Compulsory 24 Marks)
BRANDING A CAR CITI MOBILES LTD (CML)
MARKETING RESEARCH FOR INTRODUCING AN INNOVATIVE PRODUCT
CML have been in the business of manufacturing and marketing two-wheelers both scooters and motorcycles
since 1970 and enjoyed leadership in the market with 34 per cent share. They are also in to exports to Europe,
Middle East, South America and Australia. They export 30 per cent of their production. In 1991, CML planned
to diversify in to cars. They had been trying for the past few years to gauge the market for cars and had
discovered that in case they can come up with a small car they could convert their two-wheeler customers in to
four wheel car buying. The price could normally be twice that of the mobike, double the number of wheels and
it doubles the price. The mobike was selling at Rs 35,000; hence car ex-factory price was pegged at Rs 75,000.
CML had in 1991, the following marketing department structure.
CML Marketing Department Structure
CML hopes to retrain their selected personnel in sales and service of cars. Likewise they would upgrade the
able and willing dealers for selling cars.
CML signed an agreement with Renault of France for their sub-compact 500 cc car which could be sold in
India at ex-factory price of Rs 75,000. The subcompact car Silky was liked by a small group of mobike owners
as possible replacement for their bikes as they were under extreme pressure from their parents for going in for
a car, at present prices of cars they could iii afford the same. CML decided to arrange a market survey for
Silky:
• Research problem — Unknown buying process, and factors influencing buying decisions for a new
innovative subcompact car
Objectives of the research:
• Factors influencing buyers
• Stages of buying decisions
• Occupation, income levels and vehicle ownership at present
• Attitude towards the subcompact car, the Silky
Information needed from the research was as follows:
• Is there a need for subcompact cars in India?
• Will it be a first car, a substitute for mobike or will, it be second or third car in affluent homes?
• How the buyers get information about cars?
• Who initiates the buying process?
• Who is the decision maker?
• What interests the buyers most, in order of their priority – economy in running the car, styling,
comfort, price, brand, service availability in the country, durability of the car, easy availability of
genuine spares in the country, luggage compartment size, ease of getting loans.
Further information required is as follows:
• Buyers view on dealership — dealer’s location, reputation, availability of service facility, quality of
service
• Role of the dealer in the buying process
• Role of credit and guarantee
• Post-purchase opinion
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is using the Primary Research technique. Sample size 3,500 — stratified random
technique for selecting the sample (rich and upper middle, middle class segments).
Findings of the research:
• Need was felt @ 44 per cent by housewives, 36 per cent by teenagers
• The need was influenced by increasing levels of pollution on the roads of Delhi, increasing number of bad
accidents involving mobikes and household income.
Table : Research Findings
Total Response (%) Total Response
Family member, mother, wife 36 1,300
Peer groups of teens and young adults 14 500
Relatives 6 200
Teenagers 44 1,500
Factors influencing purchase are given as under:
• Status symbol 58 per cent — The mobike owners felt they would notch up a few rungs in the status ladder.
• Economy 80 per cent, with fuel prices always on the rise the subcompact was advertised as giving huge fuel
economy.
• Safety 100 per cent — The subcompact was sure to give much higher levels of safety than the mobike.
• Comfort 70 per cent — Driving a car in all weathers on a comfortable seat was definitely more comfortable
than riding a bike, especially when distances in Delhi were generally greater than other metros of India.
CML had advertised in the newspapers, magazines, that. they had set up hoardings and shown the
advertisement on the TV network, besides they had used some other media like pamphlets.
The respondents were asked as to how they got to know about Silky, 52 per cent saw the advertisements and
48 per cent had not seen it. The advertisements were seen on the following lines:
• Newspapers 55 per cent
• Magazines — 22 per cent
• Hoardings — 10 per cent
• TV — 30 per cent
• Others — 10 per cent
The respondents were asked the reasons why they remembered the advertisements and they gave the following
reasons.
Table : Research Analysis
Impressive
Advertisement
Saw it Many
Times
Appeared in
Many
Channels
Appeared in
Many
Magazines
Total
Newspapers 2 14 Nil Nil 16
Magazines Nil 4 Nil 4 8
TV 8 8 8 Nil 24
Hoardings Nil 4 Nil Nil 4
Total 10 30 8 4 52
Therefore, it can be concluded that TV and newspaper are the appropriate media for the product. Later on the
response needed more information and they got it from the following sources.
Table : Detailed Research Result
Profession Literature Dealers Users Firms Staff Friends Total
Business 300 600 600 200 400 2,100
Executive 200 0 300 0 400 900
Student 500 400 500 0 400 1,800
Rank 3 3 1 4 2
Table : Research Result
Price Capacity Durability Servicing Reputation Total
Literature 200 100 300 100 300 1,000
Dealers 300 600 200 200 300 1,600
Users 600 300 500 700 600 2,700
Showrooms 100 100 200 100 100 600
Friends 400 300 300 400 400 1,800
Total 1,600 1,400 1,500 1,500 1,700 7,700
Rank 2 4 3 3 1
As can be seen the respondents considered the brand reputation the most important information. Second was
the price of the product. While making decisions for purchase, the ranking of preference was as follows:
• After sales service
• Guarantee period offered
• Price
• Discounts
• Credit offered/credit terms
• Possibility of putting air conditioner in the small car
Decision to buy was taken by the following persons jointly:
• Head of the family — 50 per cent
• The other spouse — 12 per cent
• Teenage children — 38 per cent
Number of cars in income groups was as follows:
< 20,000 rupees a month = one car 20,000—50,000 rupees a month = two cars >50,000 rupees a month = two or more cars
Decision time for making the purchase was given as under:
<2 months — 45 per cent 2 months to four months — 35 per cent > Four months — 20 per cent
Among the buyers of Silky, during test marketing period who had purchased the car six months back, 70 per
cent were satisfied with the car. To sum up the buying process:
• Feel the need
• Become aware of the product, the Silky subcompact
• Search for information
• Share the product knowledge with the family
• Accept the impact of family and friends influence
• Decide to buy
• Post-purchase behaviour
Decision Options
The buyers could have one of the following status:
Subcompact Car
Options for the buyers are:
Brand __________ Maruti or Silky
Capacity for seating, luggage
Price
Engine power
Number of cars the customer has or wants to own
When to buy the subcompact
Where to buy it
When to buy
How to pay — cash, instalments, leasing
QUESTIONS
Select the market segment; build the buyer’s profile and process of purchase decision, actual purchase action.
Plan out advertising media, promotional plans for Silky. How should Silky go about building its brand
identity and brand equity? Where should it be positioned the market place and why? Do you think the brand
name is right for the product? Discuss and suggest alternate brand names wit our reasons for the same?
Ana1yse the market research presented in the case to determine if the research was conducted with right
objectives in mind. Should they have arranged for more than one research with separate objectives to make
them exhaustive, to the point and useful?
Case-5 NIRLEP (14 Marks)
Umasons P Ltd had spare capacity for manufacturing Teflon because of change in government’s policy. They
decided to coat aluminum pans and introduce Non-Stick Cooking Pans in the market. Non-stick quality would
help the housewives in preparing food with less oil preferable for the cholesterol patients. For others also food
with less oil would be more healthy. There will be less consumption of gas and electricity and benefits
housewife groups in clubs, at kitty parties and at retail shops.
A big change in consumer behavior and attitude towards the product was needed as unless the customers were
fully convinced about the benefits of the product, it was doomed for failure. The firms were faced with other
problems as well:
• It was a small firm with limited advertising budget
• As there was no competitive product the entire burden of concept selling fell on their shoulders, Later firms
benefited from their efforts
• Frying pan was not a popular cooking vessel in the country
• Maidservants often rubbed the Teflon coating considering it as burnt and accumulated dirt
The road to business success was finally found in exporting the pans. In
1970 Nirlep exported 70 per cent of its production to Britain, Poland and
Malaysia. In 1974, they got an award for exporting from the Engineering Export
Promotion Council.
In the domestic market the firms patience paid as in about eight years the product got established.
The change in attitude was the result of firms communications which targeted towards the working women
who were growing in number and it was found to be a convenient product by the housewives.
In 1986, the housewives realised the following about the product:
• Nirlep cooking was healthy with less oil
• It was of low cost with less oil and gas consumption
• It was a convenient and versatile product
The perception of the pan as a western cooking vessel had been gradually altered. With the metropolitan
lifestyle it was best received in Mumbai and Kolkata first. Later on some dissatisfaction remained as the
coating had low durability and pan’s handle was weak. The firm changed the design and built its brand equity
with heavy advertising campaigns, which laid stress on health foods, ease of cooking and economy and the
durability aspect of the pan. The Nirlep pan had arrived! They now claim that it is the ‘first non-stick frying
pan’.
Questions
1) Discuss if the company has done enough to build its brand name. If it has not, then suggest ways of
building brand image?
2) Describe the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. How can you relate the needs with consumer behaviour?
3) Is it necessary to segment the market? If yes, then give four important criteria with which the segmentation
is done?
4) Discuss the user based segmentation with examples?
5) How does the innovative product penetration take place in the market? What pitfalls it has to surmount?
6) ‘It is important to understand the socio-cultural ethos of your market segment.’ Discuss?
CASE – 6 (14 Marks)
COMPUTERS LTD (CL)
PRICING IN AN EXPLOSIVE MARKET
In November 1976, HCL announced a dramatic reduction in prices of their Personal Computers (PCs), the
prices came down from Rs 60,000 to Rs 30,000 per PC. At that time CL wanted to introduce their PCs in the
Indian market. Other players, like Wipro, DCM Data, PCL, were trying to match the HCL prices. The market
had just about started picking up and the growth rate was 6 per cent per annum likely to go up to 20 per cent as
per marketing gurus who had been watching the international market of PCs for a while.
BACKGROUND
CL is a wholly owned subsidiary of Telecom and Electronics Ltd (TEL). TEL is a major firm dealing in
electrical and electronic goods since 1960. They have been dealing in motors, generators, process control
instruments, tape recorders and domestic appliances.
TEL exports motors to Australia, Asia and Africa, besides having 15 per cent share in the domestic market.
They have built brand equity in India and hope to make full use of it in the area of computers as a spin off.
COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT
Threat of new entrants is quite real as the world players including IBM, Compaq are eyeing the Indian market
as it gives the impression of almost a virgin market. With government of India’s support the MNCs will have
easy entry and with their brand name alone take over a big chunk of the market.
Bargaining power of buyers is increasing with new players and local assemblers offering their product with
marginal cost only. Local assemblers have low overheads and compete on price and personalised services.
Buyers are at an advantage as they get the best deals at low prices.
Bargaining power of suppliers is weak, as they want to sell in large volumes, which is possible only if they can
cut down their prices of chips, motherboards connectors and other components.
Rivalry amongst existing players is increasing by the day as the business growth has yet to reach the expected
levels and the players have already set up manufacturing facilities. The known brands get an advantage with
large firms, but the smaller buyers and individual buyers look for the latest product at downsized prices, which
the assemblers are able to provide. They also resort to bundling the PC with software of the customers’ choice,
mostly pirated versions and offer site maintenance for the product.
PRICE BEHAVIOUR
As the average price of a branded product was Rs 30,000, local, brands and assemblers were selling the
product about 15—20 per cent cheaper. With the local brand the customer was usually in danger of loss of
technical support, as many players would close shop after they have made a profit and start again, perhaps at a
new location with a new name to avoid problems with the pirated software. The assemblers could further
reduce the price as they were getting components from overseas through dubious means.
CL wants to market their branded product at Rs 26,000 and keep dealers margin at Rs 3,000. They are able to
get a gross margin of Rs 4,000. However should the necessity arise they can sell it even at Rs 23,000.
CL believes that’s since HCL has just reduced the prices drastically no further
price cut would be possible by branded products. CL has to decide on its pricing strategy. It can go for
penetrating prices at Rs 18,000 also if they want to capture a large share of the market, or keep to skimming
price at Rs 26,000. They can follow the medium pricing at Rs 22,000. Depending on the market growth the
profit level for CL will be as shown in Table.
Table : Profit Level for CL
Pricing/Market Growth Low Medium High
Penetrating/low -1,50,000 1,00,000 5,50,000
Medium 1,00,000 3,00,000 2,50,000
Skimming/high 50,000 2,00,000 4,00,000
The firm has to decide about the strategy taking the optimum scenario or most likely future demand seeing the
environment factors of today In case of skimming prices the firm can keep the option of heavy investment in
brand building and other marketing inputs and still get a good market share.
Questions
Discuss if the company could have avoided the price war by promoting its brand?


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BIO-TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT
N. B.: 1. Attempt any 16 Questions
2. All questions carry equal marks.
Q1) Define Bio technology and explain the meaning of old and new biotechnologies. Comment on
the multidisciplinary nature and the commercial potential of bio technology?
Q2) Discuss the scope and importance of biotechnology in promoting human Welfare?
Q3) Define vector. Briefly describe the various kinds of vector in E. coli?
Q4) Describe in some detail the various strategies for the integration of DNA inserts into the vector?
Q5) Explain PCR procedure under the following heads:-
a) PCR primers
b) PCR efficiency
c) Annealing temperature and
d) Amplicon size.
Q6) List various variations of PCR Procedure and briefly describe the methods, logic and
applications of any tow of these variations?
Q7) Briefly describe the various approaches for the production of virus resistant transgenic plants and
compare their merits, demerits, and applications?
Q8) Discuss the various applications of transgenic plants, and the problems encountered in their
productivity utilization?
Q9) Briefly describe the meaning of oil quality and explain the various approaches for the
modification of oil quality through genetic transformation?
Q10) Briefly describe the meaning of starch quality and explain the various strategies for starch quality
modification?
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Q11) Discuss the role of biotechnology in health care giving suitable examples to support your views?
Q12) Define Vaccine. Briefly Explain the different types of vaccine and enumerate their advantages
and limitations?
Q13) Define genetic disease. Briefly explain the techniques for their detection and modes of their
therapy?
Q14) What Is drug Targeting?
Q15) Briefly outline the procedure for isolation?
Q16) Define downstream processing. Briefly describe the various steps in down stream processing?
Q17) Define enzyme. Briefly describe the major categories of fermentation, their requirements and
applications.
Q18) What is bioreactor. Briefly describe major categories of fermentation, their requirements and
application?
Q19) List down various types of metabolites produced of enzymes from microbes.
Q20) What are bio-control agents? Discuss their applications using suitable examples?
Q21) Define strain improvement and briefly discuss the various approaches used for strain
improvement?


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SECTION – A

1.Write short notes on the regulatory bodies of Aviation Industry.?

2. Explain the Airport Development process happening in India post deregulation.
3. Briefly analyse the competition in Airline industry in India.
4. Discuss the term Airside and the important facilities in Airside.
5. Analyse the different Air carrier models in use.
6. What do you understand by ATC and the various functions associated with ATC in Air transportation ?
7. Explain the various terminal concepts.

SECTION – B
1. Write short notes on any five of the following :
(a) Lighting system
(b) Rescue and firefighting
(c) On-line baggage handling
(d) Drainage system
(e) Fuel hydrants.
(f) Communication system
(g) House keeping services.

2. Analyse the PPP model of Airport infrastructure and benefits.

3. Discuss the concept of AERA and the Various pricing models in India now.

4. Discuss the term Airline Alliances with examples.

5. Discuss the issue of bird menace in Airports and describe the various techniques used to tackle it.

6. Discuss the liability of the carrier to the passenger, baggage and cargo as per the Warsaw
convention.

AUTOMOBILE MANAGEMENT
TOTAL MARKS :80 MARKS 10 marks each
1. What are the main components used in an automobile?
2. On What basis are automobile engines classified?
3. What is the function of the Joints in piston ring? Give reasons for providing joints in a piston ring?
4. What are two ways of cooling an engine? Explain briefly?
5. State the two purpose of the Flywheel , Camshaft & Manifolds?
6. What is Octane number? How is it determined?
7. Describe the function of a combustion chamber & the constructional details of different types of
combustion chambers?
8. How is it possible to remove harmful liquids from the lubricating oil through a crankcase ventilator?

BANKING MANAGEMENT
Total Marks—80
Q.1) The exchange rate and forward rate of rupee against US dollar on 3rd November, 2008 is given below:
(20 marks)
Spot rate 1 US dollar Rs 45.36
One month forward 3.72%
Three months forward 3.27%
Six months forward 2.76%
Twelve months forward 2.26%
Calculate the forward rate, forward premium rate and swap rate from the given data.
Q.2) In May beginning you decide that shares in X Ltd. will rise over the next month or so. The current price
is Rs 100 and you hope that the shares will be at Rs. 150 by the end of July. Give your comments if the
Option is traded and if the option is not traded. Make assumptions.
(20 marks)
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Q.3) (15 marks)
A) The unit price of TSS scheme of a mutual fund is Rs 10. The public offer price (POP) of the unit is Rs
10.204 and the redemption price is Rs 9.80.
Calculate
i) Front-end load and
ii) Back-end load.
B) Mr. A can earn a return of 16% by investing in equity shares on his own. Now he is considering a recently
announced equity based mutual fund scheme in which initial expenses are 5.5 percent and annual recurring
expenses are 1.5 percent. How much should the mutual fund earn to provide Mr. A a return of 16%
(5 Marks)
Q.4) The closing price of the stock of Veryfine Ltd. at the stock exchange for 20 successive days was as
follows: (20 Marks)
Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Closing
Price(Rs.)
25
26
25
24
26
26
28
26
25
27
You are required to calculate a 7 day moving average of stock price of the company and comment on its short-term
trend
Day 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Closing
price(Rs)
27
25
26
28
26
26
24
25
26
25


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BPO Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks
Case 1 (20 Marks)
Two G iants Take the Offshore UPO Lead
GE Capital’s International Services unit, which provides everything from risk calculation to IT services and
actuarial analysis for GE worldwide, has grown from 634 employees to 17,000 during the past five years.
More than half of those workers are in India, and they are not being used for mindless data entry—in India
every employee has a college degree, and more than 1,200 have Master’s degrees in Business Administration
(MBAs). Microsoft has about 200 employees developing software in Bangalore, where it opened its first non-
U.S.-based product development center five years ago. In July 2003, the company announced it will be
shifting more currently U.S.-based jobs to India as it seeks to lower technical support and development costs.
Microsoft will increase its staff in India in the coming years, as the country continues to turn out tens of
thousands of English-speaking engineers each year.
1.) Summarize and Analyze the Case and give your Commnets
Case 2 (20 Marks)
AT&T Uses Team Approach to Outsource Its HR Function
When AT&T opted to outsource human resources, the telecommunications company signed a seven-year
comprehensive outsourcing agreement with Aon Consulting. A team of functional experts in AT&T’s human
resource (HR) and finance departments orchestrated the outsourcing initiative. Each department challenged
the other to prove the merits of the outsourcing strategy, resulting in a well-thought-out, appropriate, and costeffective
out- sourcing initiative. AT&T’s finance and HR departments also developed an atypical process for
determining which HR activities would be best served by out- sourcing. Rather than ask respective managers
to prove why their activity should be outsourced, the team asked them to provide evidence that their activity
should continue to be retained in-house. In doing this, managers became more cognizant of the benefits of
outsourcing, less adversarial and threatened by the strategy, and potential champions of it to the employee
population. Ultimately, managers designated virtually every HR function for outsourcing. Aon Consulting
now provides AT&T with HR administrative, transaction, and payroll services, including the oversight of
existing benefit plan providers, for AT&T’s 70,000 U.S.-based employees.
1.) Summarize and Analyze the Case and give your Comments
Case 3 (20 Marks)
GE Real Estate Understands Total BPO Costs
Realizing cost savings from offshore outsourcing often takes years of effort and a huge up-front investment.
For many companies, it simply may not be worth it. “Someone working for $10,000 a year in Hyderabad can
end up costing an American company four to eight times that amount,” says Hank Zupnick, CIO of GE Real
Estate. Yet, all too often, companies do not make the outlays required to make offshore outsourcing work.
“You have to bring people to America to learn your applications, and that takes time, particularly if you’re
doing it with a new vendor for the first time,” explains Zupnick, who maintains a handful of three-year
contracts with offshore vendors. In GE Real Estate’s case, the transition time for each vendor was up to a year
in some cases, in addition to the moneydraining vendor selection period of several months. Zupnick, who has
seven years of offshore experience, says most of his peers do not appreciate the time and money it takes to get
a relationship up and running. “The vendors say you can throw it over the wall and start saving money right
away. As a result, I have heard of CIOs who have tried to go the India or China route, and nine months later
they pulled the plug because they were not saving money,” Zupnick says. “You have to build in up to a year
for knowledge transfer and ironing out cultural differences.” At GE Real Estate, managing the offshore
vendor is such a big task that Zupnick assigned someone to handle it on a half-time basis at a $50,000 salary.
The individual makes sure projects move forward and develops and analyzes vendor proposals against the
RFPs when it comes time to bid out new work.
1.) Summarize and Analyze the Case and give your Comments
Case 4 (20 Marks)
Informal Vendor Selection Leads to Disaster
A large and well-respected company had a vision in the early 1990s of becoming one of the leanest and most
profitable manufacturers in the industry. The company’s CFO felt that the company could be much more
efficient if it focused on what it was good at, as opposed to managing some of the larger support functions.
After looking into its HR organization, the CFO determined that outsourcing this function would reduce a
great deal of overhead and could fix several of the problems the company continually faced. The CFO started
the project by assigning himself to be the company’s BPO champion. (This was mistake number one.) Next,
he contacted the ClO and explained how this new outsourcing effort would allow the company to make its
numbers in the next year and that he should be excited about assuming the role of change agent. Recognizing
that he had no experience in BPO, the ClO decided to go outside the organization for assistance. The first
problem he faced was who to call. The C1O had a relationship with a local consulting group that specialized
in outsourcing wide area networks. The firm was invited to a meeting to ask if they were interested in
handling the BPO project.The consulting group explained how outsourcing was one of its service offerings.
However, as understood by the consultant, the project could not be completed quickly or inexpensively.
Nonetheless, the CFO accepted the consulting group’s statements and
agreed to move forward.The following Monday morning, a three-hour kickoff meeting began between the
ClO, CFO,and the eager consulting company. The consulting presentation covered outsourcing at a high
level and the financial impact it could have on a company. This presentation certainly reaffirmed the CFO’s
vision by capitalizing on the savings a company could anticipate. The unfortunate point was that no one in the
room had any idea how complex this project was going to be. The CFO created a project team by assigning
several subject matter experts to the team on a part-time basis. With everyone working part-time one really
took responsibility for the project and simply assumed that t consulting group would handle it. The consulting
group did not really understand the HR department functions and, therefore, could not structure the new
process flow. Because the consulting group was not set up to handle the HR back-office functions, it found
itself trying to outsource the process to another consulting group This BPO project grew out of control within
weeks. After wasting seven months and spending $800,000, the CFO became furious about the lack of
progress. The ClO was fired for selecting the wrong consulting group, which apparently provided no added
value, and the consulting group was released only to face a lawsuit. This experience was a disappointment for
the CFO, and he decided to revert back to the old way of operating the HR department. To this day the
organization’s HR function is as ineffective as it was before the BPO project debacle.
1.) Summarize and Analyze the Case and give your Commnets

Human Resource Management
Case Studies
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
A well-known financial house started an Industrial unit using new technology under the name Royal Electronics Company. Their
system of Management in general was of the old type where everything was centralized on a personal level. However, in case of new
company, due to various factors like distance, time etc., the industry was allowed to develop on autonomous lines and was put in
charge of U.K. trained Engineer. Considering the various aspects, the industry was developing well. But due to the lack of adequate
attention to labor and industrial relations, a strike developed. It generated tensions and fears among the executives left jobs including
Labor officer who felt insecure due to vacillation and interference from top management. Finally the strike was resolved. But some
workers were still under charge sheets. Their cases had been conducted by the new Labor Officer who had joined at the height of
strike one day the factory manager received a call from the managing Director to dismiss the Labor Officer immediately. He solicited
reasons at least to justify his action, but of no avail. In fact the Managing Director came personally, went to the Labor Officer
directly and gave him the dismissal letter. The Labor officer was appointed by the Factory Manager and so went to him but the
Manager could do nothing now.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Analyze the factors that led to a breakdown of industrial relations in the Royal Electronics Company
Q2. How should the cases of charge sheeted employees be dealt with?
Q3. What course of action will you suggest for the factory manager?
Q4. As a Labor Officer what would be your steps after receiving the letter of dismissal from the Managing Director.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Scene in Head Office of a Company having staff of 75. Minesh : Mini, who is that fellow sitting there? Mini : I have been seeing
him for last two weeks. May be Ramesh knows. Ramesh : I do not know yaar which department he has joined. Here it happens like
this only. People come and go and you will not know. I have joined six months before but hardly I know any body here or factory or
about company. Minesh : But my boss was telling me Company has very ambitious plans, we have already achieved turnover of Rs
250 crores this year and Company is starting new plant within one year. It seems our HR Manager is a very reserved person.
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is the problem in the organization?
Q2. Find out solution for above problem and suggest how you will implement it.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
In one public undertaking, a line manager was appointed as the chief of personnel. Within a year after taking up the assignment, he
had to sign a wage agreement with the workers’ union. The union at the time was dominated by non-technical staff. The union’s
charter of demands favored the interest of the dominant member’s groups. It asked for a significant revision in the gardener’s pay,
but was not equally vocal in pressing for the increase in the pay scales of the workers in certain technical grades. The management
conceded these demands because the union cooperated with them in keeping the burden of the pay revision well within the
guidelines of bureau of Public Enterprises (BPE) Once the agreement was signed and communicated to the employees/members by
the management and the union respectively, there was commotion among the technical employees. They walked out of the union and
formed a separate technical staff union. They marched round the company premises holding placards, which read, “Here grass
cutters get more than the gas cutters” In the engineering assembly unit till the pay revision occurred, welding was a highly rated job.
But not any longer.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Was the action of union management justified and why?
Q2. . Forming a separate union was both right and wrong. Explain
Q3. What are the legal implications of forming a separate union?
Q4. If you were in the place of management, what factors would you like to consider before finalizing the wages.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
6/8/2018 Aeren Foundation
2/2
A recently released survey report of Govt. of India reveals that the employability of the graduates passing out from universities is
very low. Even all the graduates passing out from the Engineering Institutes are not employable. The reason cited for the same is that
the requisite skill required by the various industries including mini, small, and medium enterprises, has not been incorporated in the
curriculum of the universities and Institutes. Though the curriculum is good for the sake of knowledge, there is nothing for the skill
development of the students. This may be because of the poor interaction between the industries and academicians. Keeping in view
the large young population of in India, Govt. has decided to impart skill development training to all eligible candidates in following
3 parts (i) Basic training, for fresher’s (ii) Upgrading skills training, by providing on the job training who are employed. (iii) World
class skill development training, for supplying skilled man power to the world by providing world class training.
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is the difference between education and skill?
Q2. Discuss the problem given in the above case study, and suggest the remedial measures.

Operations Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Contrast the world class view with the traditional view in quality control. (10
marks)
Q2. Explain the difference between total and partial productivity. (10
marks)
Q3. . What are the major decision areas in P/OM? (10
marks)
Q4. A Turkish manufacturing company operating a subsidiary in TRNC shows the following results: (10
marks)
Q5.
The Cool-Tech Co. produces various types of fans. In May, the company produced 1728 window fans at a standard
price of 40 MU. The Co. has 12 direct labour employees whose compensation (including wages and fringe benefits)
amounts to 21 MU/hour. During May, window fans were produced on 9 working days 9of 8 hours each), and other
products were produced on other days. a. Determine the productivity of the window fans.
(10
marks)
Q6. A company has asked YOU to evaluate the firm’s productivity by comparing this year’s performance with last year’s.
The following data are available:
(10
marks)
Q7.
Ahmet grows domatoes in his 100 by 100 meters garden. He then sells the crop at the local farmer’s market. Two
summers ago, he was able to produce and sell 1200 kgs of tomatoes. Last summer, he tried a new fertilizer that
promised a 20% increase in yield. He harvested 1350 kgs. Did the fertilizer live up to its promise?
(10
marks)
Q8. “Expenditure’ incurred for advertising is wasteful. Its results are unpredictable”. Comment. (10
marks)


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Advertising
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is the role of advertising in marketing mix? (10 marks)
Q2. Explicit role of advertising. (10 marks)
Q3. Why does a developing country like India need advertising? (10 marks)
Q4. Explain disadvantages of large advertising agency. (10 marks)
Q5. Describe about writing strategy. (10 marks)
Q6. Which factors influencing the marketing mix? (10 marks)
Q7. What are the needs of advertising & promotion? (10 marks)
Q8. Effect of advertising on product quality. (10 marks)

Business Ethics
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give pts of Narasimhan Committee Report (1991)? (10 marks)
Q2. Discuss managers role in business ethics. (10 marks)
Q3. How morality is useful in business? (10 marks)
Q4. Give need for consumer education. (10 marks)
Q5. Write a note on consumerism. (10 marks)
Q6. What is imperative need? (10 marks)
Q7. Give benefits of ISO 9000 quality systems. (10 marks)
Q8. What are some of the key strategies that a company can adopt to manage International Human Resource ? (10 marks)

Consumer Behaviour
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is the significance of relationship marketing in the present marketing environment? (10 marks)
Q2. Discuss motive arousal (10 marks)
Q3. Write a note on price perceptions (10 marks)
Q4. Determine how many segments does marketers enter (10 marks)
Q5. Show that needs and goals are dynamic (10 marks)
Q6. What are memory concepts relevant in advertising. (10 marks)
Q7. Write a note on persuasive communication (10 marks)
Q8. Discuss symbols of status. (10 marks)

Human Resource Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Describe characteristics of management development. (10 marks)
Q2. Benefits of strategic manpower planning. (10 marks)
Q3. Write short note on framing strategy. (10 marks)
Q4. What are characteristics of HRIS? (10 marks)
Q5. Explain 5 objectives of sound wage policy. (10 marks)
Q6. What is performance metric? (10 marks)
Q7. What is attitude survey? & explain its basic purpose. (10 marks)
Q8. Describe activities required for man power planning. (10 marks)

International Business
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are the factors that affect international pricing ? (10 marks)
Q2. How does political atmosphere effects international business ? (10 marks)
Q3. What is International Business Risk ? (10 marks)
Q4. What is International Monetary Fund (IMF) ? Also list the reasons for its development ? (10 marks)
Q5. Explain significance of Overseas Production ? (10 marks)
Q6. Technology & tech initiatives in IDBI ltd. (10 marks)
Q7. Explain David Ricardo’s comparative advantage theory. (10 marks)
Q8. Discuss five points about directions of India’s foreign trade. (10 marks)

Marketing Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. How marketing Research and Distribution Management is done in Rural Markets? (10 marks)
Q2. What are the various tools of Public Relations? (10 marks)
Q3. What is Selling Process? (10 marks)
Q4. What is Sales Management? And how its evolved to personal selling? (10 marks)
Q5. What are the problems in implementing integrated Marketing Communication? (10 marks)
Q6. state the concept of Product Life Cycle (PLC) and Marketing Strategies for PLC stages? (10 marks)
Q7. What is Importance of Marketing as a subject of study? (10 marks)
Q8. Explain how culture influences consumer behavior in context to the Indian market? (10 marks)

Operation Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the process of collaborative planning? How is available to promise involved? (10
marks)
Q2. How are steady-state results achieved in a simulation? (10
marks)
Q3. Define the strategic goals of supply chain management and indicate how element of a supply chain (purchasing,
production, inventory and transportation and distribution) has an impact of these goals?
(10
marks)
Q4. Explain the basic steps involved in process innovation? (10
marks)
Q5. What is the logic of Taguchi methods? (10
marks)
Q6. List four basic operations strategies. (10
marks)
Q7. What are the major decision areas in P/OM? (10
marks)
Q8. What is production/operations? (10
marks)

Principles and Practice of Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Mention the scientific principles of management and also specify the features of scientific management. (10 marks)
Q2. What are the various types of functional budgets? (10 marks)
Q3. Difference between (i) authority & responsibility (ii) authority & power. (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss steps of planning. (10 marks)
Q5. Explain advantages of autocratic leadership. (10 marks)
Q6. Disadvantages of written communication. (10 marks)
Q7. Characteristics of the organizational chart. (10 marks)
Q8. Distinguish between delegation & decentralization. (10 marks)

Suppy Chain Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Write a note on supply chain performance measures? (10 marks)
Q2. Write a note on Warehouse capacities ? (10 marks)
Q3. Explain the retail industry under e-commerce. (10 marks)
Q4. What do you mean by selecting an appropriate strategy (10 marks)
Q5. What is importance’s of business processes. (10 marks)
Q6. What are the issues of 3PL implementation issues (10 marks)
Q7. Write the impact on transportation & Fulfillment. (10 marks)
Q8. What are the requirements for RSP (10 marks)


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Quantitative Methods
Page 1 Out of 1
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks
1. Three numbers, whose sum is 12, are in AP. If 1,2 and 6 are added to them, the resultin g
numbers are in GP. Find the numbers
2. Average rainfall on a city from Monday to Saturday is 0.3 inch. Due to heavy rainfall on
Sunday, the average rainfall for the week increased to 0.5 inch. What was the rainfall on
Sunday?
3. Calculate median from the following data
Marks 10-25 25-40 40-55 50-70 70-85 85-100
Frequency 6 20 44 26 3 1
4. Given the following results of the height and weight of 1000 students. The mean height is 170
cm, the mean weight is 75 kg. the standard deviation of the height and weight are 6 cm and 6
kg respectively r = 0.6. amit weighs 50 kg, sumeet is 1.5 m tall. Estimate the height of Amit
from his weight and the weight of sumeet from his height
5. In a sample of 500 people from a village in rajasthan, 280 are found to be rice eaters and rest
wheat eaters. Can we assume that both the food articles are equally popular?
6. In a binomial distribution 31% of the items are under 45 and 8% are over 64. Find the mean
and variance of the distribution
7. In a large number of group of children 55% are under 60 cm heighty nd 40% are between 60
and 65 cm. Assuming a normal distribution, find the mean and SD of height
8. Construct index number form the data by applying Marshall edge worthmethod
Commodity Price 2004 Quantity Price 2006 quantity
A 2 8 4 6
B 5 10 6 5
C 4 14 5 10
D 2 19 2 13

Research Methodology
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss Interview as a technique of data collection. (10
marks)
Q2. Compare the steps of a qualitative & quantitative research. (10
marks)
Q3. Discuss the philosophical foundation of Qualitative Methodology. (10
marks)
Q4. Explain ‘Data Reduction’ and ‘Data Display’ in Qualitative Research (10
marks)
Q5. The monthly income of two persons are in the ratio 4:5 and their monthy expenditures are in the ratio 7:9. If each
saves rs. 50 per montrh, find their monthly incomes.
(10
marks)
Q6. A manufacturer can sell x items per month at a price of P = 300 – 2x rupees. Producing x items cost the manufacturer
y rupees where y = 2x + 1000. How much production will yield maximum profit.
(10
marks)
Q7.
There are two branches of an establishment employing 200 and 160 persons respectively. If the AMs of the monthly
salaries paid by the two branches are rs. 550 and rs. 450 respectivvely, find AM of the salaries of the employees of the
establishment as a whole.
(10
marks)
Q8. The monthly income of two persons are in the ratio 4:5 and their monthy expenditures are in the ratio 7:9. If each
saves rs. 50 per montrh, find their monthly incomes.
(10
marks)


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Attempt Any Four Case Studies

Case I
THE STRATEGIC ASPIRATIONS OF THE RESERVE BANK OF INDIA

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India’s central bank or ‘the bank of the bankers’. It was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. The Central Office of the RBI, initially set up at Kolkata, is at Mumbai. The RBI is fully owned by the Government of India.
The history of the RBI is closely aligned with the economic and financial history of India. Most cen¬tral banks around the world were established around the beginning of the twentieth century. The Bank was established on the basis of the Hilton Young Commission. It began its operations by tak¬ing over from the Government the functions so far being performed by the Controller of Currency and from the Imperial Bank of India, the management of Government accounts and public debt. After inde¬pendence, RBI gradually strengthened its institu¬tion-building capabilities and evolved in terms of functions from central banking to that of develop¬ment. There have been several attempts at reor-ganisation, restructuring and creation of specialised institutions to cater to emerging needs.

The Preamble of the RBI describes its basic functions like this: ‘…to regulate the issue of Bank Notes and keeping of reserves with a view to secur¬ing monetary stability in India and generally to op-erate the currency and credit system of the country to its advantage.’ The vision states that the RBI ‘…aims to be a leading central bank with credible, transparent, proactive and contemporaneous poli-cies and seeks to be a catalyst for the emergence of a globally competitive financial system that helps deliver a high quality of life to the people in the country.’ The mission states that ‘RBI seeks to de¬velop a sound and efficient financial system with monetary stability conducive to balanced and sus-tained growth of the Indian economy’. The corporate values underlining the mission statement include public interest, integrity, excellence, independence of views and responsiveness and dynamism.

The three areas in which objectives of the RBI can be stated are as below.
1. Monetary policy objectives such as containing inflation and promoting economic growth, management of foreign exchange reserves and making currency available.
2. Objectives set for managing financial sector developments such as supervision of systems and information access and assisting banking and financial institutions to become competitive globally.
3. Organisational development objectives such as development of economic research facilities, creating information system for supporting economic decision-making, financial management and human resource management.

Strategic actions taken to realise the objectives fall under four categories:
1. The thrust area of monetary policy formulation and managing financial sector;
2. Evolving the legal framework to support the thrust area;
2. Customer services for providing support and creation of positive relationship; and
3. Organisational support such as structure, systems, human resource development and adoption of modern technology.
The major functions performed by the RBI are:
• Acting as the monetary authority
• Acting as the regulator and supervisor of the financial system
• Discharging responsibilities as the manager of foreign exchange
• Issue currency
• Play a developmental role
• Related functions such as acting as the banker to the government and scheduled banks

The management of the RBI is the responsibility of the central board of directors headed by the governor and consisting of deputy governors and other directors, all of whom are appointed by the government. There are four local boards based at Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai and New Delhi. The day-to-day management of RBI is in the hands of the executive directors, managers at various levels and the support staff. There are about 22000 employees at RBI, working in 25 departments and training colleges.

The RBI identified its strengths and weaknesses as under.
• Strengths A large body of competent offers and staff; access to key data on the economy; wide organisational network with 22 regional offices; established infrastructure; ability to attract talent; and financial self sufficiency.
• Weaknesses Structural rigidity, lack of accountability and slow decision-making; eroded specialist know-how; strong employee unions with rigid industrial relations stance; surplus staff; and weak market intelligence.

Over the years, the RBI has evolved in terms of structure and functions, in response to the role as signed to it. There have been sweeping changes in the economic, social and political environment. The RBI has had to respond to it even in the absence of a systematic strategic plan. In 1992, the RBI, with the assistance of a private consultancy firm, embarked on a massive strategic planning exercise. The objective was to establish a roadmap to redefine RBI’s role and to review internal organisational and managerial efficacy, address the changing expectations from external stakeholders and reposition the bank in the global context. The strategic planning exercise was buttressed by departmental position papers and documents on various subjects such as technology, human resources and environmental trends. The strategic plan of the RBI emerged with four sections dealing with the statement of mission, objectives and policy, a review of RBI’s strengths and weaknesses and strategic actions required with an implementation plan. The strategic plan reiterates anticipation of evolving external environment in the medium-term; revisiting strengths and weaknesses (evaluation of capabilities); and doing away with the outdated mandates for enhancing efficiency in operations in furtherance of best public interests. The results of these efforts are likely to manifest in attaining a visible focus, reinforced proficiency, realisation of shared sense of purpose, optimising resource use and build-up of momentum to achieve goals.

Historically, the RBI adopted the time-tested technique of responding to external environment in a pragmatic manner and making piecemeal changes. The dilemma in adoption of a comprehensive strategic plan was the risk of trading off the flexibility of the pragmatic approach to creating rigidity imposed by a set model of planning.

Questions
1. Consider the vision and mission statements of the Reserve Bank of India. Comment on the quality of both these statements.

2. Should the RBI go for a systematic and comprehensive strategic plan in place of its earlier pragmatic approach of responding to environmental events as and when they occur? Why?

Case II
WHAT LIES IN STORE FOR THE RETAILING INDUSTRY IN INDIA?*

India is not known as the ‘nation of shopkeepers’, yet it has as many as 5 million retail outlets of all shapes and sizes. Some other optimistic estimates “place the number at as high as 12 million. Whatever be the number, India can claim to have the highest number of retail outlets per capita in the world. But almost all of these are small outfits occupying an average of 500 square feet in size, managed by family members, having negligible investment in land and assets, paying little or no tax and known as the kirana dukaan (‘mom and pop’ stores in the U.S or the corner grocery stores in the U.K.). These outlets offer mainly food items and groceries—the staple of retailing in India. Customer contact is personal and one-on-one, often running through generations. There are a limited number of items offered! often sold on credit—the payment to be collected at the end of the month. The quality of items standard, with moderate pricing.
There is great hype about the growth and prospects of organised retailing industry in India. It must be noted, however, that organised retailing constitutes barely 2 per cent of the total retailing industry in India, the rest 98 percent being under the control of the unorganised, informal sector of’ kirana dukaans. Market research agencies and consultants come up with encouraging forecasts about this segment of the retailing industry. For instance, AT. Kearney’s Global Retail Development Index ranks 30 emerging countries on a 100- point scale. Its 2007-ranking places India at number one for the third consecutive year, with 92 points, fol¬lowed by Russia and China. The size of the organised retailing industry is estimated at US $8 billion and projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 40 per cent to US $22 billion by 2010. Overall, the Indian retailing industry is expected to grow from the current US $350 billion to US $427 billion by 2010 and US $635 billion by 2015.

The economic environment in the post-liberalisation period after 1991, has created several factors that have made this high growth of the organised retailing industry possible. India’s impressive economic growth rate of 9 per cent is the prime driver of increasing disposable incomes in the hands of the consumer. The growing size of the consuming class in India, in tandem with the entry and expansion of the organised sector players in recent years, has set the pace for corporate investment in retail business. Practically, every major Indian business group is looking for opportunities in the growing retailing industry. Among them are the big names in the Indian corporate sector such as the AV Birla group, Bharti, Godrej, ITC group, Mahindras, Reliance, Tatas and the Wadia group.
The international environment presently is replete with examples of the fast-paced growth of the retailing industry in many developing countries around the world. In the post-liberalisation period, there is more openness and awareness of the international developments among Indians. The ease of travel abroad and the exposure through television and Internet have increase the awareness of the urban Indian consumer to the convenience of modern shopping. The modern retail formats thus have gained acceptance in India. Carrefour, Tesco and Wal-Mart are the international players already operating in India, with several others like Euroset, Supervalue and Starbucks having plans to enter soon. These international companies bring to India the latest developments in the retailing industry and help to set up a benchmark for the domestic player.

The market environment is one of the most significant in terms of the growth and prospects of the retailing industry in India. In terms of geography, the reach of the organised retailing industry has been growing. In addition to the mega-cities of Mumbai and Delhi, cities such as Bangalore, Pune, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Chennai are also witnessing a boom in organised retail activity. Retailers are now trying to focus on smaller cities such as Nagpur, Indore, Chandigarh, Lucknow or Cochin. There are interesting possibilities regarding the re¬tail formats. Traditionally, street carts, pavement shops, kirana stores, public distribution systems, kiosks, weekly markets and such other formats unique to India, have been in existence for a long time. At present, most organised retail formers are imitations of those used abroad. These include hyper and supermarkets, convenience store, department stores and specialty chains. Among these formats, a notable trend has been the development of integrated retail-cum-entertainment centres and malls as opposed to stand-alone developments. Besides these, there are some attempts at indigenous formats aimed at the rural markets-such as those by ITC’s Choupal Sagar, DSCL’s Hairyali Kisaan Bazaar and Godrej group’s Godrej Aadhar. Pricing is an important issue in the retailing industry. Generally, the bulk buying yield lower costs of procurement for the big retailers—a part of which they pass on to the customer in the form of lower prices. In food retailing, for instance, there is a clear trend of low prices being the determining factor in purchase decisions by the cost-conscious Indian consumer. But, lower prices may not be a major issue with the higher-income groups that may place greater emphasis on the quality of products and retail service, store ambience and convenience of shopping. For the majority of Indian consumers however, price is likely to remain a significantly important issue in the purchase decision. Competition has already accelerated with many Indian business groups having entered or likely to enter this booming industry.
The political environment in India is ambiguous! in terms of its support to the organised retailing industry. This is obvious as the unorganised sector employs nearly 8per cent of the Indian population and is widely spread geographically. The whelming presence in terms of 98 per cent of the total retailing industry also is a significant political issue. In a democracy, the politics of numbers makes it imperative for the political class to adopt an ambiguous stand. In some cases, politicians have acted in favour of the unorganised sector by disallowing the setting up of large retail some states. Overall, however, there is ambiguity as there are several environmental trends in favor of the development of the organised retailing industry.
In the regulatory environment, there has gradual easing of the restrictions albeit at a slow pace, in view of the ambiguous political stance as indicated above. Interestingly, the retailing industry, is still not recognised as an industry in India, Foreign direct investment of up to 100 per cent is not permitted though it is possible for foreign players to enter through the routes of agreements, cash-and-carry wholesale trading and strategic licensing agreements. Another problem area is of the real estate laws at the level of state governments that are yet to be clear on the issue of allowing large stores. Restructuring of the tax structure for the retailing industry is another regulatory issue requiring governmental action. However, tariffs on imported consumer items have been gradually aligned to meet the prescribed WTO norms and reduction of import restrictions are likely to help the growing organised retailing industry.
The socio-cultural environment offers many interesting insights into the changing tastes and references of the urban and semi-urban Indian consumer. There is a large rural market consisting of nearly 720 million consumers, spread over more 600,000 villages. India’s consumers are young: 70 percent of the country’s citizens are low the age of 36 and half of those are under 18 years of age. These people have deep roots in the local culture and traditions, yet are eager to get connected with and know the outside world. According to a DSP Merrill Lynch report, the key factor providing a thrust to the retail boom in India the changing age profile of spenders. A group of seven million young Indians in their mid-twenties, learning over US$ 5000 per year, is emerging every year. This group constitutes people who are enthusiastic spenders and like to visit the new format retail outlets for the convenience and time saving they offer. Malls are also being perceived as just places for shopping, but for spending leisure time and as meeting places. There has been an emergence of a combination of the retail outlet and entertainment centres having multiplexes, with food courts and video game parlours.
But there are some pitfalls too. For instance, organised retailing in India has had to deal with the misconception among middle-class consumers that the modern retail formats being air conditioned, sophisticated places are bound to be more expensive.
The supplier environment probably offers the biggest constraint on the growth of the retailing industry in India. Reaching India’s consumers cost effectively is a distribution nightmare, owing to the sheer geographical size of the country and the presence of traditional, fragmented distribution and retailing networks and erratic logistics. For instance, the apparel segment that is one of the two top segments, the other being food, have had to invest in back-end processes to support supply chains. Supply chain management and merchandising practices are increasingly converging and apparel retailers are establishing collaborations with their vendors. Another area of concern is the severe shortage of skills in retailing. Human resource development for the retailing industry has picked up lately but may take time to fill the gap caused due to the shortage of personnel.
The technological environment for the organised retailing industry straddles many areas such as IT support to supply chain management, logistics, transportation and store operations. Some global retailers have demonstrated that an innovative use of technology can provide a substantial strategic advantage. The large number of store items, the diversity of sourcing and the gigantic effort required to coordinate actions in a large retail context is ideal for using IT as a support function. For instance, an innovative use of IT can help in a wide variety of functions such as quick information processing and timely decision-making, reduction in processing costs, real-time monitoring and control of opera¬tions, security of transactions and operations inte¬gration. The availability of supply chain management, customer relationship management an merchandising software can help much while performing activities such as ordering and tracking inventory items, warehousing, transportation and customer profiling.
Overall, the Indian scenario offers an interesting mix of possibilities and challenges. A successful model of large-scale retailing appropriate for the Indian context is yet to emerge. The modern retail formats accepted globally are in the process of implementation and their acceptability is yet to be established.

Questions:

1. Identify the opportunities and threats that the retailing industry in India offers to local and foreign companies.
2. Prepare an ETOP for a company interested in entering the retailing industry in India.

Case III
HELPAGE INDIA

The developments in medical sciences—the lowering of mortality rates and the increase in life expectancy—have ironically led to a situation where there are increasingly, a larger number of aged people in the society. The situation in most countries of the world is that the number of ageing people is increasing. India too, like other developing countries, experiences a rapid ageing of the population, with estimated 80 million aged people. Almost eight out of ten of these aged people live in rural areas.

The challenges that the elderly people in society face are many. For instance, a report in the Indian context indicates the following challenges:
 90% of senior citizens receive no social se¬curity or medical care.
 73% of senior citizens are illiterate and can only earn a livelihood through physical labour, which is possible only if they are healthy in their old age.
 80% of senior citizens live in rural areas with inadequate or inaccessible medical facilities; many are unable to access the medical facilities because of reduced mobility in the old age.
 55% of women over the age of 60 are widows with no means of support

The elderly people, or senior citizens, are the fastest growing segment of the Indian society. By 2025, the population of the elderly is expected to reach 177 million.

Unlike many developed countries, India does not have an effective security net for the elderly people. There have been sporadic attempts by governments at the central and state levels to pay old age pensions, but like most government schemes, there is a lot of leakage of funds and inefficiency. There is also a lack of post-retirement avenues for re-employment.
Socio-economic developments such as urbanization modernisation and globalisation have impacted the economic structure and led to an erosion of societal values and the weakening of social institutions such as the joint family. The changing mores of society have created a chasm between generations. The intergenerational differences have created a situation where the younger people are involved in education, career building and establishing themselves in life, ending up ignoring the needs of the elderly among them. The older generation is caught between a society which cares little for them and the absence of social security, leading them to a situation where they are left to fend for themselves. It is in this context that institutions such as HelpAge India play a positive role in society.

HelpAge India, established in 1978, is a secular, not-for-profit, non-governmental organisation, registered under the Societies Registration Act of 1860. Its mission is stated as ‘to work for the cause and care of the disadvantaged older persons and to improve their quality of life’. The three core values that guide HelpAge India’s work are rights, relief and resources. HelpAge India is one of the founder members of HelpAge International, a body of 51 nations representing the cause of the elderly at the United Nations. It is also a member of the International Federation on Ageing.
The organisation of HelpAge India consists of a head office at New Delhi, with four regional and thirty-three area offices situated all over India. The governing body of the organisation consists of ten distinguished people from different walks of life. Besides the governing body, there are three committees: the operations committee, the business development committee, and the audit committee. The CEO, Mr Mathew Cherian oversees the planning and implementation of policies and programmes, with the support of five electors. The regional directors are responsible for their own regions. The program division at the head office chooses the partner agencies to provide the services to the elderly people.

HelpAge India raises resources to perform three types of functions:
 Advocacy about policies for the elderly persons with the national and local governments
 Creating awareness in society about the concerns of the aged and promote better understanding of ageing issues
 Help the elderly persons become aware of their own rights so that they get their due and are able to play an active role in society

The major programmes undertaken by HelpAge India include mobile medicare units, ophthalmic care for performing cataract surgeries, Adopt-a-Gran, support to old-age homes, day care centres, income generation and disaster relief.

The business model of HelpAge India is based on revenue generation through grants and donations from international and national source. Nearly half of the donations come from international donors. About a fifth of the donors are individuals. The sources of contributions come from fundraising activities that include direct mail, school fundraising corporate fundraising, sale of greeting cards, acting as corporate agent for insurance, organizing event and establishing a shop-for-a-cause that sells gift made by disadvantaged people. A review report on the activities of HelpAge India enumerates its strong points as below:
 Wide Reach and Impact HelpAge India has been able to impact the lives of a large number of elderly people and their families by adopting a holistic approach that provide immediate relief as well as long-tern sustainable improvement.
 Effective Partnerships in Development HelpAge India has evolved as a development support agency through creating partner agencies, that is funded to implement the projects.
 High Degree of Charitable Commitment Typically non-profit organisations spend a loft; on overhead and administrative costs. But3 HelpAge India is able to put nearly eighty-five, per cent of the funds towards actual project implementation.
 Focus on Efficiency and Transparency The partner agencies are chosen carefully and monitored thoroughly. This results in increased efficiency and low overheads. Project implementation through partnerships increases efficiency and cuts down on 3overhead costs.
 Quality of Management The management; quality of HelpAge India is good and there are a lot of committed people. New employees are also trained to be sensitive to the mission of the organisation.

With a wide spread of activities and being a non-governmental organisation having limited funding, HelpAge India has adopted modern means of information technology and networking. Most of the HelpAge executives work in the field and have no direct access to the office network. They have to use e-mail in order to maintain contact with their regional or area offices. They use cyber-cafes or handheld devices for sending and receiving e-mails. HelpAge has installed a secure connection at an initial cost of Rs. 4 lakh and annual upgradation cost of Rs. 75,000 to access e-mail from anywhere, with a high level of security and protection of data and contents.

The nature of non-profit organisations demands certain requirements. Among these, transparency of operations and funds management is a major one. There are many NGOs that are accused or suspected of misappropriating funds for personal benefit. HelpAge India is conscious of this fact and gives high priority to information disclosure. The audited financial statements and the annual report are available on its website. The financial statements give a detailed account of the expenditure on individual projects. The expenses on travel and salaries of its employees and CEO are also mentioned. The individual donors are provided information regarding the use of the funds donated by them.

The functional approach at HelpAge India consists of developing projects based on the assessment of the needs of its target community rather than on implementing them directly. The implementation takes place through the partner agencies. Rather than outright grants, it supports income generation projects for the elderly people. The success of implementation critically depends on the identification and appointment of partner agencies. The officers of HelpAge India physically inspect the proposed agencies and check on their management to ensure that they are not family-run set-ups established for personal gains. HelpAge India works presently, with nearly 400 partner agencies. These include, for instance, about 150 charitable eye hospitals that act as partner agencies for the ophthalmic care programme.

HelpAge India with its slogan of ‘fighting isolation, poverty and neglect’ moves on its mission of providing ‘equal rights, dignity for elders’. It foresees its future activities in the area of rights based advocacy for a better life for the elderly people by bringing them into the mainstream of society rather than being marginalised to the fringes.

Questions
1. In your opinion, what is the distinctive competence of HelpAge India?
2. Prepare a strategic advantage profile for HelpAge India.

Case IV
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED CONCENTRATES ON THE EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) is India’s largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise, operating in the energy sector, employing more than 42000 people. Established in 1956, it has established its presence in the heavy electrical equipments industry nationally as well as globally. BHEL is one of the navaratnas (lit. nine gems) among the public sector enterprises in India. Its vision is to be ‘a world class enterprise committed to enhancing stakeholder value’. Its mission statement is: ‘to be an Indian multinational engineering enterprise providing total business solutions through quality products, systems, and services in the fields of energy, industry, transportation, infrastructure, and other potential areas’.

BHEL is a huge organisation, manufacturing over 180 products categorised into 30 major product groups, catering to the core sectors of power generation and transmission, industry, transportation, telecommunications and renewable energy. It has 14 manufacturing divisions, four power sector regional centres, over 100 project sites, eight service centres and 18 regional offices. It acquires technology from abroad and develops its own technology at its research and development centres. The operations of BHEL are organised into three business sectors of power, industry and overseas business. Besides the business sector departments, there are the corporate functional departments of engineering and R&D, human resource development, finance and corporate planning and development.
BHEL’s turnover hit an all-time high of Rs. 18,739 crore, registering a growth of 29 per cent, while net profit increased by 44 per cent to touch Rs. 2,415 crore in 2006-07. The company has a comfortable order book position of Rs. 55,000 crore for 2007-8 and beyond. The company booked ex¬port orders worth Rs. 1,903 crore in 2006-07. It is looking toward to US$10 billion exports by 2012 from the present US$ 4 billion. The capital investment plan of BHEL for the 11th National Plan period envisages an investment of Rs 3,200 crore, mainly to enhance its manufacturing capacity from 10000 MW to 15000 MW.

BHEL has formulated a five-year strategic plan with the aim of achieving a sustainable profitable growth, targeting at a turnover of Rs. 45,000 crore by 2012. The strategy is driven by a combination of organic and inorganic growth. Organic growth is planned through capacity and capability enhancement, designed to leverage the company’s core are s of power, supported by the industry, transmission, exports and spares and services businesses. For the purpose of inorganic growth, BHEL plans to pursue mergers and acquisition and joint ventures and grow operations both in domestic and export markets.

BHEL is involved in several strategic business initiatives at present for internationalisation. These include targeting the export markets, positioning itself as a reputed engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contractor globally, and looking for opportunities for overseas joint ventures.

An example of a concentration strategy of BHEL in the power sector is the joint venture with another public Enterprise, National Thermal Power Corporation, to perform EPC activities in the power sector. It is to be noted that NTPC as a power generation utility and BHEL as an EPC contractor have worked together on several domestic projects earlier, but without a forma partnership. BHEL also has join1 ventures with GE of the US and Siemens AG of Germany. Other strategic initiatives include management contract for Bharat Pumps and Compressors Ltd. and a proposed takeover of Bharat Heavy Plates and Vessels, both being sister publics enterprises.

Despite its impressive performance, BHEL is unable to fulfil the requirements for power equipment in the country. The demand for power has been exceeding the growth and availability. There are serious concerns about energy shortages owing to inadequate generation and transmission, as well as inefficiencies in the power sector. Since this sector is a major part of the national infrastructure, problems in the fibwer sector affect the overall economic growth the country as well as its attractiveness as a destination for foreign investments. BHEL also faces stiff competition from international players in the power equipment sector, mainly of Korean; and Chinese origin. There seems to be an undercurrent of conflict between the two governmental ministries of power and heavy industries. BHEL operates administratively under the Ministry of Heavy Industries, but supplies mainly to the power sector that is under the Ministry of Power. There has been talk of establishing another power equipment company as a part of the NTPC for some time, with the purpose of lessening the burden on BHEL.

Questions
1. BHEL is mainly formulating and implementing concentration strategies nationally as well as globally, in the power equipment sector. Do you think it should broaden the scope of its strategies to include integration or diversification? Why?
2. Suppose BHEL plans to diversify its business. What areas should it diversify into? Give reasons to justify your choice.

Case V

THE INTERNATIONALISATION OF KALYANI GROUP

The Kalyani Group is a large family-business group of India, employing more than 10000 employees. It has diverse businesses in engineering, steel, forgings, auto components, non-conventional energy and specialty chemicals. The annual turnover) of the Group is over US$ 2.1 billion. The Group is known for its impressive internationalisation achievements. It has nine manufacturing locations ad over six countries. Over the years, it has established joint ventures with many global companies such as ArvinMeritor, USA, Carpenter Technology Corporation, USA, Hayes Lemmerz, USA and FAW Corporation, China.

The flagship company of the Group is Bharat Forge Limited that is claimed to be the second largest forging company in the world and the largest nationally, with about 80 per cent share in axle and engine components. The other major companies of the Group are Kalyani Steels, Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels, Kalyani Lemmerz, Automotive Axles Kalyani Thermal Systems, BF Utilities, Hikal Limited, Epicenter and Synise Technologies.

The emphasis on internationalisation is reflected in the vision statement of the Group where two of the five points relate to the Group trying to be world-class organisation and achieving growth aggressively by accessing global markets. The Group is led by Mr. B.N. Kalyani, who is considered to be the major force behind the Group’s aggres¬sive internationalisation drive. Mr. Kalyani joined the Group in 1972 when it was a small-scale diesel engine component business.

The corporate strategy of the Group is a combination of concentration on its core competence in its businesses with efforts at building, nurturing and sustaining mutually beneficial partnerships with alliance partners and customers. The value of these partnerships essentially lies in collaborative product development with the partners who are the original equipment manufacturers. The foreign partners are not intended to provide expansion in capacity, but enable the Kalyani Group to extend its global marketing reach.

In achieving its successful status, the Kalyani Group has followed the path of integration, extending from the upstream steel making to downstream machining for auto components such as crankshafts, front axle beams, steering knuckles, camshafts, connecting rods and rocker arms. In all these products, the Group has tried to move up the value chain instead of providing just the raw forgings. In the 1990s, it undertook a restructuring exercise to trim its unrelated businesses such as television and video products and concentrate on its core business of auto components
Four factors are supposed to have influenced the growth of the Group over the years. These are mentioned below:
• Focussing on crore businesses to maximize growth potential
• Attaining aggressive cost savings
• Expanding geographically to build global capacity and establishing leading positions
• Achieving external growth through acquisitions

The Group companies are claimed to be positioned at either number one or two in their respective businesses. For instance, the Group claims to be number one in forging and machined components, axle aggregates, wheels and alloy steel. The technology used by the Group in its mainline business of auto components and other businesses, is claimed to be state-of-the-art. The Group invests in forging technology to enhance efficiency, production quality and design capabilities. The Group’s emphasis on technology can be gauged from the fact that in the 1990s, it took the risky decision of investing Rs. 100 crore in the then latest forging technology, when the total Group turnover was barely Rs. 230 crore. Information technology is applied for product development, reducing 3 production and product development time, supply-chain management and marketing of products. The Group lays high emphasis on research and development for providing engineering support, advanced metallurgical analysis and latest testing equipment in tandem with its high-class manufacturing facilities.

Being a top-driven group, the pattern of strategic decision-making within seems to be entrepreneurial. There was an attempt to formulate a five-year strategic plan in 1997, with the participation of the company executives. But not much is mentioned in the business press about that collaborative strategic decision-making after that.

Recent strategic moves include Kalyani Steels, a Group company, entering into a joint venture agreement in May 2007, with Gerdau S.A. Brazil for installation of rolling mills. An attempt to move out of the mainstream forging business was made when the Group strengthened its position in the prospective business of wind energy through 100 percent acquisition of RSB consult GmbH (RSB) of Germany. Prior to the acquisition, the Group was just a wind farm, operator and supplier of components.

Questions
1. What is the motive for internationalization by the Kalyani Group? Discuss.

2. Which type of international strategy is Kalyani Group adopting? Explain.

Case VI
CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING OF THE INDIAN REAILWAYS

On 16 April 1853, a locomotive pulling 14 carriages and 400 people left what was then Bombay, to a 21-gun salute, and shuttled to Thane, 34 km away. The journey took about 75 minutes. That was the way Indian Railways was born. Some estimates consider the Indian Railways as the world’s largest commercial enterprise in terms of the number of employees.

Indian Railways is a departmental undertaking of the Government of India. The Central Ministry of Railways oversees the policy making for the Indian Railways and is headed by a union minister. There are some ministers of state holding specific responsibilities. The administration of Indian Railways is done through the Railway Board headed by a chairman and having six members.

There are 16 railway zones, each headed by a General Manager who reports to the Railway Board. The zones are divided into divisions under the control of divisional railway managers. There are 44 functional departments, including those of engineering, mechanical, electrical, signal and telecommunications, accounts, personnel and operating, commercial and safety branches. At the operational levels, there are station superintendents and station masters who control individual railway stations. Apart from the Indian Railways, the Ministry also has a number of public sector enterprises under its administrative control. There is an autonomous organization called the Centre for Railway information System, dedicated to developing specialized application software for the railways.

The financial matters of the Indian Railways are dealt with through an elaborate system involving the parliament of India down to the accounts departments at the divisional headquarters. The Railway budget is presented every year and passed by both houses of the parliament. The budget is based on the expected traffic and the projected tariff and capital and revenue expenditure. Dividends are paid to the Central government on the capital invested. Indian Railways is subjected to the same audit control as other government ministries and departments.

The Indian Railways is Asia’s largest and the world’s second largest rail network under a single management. It is a multi-gauge, multi-traction system covering over 60,000 route kilometers, with 300 railways yards and 700 repair shops and covers most of the country’s vast geographical spread. The rolling stock fleet of the Indian Railways comprises 7,566 locomotives, 37,840 coaches and 222 million freight wagons. With a workforce of around 1.4 million, it runs more than 11,000 trains daily.

The Indian Railways has evolved into a vertically integrated organization. Various units are engaged in designing, manufacturing and maintaining the rolling stock, running institutions such as hospitals, schools, housing estates and hotels and catering. It issues licenses to a large number of uniformed porters and authorized hawkers. These are only some of the major activities that the Indian Railways perform.
There are many problems facing the Indian Railways. Among these, the major ones are:
• Cross-subsidisation of passenger and freight tariff
• High energy and fuel costs
• High accident rate
• Antiquated communication, safety and signaling equipment.
• Ageing infrastructure including rail tracks and bridges.
• High establishment and personnel costs.
• Emerging competition from low-cost airlines.

Many areas of the Indian Railways are in need of improvement. Several actions have been taken over the years that include:
• Upgrading technology, especially the application of IT
• Improving the quality of railway services
• Production of better quality locomotives and
• Introduction of fast long-distance trains
• Addition of value-added services such as introducing banking facilities on trains.

A Status Paper on the Indian Railways was issued May 1998, followed by another in 2002. These status papers underlined issues confronting the Indian Railways and possible options. The Status Paper-1998, for instance, focused on the strategies related to honing the marketing capability for bulk and non-bulk freight and passenger services, reducing operating costs, evolving a financial strategy, bringing about cultural change and addressed issues of concern in areas such as research and development and IT. Similarly, the status paper of 2002 presented several issues and posed several questions related to its functioning.

A report published in 2001 by a government appointed group chaired by Rakesh Mohan, now the deputy governor of Reserve Bank of India, called for a radical restructuring of the Indian Railways. The main thrust of its recommendations was on shedding the non-core activities such as catering and manufacturing not related to its main activities of passenger and freight transportation and becoming a focussed organisation.

Freight has been the key revenue earner for Indian Railways. The target for 2007-08 is at 785 million tonnes. The market share of freight traffic had been on the decline over the last few decades, owing to improvements in road infrastructure. To arrest this decline, it became imperative to: enhance customer responsiveness through cargo visibility and information dissemination, reduce operating expenses and improve asset utilisation. In order to achieve these aims, the Indian Railways installed a computerised Freight Operations Information System, with the assistance of CMC Limited.

There is much hype around the financial turnaround of the Indian Railways. Here, the major achievements have been in the areas of improved freight and passenger earnings, gross traffic revenue, higher cash surplus, higher net revenue, better operating ratio and return on capital. For instance, the Indian Railways is proud of its achievements in terms of an above 78 per cent operating ratio and a 20 per cent return on capital in 2006- 2007.

Overall, the Indian Railways have benefited from several managerial initiatives taken over the recent past, such as corporatisation of many of its activities and hiving off, separate companies to perform functions performed in-house earlier. For example, the Indian Railways Catering and Tourism Corporation took over the non-core activities of catering while Rail Tel Corporation was formed to create the optic fibre network for communications. Another subtle manner of change seems to be the creeping nature of privatisation of non-core services and adoption of modern business methods of marketing and human resource management to improve operational efficiency. These seem to be working though critics say that the increase in the general economic activity and overloading of wagons is the cause of this improved short-term performance.

Certain inherent issues have become a part of the Indian Railways heritage. Among these are: overdependence on freight business, much of freight business arising from a select few commodities, passenger traffic being concentrated in low-yield suburban traffic and high density of traffic in the certain areas coupled with under-utilised assets and facilities in others. The fundamental issues of the dilemma whether Indian Railways is an organisation in the nature of a public utility, designed to discharge social obligations, or is it a commercial orgarnisation for which financial performance and operational efficiency are imperative still remain.

Questions
1. Comment on the steps taken to reduce the extent of vertical integration at the Indian Railways. Suggest a few more measures that could be taken.

2. Discuss the measures taken for corporate restructuring of the Indian Railways, in your opinion, are these adequate for dealing with the problems faced? Why?

3. Propose the basic elements of a corporate turnaround for the Indian Railways.

Attempt all Cases.

Case 1: PROMOTING THE PROTÉGÉ

The die was cast. Prem Nath Divan, executive chairman of Vertigo, the country’s largest engineering project organization, decided to switch tracks for a career in academics. Divan was still six years short of the company’s retirement age of 65. His premature exit was bound to create a flutter at the Vertigo board. Having joined Vertigo as a management trainee soon after college, he had gradually risen through the hierarchy to take a board position as the marketing director of the firm at 32. He had become the president five years later and the youngest chairman of the company at 45. But, by the time he was 50, the whizkid had acquired a larger than life image of a role model for younger managers and a statesman who symbolized the best and brightest face of Indian management.
On his wife’s suggestion that it would be wise to discuss the move with one of his trusted colleagues before making a formal announcement of his intention to seek premature retirement, Divan called on Ramcharan Saxena, a solicitor who has been on the Vertigo board for over a decade. Sexena was surprised at Divan’s plan. But he was unfazed. “If that is what you want to do for the rest of your life, we can only wish you well”, he told him. “The board will miss you. But the business should go on. We should get down to the task of choosing a successor. The sooner it is done, the better.
“I think the choice is quite obvious, “said Divan, “Ranjan Warrior. He is good and …” Divan was taken aback to see Saxena grimace. “You don’t have anything against him, do you?” he asks him. “No, no,” said Saxena, “He is good. A financial strategist and a visionary. His conceptual skills have served the company well. But he has always had staff role with no line experience. What we need is someone from operations. Like Richard Crasta.”
“Richard known things inside out alright”, said Divan, “But he is just a doer. Not fire in the belly. Vertigo needs someone who understands the value of power and known how to use it. Like me. Like Ranjan.”
“That is just the problem, “said Saxena. “Prem, let me tell you something. Ranjan is a man in your own image. Everyone known that he is your protégé. And are never popular. He has generated a lot of resentment among senior Veritigo executives and there would be a revolt if he were to succeed you. An exodus is something we can’t afford to have on our hands. We should think of someone else in the interest of stability to top management.” Divan could not believe what he heard. He had always prided himself on his hands – on style and thought he had his ear to the ground. “How could I lose touch?” he wondered, somewhat shaken.
“When you are the boss, people accept your authority without question,” continued Saxena. “In any case, you have been successful at Vertigo and it is difficult to argue with success. But the moment you announce your intention to leave, the aura begins to fade away. And in deciding on your successor, the board will seek your opinion, with due regard to your judgment. The board member must do what in their view is right for the company. Having said that, may I also mention that if there is a showdown in the boardroom, you could always choose to stay on ? We would like it. Or we could bring in an outsider.”

“I have finalized my career plans and there is no question of staying on beyond six months from now,” said Divan. “The board is scheduled to meet next month. Let us shelve the matter till then. In the meantime, I rely on you, Ram, to keep this discussion between the two of us.”
“Of course yes,” said Saxena.
On his way home, Divan thought about the matter in detail. Bringing an outsider would undo all his life’s work at Vertigo. There were considerations like cuture and compatibility which were paramount. The chairman had to be an inside man. “Richard lacks stature, “Divan said to himself. “Ranjan is the one I have been grooming, but heavens, the flip side of it all had missed me completely. There is no way I can allow a split at the top just before I quit. I must leave on a high note in my own interest. I must find a way out of he imminent mess.”

Question:
1. What should Divan do?

Case 2: PREJUDICES IN WORKPLACES : REAL OR PERCEIVED ?

Manjula Srivastav had been head of marketing for the last four years at Blue Chips, a computer products firm. The company’s turnover had increased by two – and a half times during the period and its market share in a number of precuts had also moved up marginally. What was creditable was that all this had happened in an environment in which computer prices had been crashing.
Although she had a talent for striking an instant report with people – particularly with the company’s dealers – Srivastav often found herself battling against odds, as she perceived it, as far as her relationships with her subordinates and peers in the company were concerned. Srivastav had to fight male prejudice all the way. She found it unfair that she had to prove herself regularly at work and she used to make her displeasure on that score quite obvious to everyone.
Six months ago, Blue Chips had been taken over by an industrial group which had a diversity of business interests and was, more importantly, flush with funds. The change of ownership had led to a replacement of the managing director, but it had not affected the existing core management team. Anand Prakash, the new managing director, had his priorities clear. “Blue Chips will go international,” he had declared in the first executive committee meeting, “and exports will be our first concern.”
Prakash had also brought in Harish Naik as his executive assistant with special responsibility for exports. Naik had been seconded to Srivastav for five weeks as a part of a familiarization programme. Much to her surprise, he had been appointed, within two months, as the vice president (exports), with compensation and perks higher than her own. Srivastav had made a formal protest to Prakash who had assured her that he was aware of her good work in the company and that she would have an appropriate role once the restructuring plan he was already working on would by put into effect.
One morning, as she entered the office and switched on her workstation, a message flashed on her screen. It was from Prakash. “Want to see you sometime today regarding restructuring. Will 2.30 be convenient?” It went.
Later at his office, Prakash had come straight to the point. He wanted to create a new post called general manager (public affairs) in the company. “With your excellent background in customer relations and connections with the dealer network, you are the ideal material for the job,” he said, “and I am offering it to you.” Srivastav was quick to react. “There is very little I can contribute in that kind of job,” she said. “I was in fact expecting to be promoted as vice president (home marketing).” Prakash said that the entire gamut of marketing functions would be looked after by Naik who would have boardroom responsibility for both domestic and export sales. “If you continue in marketing, you will have to be reporting to Naik which I thought may not be fair to you. In any case, we need someone who is strong in marketing to handle public affairs. Let me assure you that the new post I am offering will in no way diminish your importance in the company. You will in fact be reporting to me directly.”
“You are being unfair and your are diminishing my importance in the company,” reported Srivastav. “You know that I am a hardcore marketing professional and you also know I am the best. Why then am I being deprived of a rightful promotion in marketing? Tell me,” she asked pointedly, “would you have done this to a male colleague?”
“That is a hypothetical question,” said Prakash. “But I can’t think of any other slot for you in the restructuring plan I want to implement except what I am offering.”

“If the reason why you are asking me to handle this fancy public affairs business of yours,” said Srivastav, “is that you can’t think of any other slot for me, then I would have second thoughts about continuing to work for this company.”
“May I reiterate,” Said Prakash, “that I value your role and its is precisely because of this that I am delegating to you the work I have been personally handling so far? May I also state that I am upgrading the job not only because it is important but also because it should match your existing stature in the organization?”
“I need to think about this. I will let you know tomorrow,” said Srivastav and left the office.
What should she do?

Case 3: MECHANIST’S INDISCIPLINED BEHAVIOUR
Dinesh, a machine operator, worked as a mechanist for Ganesh, the supervisor. Ganesh told Dinesh to pick up some trash that had fallen from Dinesh’s work area, and Dinesh replied, “I won’t do the janitor’s work.”
Ganesh replied, “When you drop it, you pick it up”. Dinesh became angry and abusive, calling Ganesh a number of names in a loud voice and refusing to pick up the trash. All employees in the department heard Dinesh’s comments.
Ganesh had been trying for two weeks to get his employees to pick up trash in order to have cleaner workplace and prevent accidents. He talked to all employees in a weekly departmental meeting and to each employee individually at least once. He stated that he was following the instructions of the general manager. The only objection came from Dinesh.
Dinesh has been with the company for five years, and in this department for six months. Ganesh had spoken to him twice about excessive alcoholism, but otherwise his record was good. He was known to have quick temper.
This outburst by Dinesh hurt Ganesh badly. Ganesh told Dinesh to come to the office and suspended him for one day for insubordination and abusive language to a supervisor. The decision was within company policy, and similar behaviors had been punished in other departments.
After Dinesh left Ganesh’s office, Ganesh phoned the HR manager, reported what he had done, and said that he was sending a copy of the suspension order for Dinesh’s file.

Questions:
1. How would you rate Dinesh’s behaviour? What method of appraisal would you use?
2. Do you assess any training needs of employees? If yes, what inputs should be embodied in the training programme?

Case 4: RISE AND FALL
Jagannath (Jaggu to his friends) is an over ambitious young man. For him ends justify means.
With a diploma in engineering. Jaggu joined, in 1977, a Bangalore-based company as a Technical Assistant. He got himself enrolled as a student in an evening college and obtained his degree in engineering in 1982. Recognizing as Engineer-Sales in 1984.
Jaggu excelled himself in the new role and became the blue-eyed boy of the management. Promotions came to him in quick succession. He was made Manager-Sales in 1986 and Senior Manager-Marketing in 1988.
Jaggu did not forget his academic pursuits. After being promoted as Engineer-Sales, he joined an MBA (part-time) programme. After completing MBA, Jaggu became a Ph.D. scholar and obtained his doctoral degree in 1989.
Functioning as Senior Manger-Marketing, Jaggu eyed on things beyond his jurisdiction. He started complaining against Suresh the Section Head and Prahalad the Unit Chief (both production) with Ravi, the EVP (Executive – Vice President). The complaints included delay in executing orders, poor quality and customer rejections. Most of the complaints were concocted.
Ravi was convinced and requested Jaggu to head the production section so that things could be straightened up there. Jaggu became the Section head and Suresh was shifted to sales.
Jaggu started spreading his wings. He prevailed upon Ravi and got sales and quality under his control, in addition to production. Suresh, an equal in status, was now subordinated to Jaggu. Success had gone to Jaggu’s head. He had everything going in his favor-position, power, money, and qualification. He divided workers and used them as pawns. He ignored Prahalad and established direct link with Ravi. Unable to bear the humiliation, Prahalad quit the company. Jaggu was promoted as General Manager. He became a megalomaniac.
Things had to end at some point. It happened in Jaggu’s life too. There were complaints against him. He had inducted his brother – in – law, Ganesh, as an engineer. Ganesh was by nature corrupt. He stole copper worth Rs. 5 lakh and was suspended. Jaggu tried to defend Ganesh but failed in his effort. Corruption charges were also leveled against Jaggu who was reported to have made nearly Rs. 20 lakh for himself.
On the new-year day of 1993, Jaggu was reverted back to his old position- sales. Suresh was promoted and was asked to head production. Roles got reversed. Suresh became boss to Jaggu.
Unable to swallow the insult, Jaggu put in his papers.
Back home, Jaggu started his own consultancy claiming himself as an authority in quality management. He poached on his previous company and picked up two best brains in quality.
Fro 1977 to 1993, Jaggu’s career graph had a steep rise and a sudden fall. Whether there would be another hump in the curve is a big question.

Questions:
1. Bring out the principles of promotion that were employed in promoting Jaggu.
2. What would you do if you were (i) Suresh, (ii) Prahalad or (iii) Ravi?
3. Bring out the ethical issues involved in Jaggu’s behaviour.


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CONTACT:
DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

Business Environment
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are the major shortcomings of Indian commercial banking. (10 marks)
Q2. Give highlights of labour management relation. (10 marks)
Q3. What do you think about airport privatisation. (10 marks)
Q4. Can India achieve a growth rate of 8% GDP? (10 marks)
Q5. What are the issues relating Intellectual Property Rights. (10 marks)
Q6. What does management transfer involve. (10 marks)
Q7. What are major consequences of expansion in the money supply. (10 marks)
Q8. Write a note on socio-cultural environment of Business. (10 marks)

Business Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is economic equality? Explain (10 marks)
Q2. Give advantages of card index system (10 marks)
Q3. Discuss legal restriction on sole trade (10 marks)
Q4. Explain sole tradership (10 marks)
Q5. Explain origin of business policies (10 marks)
Q6. What are projects (10 marks)
Q7. Explain strategies (10 marks)
Q8. Explain principle of universality of management (10 marks)

Business Planning and Policy
Answer the following question.
Q1. How to build an ethical organization? (10 marks)
Q2. Explain McKinsey’s 7-S model. (10 marks)
Q3. What is the effect of internet on competitive strategies? (10 marks)
Q4. What is a value chain? How to conduct value chain analysis? (10 marks)
Q5. What are the steps in SWOT analysis? (10 marks)
Q6. What is the importance and advantages of vision? (10 marks)
Q7. Define strategic management. What are the characteristics of strtegic management? (10 marks)
Q8. How has strategic management changed in 21st century? (10 marks)

Corporate Law
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are the functions of Controller (10 marks)
Q2. Distinguish between Managing Director and Manager (10 marks)
Q3. What is the meaning of price (10 marks)
Q4. What is the effect of death of one party on the contract (10 marks)
Q5. What do you mean by consent and free consent (10 marks)
Q6. What are brokerage contracts (10 marks)
Q7. Define consumer (10 marks)
Q8. Discuss complaint (10 marks)

Finance Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is meant by capital budgeting decision? (10 marks)
Q2. Why does diversification reduce risk? (10 marks)
Q3. State the decisions involved in Financial management (10 marks)
Q4. List and explain the three financial factors that influence the value of a business (10 marks)
Q5. Define the Diversifiable Risk and Market Risk and Causes of Risk. (10 marks)
Q6. Briefly define the terms proprietorship, partnership, and corporation. (10 marks)
Q7. Differentiate the real assets and securities. (10 marks)
Q8. Briefly explain what call provision is and in which case companies use this option. (10 marks)

Quantitative Methods
Page 1 Out of 1
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks
1. Three numbers, whose sum is 12, are in AP. If 1,2 and 6 are added to them, the resultin g
numbers are in GP. Find the numbers
2. Average rainfall on a city from Monday to Saturday is 0.3 inch. Due to heavy rainfall on
Sunday, the average rainfall for the week increased to 0.5 inch. What was the rainfall on
Sunday?
3. Calculate median from the following data
Marks 10-25 25-40 40-55 50-70 70-85 85-100
Frequency 6 20 44 26 3 1
4. Given the following results of the height and weight of 1000 students. The mean height is 170
cm, the mean weight is 75 kg. the standard deviation of the height and weight are 6 cm and 6
kg respectively r = 0.6. amit weighs 50 kg, sumeet is 1.5 m tall. Estimate the height of Amit
from his weight and the weight of sumeet from his height
5. In a sample of 500 people from a village in rajasthan, 280 are found to be rice eaters and rest
wheat eaters. Can we assume that both the food articles are equally popular?
6. In a binomial distribution 31% of the items are under 45 and 8% are over 64. Find the mean
and variance of the distribution
7. In a large number of group of children 55% are under 60 cm heighty nd 40% are between 60
and 65 cm. Assuming a normal distribution, find the mean and SD of height
8. Construct index number form the data by applying Marshall edge worthmethod
Commodity Price 2004 Quantity Price 2006 quantity
A 2 8 4 6
B 5 10 6 5
C 4 14 5 10
D 2 19 2 13

Research Methodology
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss Interview as a technique of data collection. (10
marks)
Q2. Compare the steps of a qualitative & quantitative research. (10
marks)
Q3. Discuss the philosophical foundation of Qualitative Methodology. (10
marks)
Q4. Explain ‘Data Reduction’ and ‘Data Display’ in Qualitative Research (10
marks)
Q5. The monthly income of two persons are in the ratio 4:5 and their monthy expenditures are in the ratio 7:9. If each
saves rs. 50 per montrh, find their monthly incomes.
(10
marks)
Q6. A manufacturer can sell x items per month at a price of P = 300 – 2x rupees. Producing x items cost the manufacturer
y rupees where y = 2x + 1000. How much production will yield maximum profit.
(10
marks)
Q7.
There are two branches of an establishment employing 200 and 160 persons respectively. If the AMs of the monthly
salaries paid by the two branches are rs. 550 and rs. 450 respectivvely, find AM of the salaries of the employees of the
establishment as a whole.
(10
marks)
Q8. The monthly income of two persons are in the ratio 4:5 and their monthy expenditures are in the ratio 7:9. If each
saves rs. 50 per montrh, find their monthly incomes.
(10
marks)


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MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS
CASE STUDY : 1
ABC Ltd. is considering the acquisition of XYZ Ltd. The management of ABC believes that the cost of goods sold could be reduced by 1.5 percent over the next 8 Years (due to purchasing economies) and administrative expenses could be brought down by 3 per cent. The forecost of income statement of XYZ under ABC is given under.
In US $ ‘000’
Year
1
2
3
Sales
60,000
63,000
66,000
COG8
30,000
31,000
33,000
Depreciation
4,000
4,200
4,300
SGA
21,000
22,000
22,500
Assume that cash flow increases at 7% after year 3.
ABC needs to incur expenditure on fixed assets and working capital to make operational improvement to XYZ, the details of which are given here.
Year
1
2
3
Capex
4900
5100
5300
W.C.
(510)
(540)
(550)
Q1) Explain the free cash flow valuation?
Q2) What are the several approaches for measuring the value of the target firm?
Q3) At a discount rate of 13% what is the maximum price that ABC should pay?
Q4) At a discount rate of 18% what is the minimum price ABC should pay?
CASE STUDY : 2
Employee ownership is growing rapidly in many countries around the world. The United States has been leader in the development of employee ownership, through Employee Stock ownership plans (ESOPs). These are about 11500 ESOPs in the US covering an estimated 8.5 million employees. It is estimated that approximately 20 per cent of all public companies in the US now offer options to all or most employee, at least 5 times what the number was at the beginning of the 1990s.
Q1) What is and ESOPs explain in detail?
Q2) Why are company’s applying ESOPs?
Q3) What are ESOPs application explain?
Q4) Do you think ESOPs is beneficial to company and company’s employee as well?
CASE STUDY : 3
When a firm’s condition deteriorates to the extent where he cannot meets its financial obligations, the firm is said to be in financial distress usually the first signals of distress are violation of debt convenants and suspensions of dividends. Bankruptcy includes financial reorganization and liquidation. Financial reorganization involves rearranging a firm’s cash flows whereas liquidation ends the firms operation. It involves selling of tangible assets and paying off claimmates to the extent possible. Recenet examples of distressed firms are Lehman Bros, Enron, Scity Bank, Marvel Entertainment, Iridium, etc. Some of these companies once considered the darling of the investment community.
Q1) What do you think why do some apparently well run companies get into financial distress? What are the causes?
Q2) Explain in detail the surveys the bankruptcy code in the US?
Q3) Suggest a methodology for valuation of bankrupt firms?
Q4) Summarizes the results of academic studies on various aspects of bankruptcy?
CASE STUDY : 4
Below the option – pricing table from a standard corporate finance text like the one by Brearly & Myers.
S = US $ 3 million
X = US $ 3.5 million
R = 5 per cent
T = 5 Years
Volatility = 35 per cent p.a.
Q1) Explain the term option?
Q2) What are the types of options all over world explain in detail?
Q3) Explain in detail Real option and different types of real option?
Q4) Given the above values, calculate the value of the call option?


Give impact of Internet on Management Control

Give impact of Internet on Management Control
CONTACT FOR ANSWER
DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

Quantitative Methods
Page 1 Out of 1
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks
1. Three numbers, whose sum is 12, are in AP. If 1,2 and 6 are added to them, the resultin g
numbers are in GP. Find the numbers
2. Average rainfall on a city from Monday to Saturday is 0.3 inch. Due to heavy rainfall on
Sunday, the average rainfall for the week increased to 0.5 inch. What was the rainfall on
Sunday?
3. Calculate median from the following data
Marks 10-25 25-40 40-55 50-70 70-85 85-100
Frequency 6 20 44 26 3 1
4. Given the following results of the height and weight of 1000 students. The mean height is 170
cm, the mean weight is 75 kg. the standard deviation of the height and weight are 6 cm and 6
kg respectively r = 0.6. amit weighs 50 kg, sumeet is 1.5 m tall. Estimate the height of Amit
from his weight and the weight of sumeet from his height
5. In a sample of 500 people from a village in rajasthan, 280 are found to be rice eaters and rest
wheat eaters. Can we assume that both the food articles are equally popular?
6. In a binomial distribution 31% of the items are under 45 and 8% are over 64. Find the mean
and variance of the distribution
7. In a large number of group of children 55% are under 60 cm heighty nd 40% are between 60
and 65 cm. Assuming a normal distribution, find the mean and SD of height
8. Construct index number form the data by applying Marshall edge worthmethod
Commodity Price 2004 Quantity Price 2006 quantity
A 2 8 4 6
B 5 10 6 5
C 4 14 5 10
D 2 19 2 13

Management Control Systems
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Consider a Retail Outlet. What should be the objectives of Management
Control system for the retail outlet? Examples would strengthen your views.
2. Explain the Just-in-time and total quality management techniques of control.
Also, elaborate the implication of these techniques for management control.
3. Describe the need for MIS in a business organization focusing on Management
Control System. Also explain the important considerations in designing
Management Information System (M l S) for the purpose of Management
Control
4. Explain how by designing an appropriate Management Control System , the
different types of risks faced by the banks can be tackled.
5. Describe and illustrate significance of human behavior patterns in management
control.
6. Define Transfer pricing. Describe the various transfer pricing methods in detail
7. Differences and similarities between Management Control and Task Control
8. Give impact of Internet on Management Control.


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BPO Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks
Case 1 (20 Marks)
Two G iants Take the Offshore UPO Lead
GE Capital’s International Services unit, which provides everything from risk calculation to IT services and
actuarial analysis for GE worldwide, has grown from 634 employees to 17,000 during the past five years.
More than half of those workers are in India, and they are not being used for mindless data entry—in India
every employee has a college degree, and more than 1,200 have Master’s degrees in Business Administration
(MBAs). Microsoft has about 200 employees developing software in Bangalore, where it opened its first non-
U.S.-based product development center five years ago. In July 2003, the company announced it will be
shifting more currently U.S.-based jobs to India as it seeks to lower technical support and development costs.
Microsoft will increase its staff in India in the coming years, as the country continues to turn out tens of
thousands of English-speaking engineers each year.
1.) Summarize and Analyze the Case and give your Commnets
Case 2 (20 Marks)
AT&T Uses Team Approach to Outsource Its HR Function
When AT&T opted to outsource human resources, the telecommunications company signed a seven-year
comprehensive outsourcing agreement with Aon Consulting. A team of functional experts in AT&T’s human
resource (HR) and finance departments orchestrated the outsourcing initiative. Each department challenged
the other to prove the merits of the outsourcing strategy, resulting in a well-thought-out, appropriate, and costeffective
out- sourcing initiative. AT&T’s finance and HR departments also developed an atypical process for
determining which HR activities would be best served by out- sourcing. Rather than ask respective managers
to prove why their activity should be outsourced, the team asked them to provide evidence that their activity
should continue to be retained in-house. In doing this, managers became more cognizant of the benefits of
outsourcing, less adversarial and threatened by the strategy, and potential champions of it to the employee
population. Ultimately, managers designated virtually every HR function for outsourcing. Aon Consulting
now provides AT&T with HR administrative, transaction, and payroll services, including the oversight of
existing benefit plan providers, for AT&T’s 70,000 U.S.-based employees.
1.) Summarize and Analyze the Case and give your Comments
Case 3 (20 Marks)
GE Real Estate Understands Total BPO Costs
Realizing cost savings from offshore outsourcing often takes years of effort and a huge up-front investment.
For many companies, it simply may not be worth it. “Someone working for $10,000 a year in Hyderabad can
end up costing an American company four to eight times that amount,” says Hank Zupnick, CIO of GE Real
Estate. Yet, all too often, companies do not make the outlays required to make offshore outsourcing work.
“You have to bring people to America to learn your applications, and that takes time, particularly if you’re
doing it with a new vendor for the first time,” explains Zupnick, who maintains a handful of three-year
contracts with offshore vendors. In GE Real Estate’s case, the transition time for each vendor was up to a year
in some cases, in addition to the moneydraining vendor selection period of several months. Zupnick, who has
seven years of offshore experience, says most of his peers do not appreciate the time and money it takes to get
a relationship up and running. “The vendors say you can throw it over the wall and start saving money right
away. As a result, I have heard of CIOs who have tried to go the India or China route, and nine months later
they pulled the plug because they were not saving money,” Zupnick says. “You have to build in up to a year
for knowledge transfer and ironing out cultural differences.” At GE Real Estate, managing the offshore
vendor is such a big task that Zupnick assigned someone to handle it on a half-time basis at a $50,000 salary.
The individual makes sure projects move forward and develops and analyzes vendor proposals against the
RFPs when it comes time to bid out new work.
1.) Summarize and Analyze the Case and give your Comments
Case 4 (20 Marks)
Informal Vendor Selection Leads to Disaster
A large and well-respected company had a vision in the early 1990s of becoming one of the leanest and most
profitable manufacturers in the industry. The company’s CFO felt that the company could be much more
efficient if it focused on what it was good at, as opposed to managing some of the larger support functions.
After looking into its HR organization, the CFO determined that outsourcing this function would reduce a
great deal of overhead and could fix several of the problems the company continually faced. The CFO started
the project by assigning himself to be the company’s BPO champion. (This was mistake number one.) Next,
he contacted the ClO and explained how this new outsourcing effort would allow the company to make its
numbers in the next year and that he should be excited about assuming the role of change agent. Recognizing
that he had no experience in BPO, the ClO decided to go outside the organization for assistance. The first
problem he faced was who to call. The C1O had a relationship with a local consulting group that specialized
in outsourcing wide area networks. The firm was invited to a meeting to ask if they were interested in
handling the BPO project.The consulting group explained how outsourcing was one of its service offerings.
However, as understood by the consultant, the project could not be completed quickly or inexpensively.
Nonetheless, the CFO accepted the consulting group’s statements and
agreed to move forward.The following Monday morning, a three-hour kickoff meeting began between the
ClO, CFO,and the eager consulting company. The consulting presentation covered outsourcing at a high
level and the financial impact it could have on a company. This presentation certainly reaffirmed the CFO’s
vision by capitalizing on the savings a company could anticipate. The unfortunate point was that no one in the
room had any idea how complex this project was going to be. The CFO created a project team by assigning
several subject matter experts to the team on a part-time basis. With everyone working part-time one really
took responsibility for the project and simply assumed that t consulting group would handle it. The consulting
group did not really understand the HR department functions and, therefore, could not structure the new
process flow. Because the consulting group was not set up to handle the HR back-office functions, it found
itself trying to outsource the process to another consulting group This BPO project grew out of control within
weeks. After wasting seven months and spending $800,000, the CFO became furious about the lack of
progress. The ClO was fired for selecting the wrong consulting group, which apparently provided no added
value, and the consulting group was released only to face a lawsuit. This experience was a disappointment for
the CFO, and he decided to revert back to the old way of operating the HR department. To this day the
organization’s HR function is as ineffective as it was before the BPO project debacle.
1.) Summarize and Analyze the Case and give your Commnets


Give SWOT analysis in Indian scenario

Give SWOT analysis in Indian scenario
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Business Ethics
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Write short note on value education & consumerism
2. Give SWOT analysis in Indian scenario.
3. Explain need for a check on quackery.
4. Give measures to control pollution
5. Discuss unethical practices vis-à-vis cheating.
6. Give benefits of ISO 9000 quality systems & Give importance and
use of ISO 9000 standard.
7. Discuss seven points of mahatma Gandhi &Discuss social justice
according to gandhiji.
8. Give characteristic of quality leadership.

Business Strategy
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Describe four processes SECI through which knowledge is converted from one
form to another.
2. Write down the steps of activating Strategies with special reference to
Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
3. What is the VRIO frame work?
4. What is focus of control in headquarter level control strategy?
5. Give any two examples of Conglomerate Diversification.
6. Discuss how a development in a corporations societal environment can affect
the corporations through its task environment.
7. Explain different types of industrial diversification
8. List advantages & disadvantages of different modes entry.


Explain 7 phases of negotiating tactics

Explain 7 phases of negotiating tactics
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Business Communication
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Define Public Speaking & Determine the purpose of topic Selection
2. What is media of mass Communication & Explain the modes of Communication
3. Explain the methods of Oral Communication in Terms of
a) Among Individuals b)Among Group
4. List the different Electronic modes of Communication & Explain the mode of
Communication
5. Explain 7 phases of negotiating tactics
6. What is group discussion? How is it Evaluated? And what is the techniques of GD
7. What are the techniques for writing Successful job application
8. Explain the relationship of non-verbal message with verbal message?

Business Environment
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Give a block diagram in establishing the design and quality standards of technology recipient site?
2. Business decision making and the impact of the macro-environment, Discuss?
3. Give the constitution of SEBI Board and explain SEBI functions?
4. Write a note on socio-cultural environment of Business Write a note on socio-cultural environment of Business?
5. Discuss how the environment acts does as a stimulant to business. Analyze why business often does little for the preservation of physical environment despite the fact that it is significant for business activity?
6. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of FDI. What is your opinion on the role of FDI in the Retail Sector? Justify your views with India’s experience in this sector?
7. Discuss the Third plan (1961-66)?
8. Give any three critical elements of economic environment of Business?


ICICI Centralizes Applications CASE STUDY ANSWER

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BANKING MANAGEMENT
SUBJECT : BANKING MANAGEMENT
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks
CASE STUDY 1 (20 Marks)
ICICI Centralizes Applications
ICICI centralizes ap plications for ‘anywhere’
When anytime, anywhere banking came to our country, ICICI Bank had to move away from the
branch-centric model and make its services available nationwide. The solution was to centralize its
applications. by Minu Sirsalewala
ICICI Bank, India’s second-largest bank with a network of about 540 branches and offices and over
1,000 ATMs offers banking products and financial services to corporate and retail customers through
a variety of delivery channels. The legacy systems at ICICI group (now called ICICI Bank) were
stand-alone systems, networked only for basic e-mail and none of the core applications were linked
to the network. Around 1998 the company realized that to improve its operations and increase
efficiency it needed to centralize its core banking applications.
Legacy systems
The traditional systems at ICICI Bank were very centric to the branch. For example a server at New
Delhi was specific to the branch in that city; the ATMs were standalone catering only to the city
branch. The banking transactions were thus limited to the respective branch offices as customer data
was not available in other branches. This made banking a limited service and very branch specific.
ICICI realized the importance of offering nationwide banking but this would be possible only by
having a centralized data repository.
The shift
The basic network was set up for providing the e-mail facility, but none of the applications were
linked to the network. The network comprised of a mix of servers running different applications at
various branches of the bank. With growing business and rapidly increasing accounts, the company
found it extremely difficult to administer and manage the system.
This also resulted in duplication of backend services and procedures, as the systems were not
centralized for the core banking applications.
“There was a lot of additional cost being incurred due to the duplication of the backend procedures at
the branch offices,” said Manoj Kunkalienkar, Joint President ICICI Infotech Services Limited.
The centralization procedure started around late 1999. ICICI Infotech (a company promoted by
ICICI) made the first network design for the group in 1999—it was a hub and spoke architecture.
Utmost care was taken to design a network with a strong backbone. According to Manoj, the key
strength of a network is its back-bone. The group’s various centers are connected by 2 Mbps or 4
Mbps leased lines.
Manoj said the design considerations not only included high bandwidth availability but also the fact
that a single point of failure should not result in lines going down.
The group realized that it had to enter into the retail space, have local regional presence, and provide
alternate channels to the customer. They needed a solution whereby they could offer services across
the country.
“Centralizing the operations was not the solution, but centralization of data was. We had already
centralized some of the operations but we still had some branch applications running independently
which were not centralized and had ATMs which were stand-alones. Two major criteria considered
before designing were not only the network, but also the infrastructure available in our country,” said
Manoj.
In the past, the infrastructure here was such that a company could not rely on leased lines completely.
So ICICI needed backups on ISDN and VSATs, along with the 64 Kbps leased lines. “The leased
lines were too expensive then, now the lines are better, more stable and offer good connectivity. The
cost has also come down by around 15 percent.”
Manoj opined that what was really important was to have a world class data center and centralize
everything in one place, as that’s where the network can be used at the maximum. To ensure 24×7
service access and connectivity to customers one needs to have reliable backups and a robust network
in place. From a business perspective, the main reason to go in for a network was centralization of
data, provide all channels of communication and at the same time provide anytime, anywhere
banking. “The problem we faced with our legacy systems was that they were stand-alone systems and
the data from one branch was not available with another branch.”
These problems led us to the new design of the hub and spoke architecture.
The big solution
What ICICI was looking for was a robust network, which would enable it to offer services at the
retail level throughout the country. The in-house ICICI Infotech was the obvious choice for
consultation. The ICICI Infotech team designed the initial network topology in 1999. The team had
put forward a series of designs, not radically different from each other.
Eventually, a design with a mix of VSATs, leased-lines, radio-links and ISDN was selected. A mixed
design was selected because of the disparate locations of the group across the country. There were
different technical problems in different locations and the next best available solution had to be
included.
“The basic topology has withstood over the years. What we have today is still the basic architecture
with just new additions in terms of just more bandwidth,” said Manoj.
The advantage in a hub and spoke architecture is that multiple nodes (spokes) are connected with a
hub location through a ring of single-mode fiber. Each hub-node connection can consist of single or
multiple wavelengths (lambdas), each carrying a full Gigabit Ethernet channel. Protection from fiber
cuts in the ring is achieved by connecting the hub and nodes through both directions of the optical
ring. Service provider Gigabit Ethernet metro access rings are the main applications for this
architecture. And another advantage is that nodes can be added to the network more easily.
Methodology
The most important aspect to setting up a network is to have a good relation between the technology
consultant (network integrator), the vendor and the client.
“The vendors in the market are more or less capable of giving the same results, like the same amount
of redundancy or strength of the network,” said Manoj. “What really matters is the relation between
the three. If there is harmony amongst the three, then better results will be achieved.”
The client plays the most important role as he has very low time to market, and delivery is required at
the earliest.
“A series of products are available in the market. As the time to market is so short, we (ICICI
Infotech) select the products available in the market and integrate them. This takes care of 98 percent
of the solution requirement and then we build the other two to three percent around it and deliver the
perfect solution to the client,” explained Manoj.
The Network
As we said before, the network follows a hub and spoke architecture—a mix of VSATs, leased lines,
ISDN and radio links. It has around 800 leased lines, about 600 VSATs, approximately 800 ISDN
lines and multiple 34 Mbps lines.
The network supports the ICICI group offices, banks, branches, and over 1000 ATMs. There is a
primary site from where spokes go out to the regional branches and the other offices. The secondary
site has the disaster recovery system.
There are around eight hub locations, which have 3, 4 or 8 Mbps lines as per the requirements for
connecting to the branch and regional offices.
High-end Cisco routers and switches have been deployed for connectivity. The network is monitored
using HP OpenView and CiscoWorks. Over 30 portals are operating using a highly secure state-ofthe-
art security architecture, which consist of firewalls, intrusion detection systems, virus protection
and various other tools.
The main production site is at Mahalaxmi, Mumbai (the primary site), and has been built to
international standards.
The disaster recovery site (the secondary site) is located at ICICI towers in Bandra-Kurla complex,
Mumbai and is used for replication of data. A distance of 25-30 kms separates the two centers and
they are linked with two 34 Mbps leased lines. To ensure reliability and 24×7 availability, the leased
lines pass through separate exchanges.
Before the data moves on to the leased lines, it passes through two CNT storage directors that convert
this data into WAN-related traffic before it is sent on the leased line to the other data center. The
high-speed leased lines make it possible to synchronize data in real-time between the two centers.
Hardware at both these sites varies from low-end NT servers to the high-end SUN E 10K along with
12 terabytes of data storage at each end connected through a SAN. The group’s facilities management
team manages over 9,500 desktops, 500 servers and works around the clock. CA Unicenter is used
for managing the helpdesk, desktops and servers, asset management, software delivery and remote
control.
Unix is the preferred OS for most of the hardware while most of the databases use Oracle with a few
on Sybase and MS SQL. Over 200 databases are supported with 24×7 processing. The state-of-the-art
technology architecture adopted by ICICI Bank needed robust security, and this was designed by
qualified experts from its Systems Security Cell. This security design includes preparation,
implementation and maintenance of the Systems Security policies and procedures across all systems,
ensuring general user awareness about these policies and enforcing the policies through systems
audits. The security cell has developed several tools, which are the first of its kind to address several
vulnerabilities on Unix, NT and MS-Exchange. The system security is audited by KPMG.
Challenges
Once the network was up, ICICI Infotech faced the challenge of ensuring smooth operation and
minimum downtime. Manoj agrees glitches cannot be avoided and while one has to try and prevent
these, one also has to think about the growth of the network, in line with business expansion.
“No walk is very smooth. Glitches are, and will always be there,” said Manoj. “What was of prime
importance was to keep pace with the business and its expansions. Technical problems are not
difficult to handle—there is always a solution to them but other problems like the existing
infrastructure of the country, the individual business needs are very taxing.”
According to Manoj, the real challenge came while designing and deploying the network, as the team
had to view business processes at a very micro level. They had to identify the exact areas where the
business needed to be expanded, a nd then find the best suitable option to connect to those locations.
The ICICI VSAT network is large, with almost a thousand nodes. Keeping it going turned out to be
an even bigger challenge for the group. The entire network is monitored from one center. Any error
in the network at any point is rectified in a short span of time and the system is up and running with
minimum downtime.
Another challenge was to keep pace with business growth. “The only technological challenges we
face are in terms of the quality of the lines, as they are not same all the time. Typically, the router and
switch software is written assuming a certain quality of the line. As a result, if the quality of the line
is not stable and fluctuates, the systems do not function efficiently. Ensuring the required line quality
is a major challenge. An obvious solution to this is to interact and talk with the vendors and get it
customized for an Indian client’s requirements,” explained Manoj.
Manoj reiterates that it’s important for the vendor and the client to have a good rapport so that they do
not just provide the client with boxes but change the operating system (and other relevant software)
as and when needed.
The basic topology has not changed. “Initially we had started with connecting seven locations. Today
all the centers and offices are connected making virtual banking a reality,” said a proud Manoj.
Benefits
With the centralization of data all applications are controlled, modified and administered from one
location. The network has enabled the bank to shift from traditional banking to virtual banking thus
offering modern banking services to its customers. All backend applications run from a centrally
located data center. This eliminates duplication of processes like backend operations, training of staff,
administration cost, and other system related costs at branch levels. Clients can avail of anytimeanywhere
banking on the Net and make use of their ATM cards at any of the ATM centers across the
country. Considerable amount of cost has been saved as the backend operations of regional offices
have been eliminated. The data for all the customers is centralized and processed from the centrally
located data center. Information for any ICICI client will be available at any of the ICICI branches.
Questions
1. What was the strategy adopted by the ICICI Bank for Development of
Banking ? How automation helps the Banking Services?
2. Cost factor has become important in banking services. Give your
comments. Lessons learned from the above case study.
CASE STUDY 2 (20 Marks)
Age Banking in Baharain
When a leading bank in Bahrain went shopping for a comprehensive banking solution, it chose
CMC’s TC/4.
Using CMC’s state-of-the-art total banking solution, a leading bank in Bahrain is providing its
customers the full range of e-age value-added banking services via the internet, mobile phones and
ATMs. TC/4 has given the bank a technological edge over the competition and streamlined its
operations across all branches.
Client
A leading bank in Bahrain providing retail and commercial banking services. It has several branches
and ATMs in Bahrain and operates an overseas branch in Abu Dhabi.
It offers its customers one-stop banking services, including personal and corporate banking, foreign
exchange and money market instruments, and fixed yields to variable returns investment.
The brief
The bank needed a robust system to deliver the latest value-added services to its customers to replace
its existing banking system/technology.
The broad requirements were:
Centralised banking solution
Interfaces to existing systems
Disaster recovery solution
Internet banking solution
The solution
CMC has successfully developed, customised, and implemented application software for a number of
Institutions in the financial sector in India and abroad. These include banks, mutual funds, stock
exchanges, and insurance companies. By virtue of its impressive track record and previous
implementation at the Bahrain bank, CMC was the natural choice for the enhancement of its existing
system.
Product
TC/4© is a highly secure, extensively parameterised, multi-currency, multi language system that
provides rich core banking functionality. The system has a fully integrated and highly flexible multicurrency
general ledger. The system can be interfaced to a multitude of new-age delivery channels
such as ATMs, remote terminals, kiosks, internet banking, tele-banking, e-cheques and other delivery
and payment systems. The open framework provides immense scalability and allows easy integration
with external systems such as treasury, trade finance dealing, asset liability management systems, etc.
TC/4 provided precisely what the bank was looking for. It was customised to suit the bank’s
requirements and is being implemented at the bank in Bahrain by the CMC team.
Strengths
Provides anywhere, anytime banking 24 X 7
Interface possible at central level for various delivery mechanisms (internet banking,
tele-banking and ATM’s)
All branches, although geographically spread out, yet connected to the central server.
Introduction of products and services online, real-time, based on market requirements,
enables the bank to have a cutting edge over its competitors
Multi-lingual support allows the user to have screens and reporting in any
language. Manages financial risks and identifies revenue opportunities
Gives the bank’s position at a glance
Strengthens bank’s market position through innovations using new delivery channels
Implementation of TC/4
CMC has been one of the leading system integrators in India since a very long time. It has perfected
the methodology for smooth implementation of large-scale financial systems. The implementation is
being done in the following sequence :
Gap Analysis – involved the study of additional functional requirements of the
bank Customisation of TC/4 based on gap analysis
Development of interfaces to external
system Pre-shipment acceptance test by the
bank Site acceptance test
Data conversion and
Migration Training to the bank
staff Pilot branch roll out
Transition to new system
Benefits
Any time, anywhere banking
Interface possible at central level for various delivery mechanisms like internet banking,
tele banking, ATM’s etc.
On-line bank-wide MIS
Centralised control from the host site and enforcement of
procedures Ease of addition of new branches
Cost effective disaster recovery setup
Easy introduction of new products/services at the bank
level Automated inter-branch reconciliation
Data warehousing support
Requirement of technical expertise only at the central site
Questions
1. What were the requirements of bank ?
2. What is the message from the above case study?
CASE STUDY 3 (20 Marks)
Financial Risk Management at Union Bank of Switzerland
One of the largest investment managers in the world, UBS had four major segments. UBS Wealth
Management & Business Banking, UBS Global Asset Management, UBS Warburg (Investment
Banking) and UBS Paine Webber (wealth management for private clients. UBS served institutional
investors and high-net-worth individuals by offering a range of products and services including
mutual funds, asset management, corporate finance, and estate planning. UBS also provided
securities underwriting services, mergers & acquisitions advice and traded in fixed-income products,
and foreign exchange. The company also provided traditional banking services. To strengthen its
asset management capabilities, UBS had bought RT Capital Management (renamed Brinson Canada),
the institutional asset management business of RBC Financial Group, Canada. UBS also had plans to
expand its private banking services in Europe. UBS had more than 69,000 employees operating in
more than 50 countries. ….
Background Note
Businessmen in Winterthur, Switzerland, formed the Bank of Winterthur in 1862 for trading,
financing railroads, and operating a warehouse. In 1912, the bank merged with the Bank of
Toggenburg (formed in 1863) to create Schweizerische Bankgesellschaft — Union Bank of
Switzerland (UBS).
UBS expanded in Switzerland, buying smaller banks and adding branches. Though it was hit hard by
the Depression, the bank benefited from Switzerland’s neutrality in WWII, collecting deposits from
both Jews and Nazis. Expansion in Switzerland continued after the war with the purchase of
Eidgenossische Bank of Zurich. In 1946, the bank opened an office in New York.
UBS continued to grow by acquisitions in the 1950s. By 1962, it had 81 branches. In 1967 it opened a
full-service office in London. During the 1970s, UBS established several securities underwriting
subsidiaries abroad. But the firm’s UK brokerage business was hit hard by the 1987 US stock market
crash. Over the next two years, losses continued, prompting an overhaul of the London operations.
Then the bank’s US operations were badly affected by the collapse of the junk bond market in 1990.
Notwithstanding these setbacks, UBS set up offices in Paris, Singapore, and Hong Kong and took
over Chase Manhattan’s (now J.P. Morgan Chase) New York money management unit in 1991. The
firm also continued to expand within Switzerland, buying five more banks to boost market share and
strengthen its branch network. But these acquisitions left UBS with overlapping operations and a
bloated infrastructure when recession hit. Falling real estate values left the bank with a heavy load of
nonperforming loans.
In 1994, as profits plummeted, stockholder Martin Ebner, tried to gain control of UBS. After failing
in his attempt to have president Robert Studer charged with criminal fraud, he almost thwarted
Studer’s election to the chairmanship.
UBS launched a major reorganization in 1994 by consolidating its consumer credit operations. The
next year it joined with Swiss Life/Rentenanstalt to offer insurance products through its bank
network.In 1996, after rejecting Credit Suisse’s merger bid, UBS began another major reorganization.
The bank reduced the number of domestic branches and wrote off billions of francs in bad loans,
leading to the bank’s first loss ever.
In 1998 UBS merged with Swiss Bank Corp in one of the most celebrated mergers in banking
history. The bank lost $1.6 billion after the Long-Term Capital Management hedge fund went
bankrupt in October 1998. This prompted Chairman Mathis Cabiallavetta to resign.
As difficulties in integration of the pre-merger entities continued in 1999, UBS retreated from riskier
markets, selling some $2 billion in real estate, and its 25% stake in Swiss Life/Rentenanstalt. That
year, UBS bought Bank of America’s European and Asian private banking operations and Allegis
Realty Investors, a US real estate investment management firm. In 2000, UBS reorganized yet again
and bought US broker Paine Webber (now UBS Paine Webber).
Questions
1. What do you understand by Financial Risk ?
2. How banks can tackle the risk in their business?
3. Is real estate management a risky sector in banking?
4. What is the message of the above case study?
CASE STUDY 4 (20 Marks)
END TO END RETAIL BANKING SOLUTIONS FOR A JAPANESE BANK
One of the top ten commercial banks in Japan with total asset base of US$ 120 billion.
The key challenges facing the Bank were to:
Streamline existing business processes and improve customer service to cater to surge
in business volumes.
Align business operations and technology in tune with its new vision. The Bank had
more than 40 disparate application packages that coexisted.
Some of them were interconnected while some were standalone. In addition, there were
around 20 interfaces to external systems or networks, on which the operations depended.
Achieve a reduction in overall operations processing and technology costs over a period
of time.
Leverage existing infrastructure with new components that addressed the demanding market
requirements and still enable reduction in overall operational costs. By virtue of being
fragmented, the current corporate systems, although functional, are not very efficient. Also,
these were legacy systems on older generation technology, with in-house development
taking place over several decades and therefore difficult and expensive to maintain.
Retain existing customers
Attract new customers
Reduce time-to-market for new products
Strengthen management information systems
Improve operations and processes
Reduce costs, improve bottom-line and stakeholder rewards
i-flex proposed FLEXCUBE to provide an integrated, scaleable and open platform solution
with multiple access points to:
Provide a Multi-currency General Ledger and a flexible, scalable and integrated end-to-end
Banking platform to support new, strategic and complex Japanese Retail Banking products.
Enable multiple new delivery channels (Internet Banking, 7 X 24 ATM, Mobile Banking,
Tele banking and Call centers and Point of Sale Terminals), allowing the Bank to reach out
to new target segments and customers in the quality conscious and complex Japanese market.
Provide Business intelligence and analytics to equip the Bank to access information
and analyze customer profitability, product profitability and credit risk management.
Customer Centric Front-end
The entire front-end has been made customer-centric. The retail customer, irrespective of transaction
or channel now has just one identifier, which enables access to all delivery channels. The browser
based front-shows the customer’s entire relationship with the bank in a summary screen. This shows
the customer’s total holdings at the moment in the bank, including DDA, TDA, loans, mutual funds
etc., at a level consolidated by the above account types. This can be drilled down multiple levels for a
detailed view of the customer relationship.
Support for the entire spectrum of delivery channels
Complete support for all delivery channels including branch, ATM, Telephone, Internet and
Mobile Phone.
Complex Network Interfaces
Interfaces with Zengin (interbank remittance network internal to Japan), RTGS systems, Bank of
Japan Net (BoJNet) for settlements, as well as a host of other networks for Debit Cards and ATMs.
Interbank connectivity enables the customers to transfer funds between accounts over a selection
Of banks.
Real Time FX rates to enable FX trading
Real time access to the customer for foreign exchange rates round-the-clock. This system takes rate
feed from standard market rate feed vendors
and creates the Retail Offer Rate for the customer. This offer rate is the exchange rate that the
customer gets at the time of doing FX transactions from any channel. This rate is computed real-time
24×7, using market feed, spread, positions, customer ratings and other parameters. The customer can
even leave orders to sell JPY when the exchange rate crosses a pre-set threshold.
Business Intelligence and Decision support capabilities
Provide analytical tools to the bank in the areas of Credit risk, Product and Customer profitability and
Financial Reporting. This is built into the data warehouse component of the FLEXCUBE suite. This
will take data from the systems, and apply pre-defined analytical models to them to provide a DSS to
the management.
I-flex acts as a one stop shop for the Bank. The phased implementation solution not only addresses
the application implementation but also comprises value added services such as:
Business process re-engineering strategy.
Deployment of multi-skilled project teams parallel working to address the different
components.
Training and consultancy to bring the users up the new technology learning curve.
Consultancy on data migration, Japanese language etc.; and joint project teams that
would undertake the translation efforts.
Complete one-stop solution for immediate and long-term needs.
Multiple delivery channels support.
National Language (Double byte) support.
Existing customers also get access to Internet delivery channels.
Comprehensive Business intelligence, Analytics and management information systems.
Modular architecture enables phased implementation in line with current priorities with
minimum operational dislocation.
Local support.
Platform independence.
Globally enriched products and best business practices.
According to the Bank’s spokesperson: We chose FLEXCUBE because it offered us a rich set of
features and a very flexible platform to build new product capabilities for our customers. It supports
customer service through branches and remote channels. As a partner, an i-flex solution has acquired
depth of knowledge and extensive experience in banking technology to help us customize
FLEXCUBE for the Japanese business environment and roll it out rapidly.
Questions
1. What was the plan of Japanese Bank for
Customers?
2. How customers were with the solution?
3. Was there any cost impact?
4. Important lessons from the above case study?


MBA ISBM MAY MONTH EXAM QUESTION AND ANSWER PROVIDED

MBA ISBM MAY MONTH EXAM QUESTION AND ANSWER PROVIDED WHATSAPP 91 9924764558
CONTACT: DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

Advertising
Case Studies
case (20
Marks)
9. ”A while ago UK’s Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) told Liverpool-based Halewood international that their ad part of a 2
million pound campaign for their Lambrini drink was too sexy.ASA issued guidelines suggesting they use balding paunchy,middleaged
men instead of someone who was attractive and desirable.”The ad is in danger of implying that the drink may bring
sexual/social success, because the man in question looks quite attractive and desirable,”
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the above case.
Q2. What is the role of ASA?
case (20
Marks)
15. . Unethical judgements lead to misleading and false advertising.Let us understand what is unethical and what is a lapse in the
application of ethics.Ethical dilemma is the outcome of an uneresolved interpretation of an ethical issue.We must appreciate the
difference between “having a right”and the “right thing to do “.For example should advertisers strive to persuade not so well-to-do
youth in urban and semi-urban areas to buy expensive sports shoes or brandedjeans?there is no law against such advertising but the
socially and morally responsible behavior may be to refrain,and so we have an ethical dilemma.It seems advertising professionals
find largely synonymous with legality and many consider advertising expensive jeans or sports shoes to all markets,including those
who should not buy them is “acceptable”ethical behavior.We must appreciate that one can be ethical only when there is the option of
being ethical.One cannot choose to be ethical when one cannot choose at all.Thus,ethics begins only where the law ends.Ethical
dilemmas can occur because advertisers typically sell brands,not just products.Even though functionally the products from different
manufacturers may be the same,advertisers present their brands as being different from other brands.In this process advertisers are
tempted to create false differences.Another situation creates dilemma when advertisers highlight only the good things about their
brand and omit any shortcomings.Whatever is said is not false,yet the ad dose not tell the whole truth.In contrast ethical lapse is
typically a clear of illegal behavior,not permitted by the law of the land.Plenty of laws govern what is legal in advertising but laws
ultimately reflect ethical judgements.As for the self-regulation,advertising and media associations,councils,and societies focus on
legalities rather than philosophies.The eternal question of when how by whom are these laws to be enforced in resolving ethical
dilemmas and lapses still remains.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the above case.
Q2. What is ethical lpase in ads?
case (20
Marks)
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5. The office of RXL Ltd. Wore a deserted look.The marketing manager ,all six regional managers and product managers were busy
in a brainstorming session at a faraway location in Kerala .The main reason behind this session was to identify the future course of
action for their products-mattresses and pillows-marketed under the brand name Dreams.The issue was to decide the approach for
the six month long promotion drive to be launched next month.The company is one the largest manufacturers operating at a national
level in the market of mattresses.The retail market of branded products is estimated to be Rs.100 crores ,and the unbranded market is
in the tune of Rs.400 crores.The market is growing at the rate of around 10% per annum in urban areas and 18%in rural areas.At
present there are six branded products in the market and Cure is the market leader with 25% market share.’Dreams ‘is in the middle
of the rung with around 14% market share.Besides these two brands,several local and regional brands operate in the market and the
market is quite competitive.The company,RXL Ltd,is based in Chennai and its product range includes mattresses,pillows,carpetinlays,
wall panels,foot mats,and other products.The manufacturing facility is located 30 kilometers from Chennai and boasts of an
ultramodern factory and storage set up.The head office is in Chennai and six regional offices are located in all major cities,
i.e.,Bangalore,Calcutta, Delhi,Chandigarh,jaipur and Mumbai.The company sells about 30% of its products to institutions such as
,hospitals,hotels and resorts,and government bodies.Large sales volume comes from the southern and western parts and some comes
from the rest of the country.Besides this ,the mattresses, pillows ,and carpet-inlays are sold in retail through dealers in around sixty
cities all over the country.Presently the company has around 100 dealers who are looked after by the regional offices.The company
began to advertise in print and radio in1987.the advertising theme highlighted features of the products,both in print and radio.About
five years back,the company had offered a unique feature,i.e.,a guarantee card,which ensured protection against duplicate
products.The company also used sales promotion to augment the efforts of advertising,and dealer efforts.Some promotional schemes
offered gifts such as,towel,bed-sheet,or pillow with mattresses.All these promotion schemes affected the company’s bottomline and
did not find very enthusiastic response from dealers.The company thus needed a new platform to highlight its new campaign.A sixmonth
promotional campaign is to be launched ,with equal mix of print advertising ,consumer sales promotion,and a dealer
promotion scheme.The marketing manager wishes to select a theme to portray the ads.In the light of common theme, the various
options a available to the company include the lifestyle product theme,the superior quality theme,and the most healthy product
theme.The entire advertising campaign is to be based on this theme selected and hence it is very important to pick the most
appropriate theme.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case.
Q2. Why the brainstorming session was called in Kerala?
case (20
Marks)
14. Shoppers ‘Delight’a large retail store,had above-average quality and competitive prices.It advertised its retail promotions in local
newspapers.Its TV advertising was mainly aimed at building store image and did not address retail promotions.The management
kewn it well that they had to advertise their retail promotions more,but they did not feel comfortable with the effectiveness of persent
efforts and wanted to better understand the impact of their present promotions.To better understand the effectiveness of the present
efforts,a study of advertising exposure,interpretation,and purchases was undertaken.Researchers conducted 50 in-depth interviews
with customers of the store’s target market to determine the appropriate product mix,price,ad copy and media,In addition,the store,s
image and that of its two competitors were measured.Based on the research findings,different product lines that would appeal to the
target customer were selected.The retail promotion was run for a full week.Full-page advertisements were released each day in the
two local Hindi newspapers,and also in one English newapaper that devotes six pages to the coverage of the state.Each evening,a
sample of 100 target market customers were interviewed by telephone as follows:1 .Target customers were asked if they had read the
newspaper that day .This was done to determine their exposure to advertisement.2.After a general description of the product lines,the
respondents were asked to recall any related retail advertisements they had seen or read.3.if the respondents were able to recall,they
were asked to describle the ad,the promoted products,sale prices,and the name of the sponsoring store.4.If the respondents were
accurate in their ad interpretation ,they were asked to express their intentions to purchase.5.Respondents were also asked for
suggestions to be incorporated in future promotions targeted at this consumer segment .Immediately after the close of
promotion,500target market customers were surveyed to determine what percentage of the target market actually purchased the
promoted products.It also determined which sources of information influenced them in their decision to purchase and the amount of
their purchase.Results of the study showed that ad exposure was 75% and ad awareness level was 68% and was considered as
high.Only 43% respondents exposed to and aware of the ad copay could accurately recall important details,such as the name of the
store promoting the retail sale.Just 43% correct interpretation was considered as low.Of those who could accurately interpret the ad
copay ,32% said they intended to respond by purchasing the advertised products and 68 per cent sad they had no intention to
buy.This yields an overall intention to buy of 7%.The largest area of lost opportunity was due to those who did not accurately
interpret the ad copay.The post-promotion survey indicated that only 4.2% of the target market customers made purchasesof the
promoted products during the promotion period.In terms of how these buyers learned of the promotion,46% mentioned newspaper
A(Hindi) ,27% newspaper B (Hindi),8% newspaper c( English), and 15% learned about sale through word-of-mouth
communication.The retail promotion was judged as successful in many ways,besides yielding sales worth Rs.900,000.However
,management was concerned about not achieving a higher level of ad comprehension,missing a significant sales opportunity.It was
believed that a better ad would have at least 75% correct comprehension among those aware of the ad .This in turn would almost
double sales without any additional cost.
Answer the following question.
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Q1. prepare a dummy survey report of your choice.
Q2. What is the purpose of the survey reports?

Business Ethics
Case Studies
Case (20
Marks)
Many public policy arguments focus on fairness. Is affirmative action fair? Are congressional districts drawn to be fair? Is our tax
policy fair? Is our method for funding schools fair? Arguments about justice or fairness have a long tradition in Western civilization.
In fact, no idea in Western civilization has been more consistently linked to ethics and morality than the idea of justice. From the
Republic, written by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, to A Theory of Justice, written by the late Harvard philosopher John
Rawls, every major work on ethics has held that justice is part of the central core of morality. Justice means giving each person what
he or she deserves or, in more traditional terms, giving each person his or her due. Justice and fairness are closely related terms that
are often today used interchangeably. There have, however, also been more distinct understandings of the two terms. While justice
usually has been used with reference to a standard of rightness, fairness often has been used with regard to an ability to judge
without reference to one’s feelings or interests; fairness has also been used to refer to the ability to make judgments that are not
overly general but that are concrete and specific to a particular case. In any case, a notion of desert is crucial to both justice and
fairness. The Nortons and Ellisons of this world, for example, are asking for what they think they deserve when they are demanding
that they be treated with justice and fairness. When people differ over what they believe should be given, or when decisions have to
be made about how benefits and burdens should be distributed among a group of people, questions of justice or fairness inevitably
arise. In fact, most ethicists today hold the view that there would be no point of talking about justice or fairness if it were not for the
conflicts of interest that are created when goods and services are scarce and people differ over who should get what. When such
conflicts arise in our society, we need principles of justice that we can all accept as reasonable and fair standards for determining
what people deserve. But saying that justice is giving each person what he or she deserves does not take us very far. How do we
determine what people deserve? What criteria and what principles should we use to determine what is due to this or that person? The
most fundamental principle of justice—one that has been widely accepted since it was first defined by Aristotle more than two
thousand years ago—is the principle that “equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally.” In its contemporary form, this
principle is sometimes expressed as follows: “Individuals should be treated the same, unless they differ in ways that are relevant to
the situation in which they are involved.” For example, if Jack and Jill both do the same work, and there are no relevant differences
between them or the work they are doing, then in justice they should be paid the same wages. And if Jack is paid more than Jill
simply because he is a man, or because he is white, then we have an injustice—a form of discrimination—because race and sex are
not relevant to normal work situations. There are, however, many differences that we deem as justifiable criteria for treating people
differently. For example, we think it is fair and just when a parent gives his own children more attention and care in his private
affairs than he gives the children of others; we think it is fair when the person who is first in a line at a theater is given first choice of
theater tickets; we think it is just when the government gives benefits to the needy that it does not provide to more affluent citizens;
we think it is just when some who have done wrong are given punishments that are not meted out to others who have done nothing
wrong; and we think it is fair when those who exert more efforts or who make a greater contribution to a project receive more
benefits from the project than others. These criteria—need, desert, contribution, and effort—we acknowledge as justifying
differential treatment, then, are numerous. On the other hand, there are also criteria that we believe are not justifiable grounds for
giving people different treatment. In the world of work, for example, we generally hold that it is unjust to give individuals special
treatment on the basis of age, sex, race, or their religious preferences. If the judge’s nephew receives a suspended sentence for armed
robbery when another offender unrelated to the judge goes to jail for the same crime, or the brother of the Director of Public Works
gets the million dollar contract to install sprinklers on the municipal golf course despite lower bids from other contractors, we say
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that it’s unfair. We also believe it isn’t fair when a person is punished for something over which he or she had no control, or isn’t
compensated for a harm he or she suffered. And the people involved in the “brown lung hearings” felt that it wasn’t fair that some
diseases were provided with disability compensation, while other similar diseases weren’t. There are different kinds of justice.
Distributive justice refers to the extent to which society’s institutions ensure that benefits and burdens are distributed among society’s
members in ways that are fair and just. When the institutions of a society distribute benefits or burdens in unjust ways, there is a
strong presumption that those institutions should be changed. For example, the American institution of slavery in the pre-civil war
South was condemned as unjust because it was a glaring case of treating people differently on the basis of race. A second important
kind of justice is retributive or corrective justice. Retributive justice refers to the extent to which punishments are fair and just. In
general, punishments are held to be just to the extent that they take into account relevant criteria such as the seriousness of the crime
and the intent of the criminal, and discount irrelevant criteria such as race. It would be barbarously unjust, for example, to chop off a
person’s hand for stealing a dime, or to impose the death penalty on a person who by accident and without negligence injured another
party. Studies have frequently shown that when blacks murder whites, they are much more likely to receive death sentences than
when whites murder whites or blacks murder blacks. These studies suggest that injustice still exists in the criminal justice system in
the United States. Yet a third important kind of justice is compensatory justice. Compensatory justice refers to the extent to which
people are fairly compensated for their injuries by those who have injured them; just compensation is proportional to the loss
inflicted on a person. This is precisely the kind of justice that was at stake in the brown lung hearings. Those who testified at the
hearings claimed that the owners of the cotton mills where workers had been injured should compensate the workers whose health
had been ruined by conditions at the mills. The foundations of justice can be traced to the notions of social stability, interdependence,
and equal dignity. As the ethicist John Rawls has pointed out, the stability of a society—or any group, for that matter—depends upon
the extent to which the members of that society feel that they are being treated justly. When some of society’s members come to feel
that they are subject to unequal treatment, the foundations have been laid for social unrest, disturbances, and strife. The members of
a community, Rawls holds, depend on each other, and they will retain their social unity only to the extent that their institutions are
just. Moreover, as the philosopher Immanuel Kant and others have pointed out, human beings are all equal in this respect: they all
have the same dignity, and in virtue of this dignity they deserve to be treated as equals. Whenever individuals are treated unequally
on the basis of characteristics that are arbitrary and irrelevant, their fundamental human dignity is violated. Justice, then, is a central
part of ethics and should be given due consideration in our moral lives. In evaluating any moral decision, we must ask whether our
actions treat all persons equally. If not, we must determine whether the difference in treatment is justified: are the criteria we are
using relevant to the situation at hand? But justice is not the only principle to consider in making ethical decisions. Sometimes
principles of justice may need to be overridden in favor of other kinds of moral claims such as rights or society’s welfare.
Nevertheless, justice is an expression of our mutual recognition of each other’s basic dignity, and an acknowledgement that if we are
to live together in an interdependent community we must treat each other as equals. The views expressed do not necessarily
represent the position of the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University. We welcome your comments,
suggestions, or alternative points of view.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss, “Justice, then, is a central part of ethics.”
Q2. Give an overview of the case.
Case (20
Marks)
Executive compensation has been in the news as part of an ongoing discussion of income inequality. But as James O’Toole, the
moderator of a panel called “Executive Compensation” at a recent meeting of the Business and Organizational Ethics Partnership at
Santa Clara University’s Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, said, there is a question as to whether a problem even exists. Are
executives paid what they’re worth, or too much? In addition to O’Toole, senior fellow in business ethics at Santa Clara University
and former Daniels Distinguished Professor of Business Ethics at the University of Denver’s Daniels College of Business, the panel
consisted of Leslie Denend, former CEO of Network General, former chairman of the board at Verifone, and former board member
at Exponent, McAfee and USAA; Tim Sparks, founder and president of compensation consulting firm Compensia; Edward Lawler,
Distinguished Professor of Business and director of the Center for Effective Organizations at the University of Southern California’s
Marshall School of Business; and Donna Morris, senior vice president of global people and places at Adobe. O’Toole started the
panelists out by asking how we evaluate corporate leaders. Is the sole criteria the extent of wealth created for shareholders? Or
should they also be judged by the way they produce those profits? Similarly, should CEOs be paid solely based on the company’s
performance, or are there fairness and other issues to consider? The panelists took turns giving their perspective on these initial
questions and then continued the discussion. Morris looked at the issue from the point of view of a practitioner. Compensation, she
said, is both an art and a science. “Ultimately we’re an IP-based business,” Morris said. “The core asset that we have goes home
every day. Rewards are as important to a bright new grad as to the executives that work for us.” Lawler said he started studying pay
50 years ago. “The gap between the lowest and the top has escalated enormously – this is a long-term trend,” Lawler said. It’s a
complex issue, he said, and can be looked at from the shareholders’ point of view or from the perspective of sustainability. “Things
are going better from the shareholder perspective than for sustainability,” Lawler said. Sparks said the demise of stock options and
the emergence of performance-based equity compensation have driven a lot of changes, especially in the tech industry, in recent
years. These trends can be traced to changes in the accounting treatment of different types of equity compensation. One question that
has arisen is how to disclose executive pay when it’s not clear how much equity the executive will actually receive, since that will be
based on performance, or how much it will ultimately be worth. Denend laid out five points for creating ethical compensation
packages, from the perspective of a board member. First, board members need to understand the context and expectations of the
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work they’re taking on. Board members are expected to be independent and devote enough time to the work, for example. Second,
board members should take the shareholders’ perspective. “Every dollar you don’t pay” in compensation is available to be distributed
to shareholders, he said. A third point, Denend said, is to make sure the pay is fair. This often means making sure people doing
similar jobs are paid the same, though he said it’s difficult because all boards want to judge that their management team is above
average. A second way to look at fairness is from top to bottom: Among companies in the same peer group, how much compensation
goes to the CEO, how much to the CEO’s direct reports, and how much to everyone else? Denend’s fourth principle was paying for
performance, though he noted that “the devil’s in the details.” The connection between pay and performance is not fully understood,
he said, but “it’s not always as direct as you think.” Finally, Denend said board members need to use good judgment and get advice:
“Sometimes when the numbers argue that you do one thing, step back and say, ‘What’s the right thing to do?'”
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the five point laid out by Denend for creating ethical compensation packages, from the perspective of a
board member.
Q2. Discuss the concept of performance-based equity compensation.
Case (20
Marks)
In an address to Bay Area government officials during the Center’s quarterly Public Sector Roundtable, Santa Clara County
Supervisor Joe Simitian spoke about affordable housing in the Bay Area, using the ongoing housing dispute at Palo Alto’s Buena
Vista Mobile Home Park as a case study. Although invisible to many, Buena Vista has been a fixture of Palo Alto since the 1920s.
But depending on how the litigation plays out, the mobile home park’s 400 residents (consisting of approximately 117 families and
100 children) face the very real possibility of having to leave their homes, their town, and maybe even the entire Bay Area. When
Simitian, the son of a teacher, moved to Palo Alto in 1967, he went to school with a group of kids from varying socio-economic
backgrounds. He shared classes with the son of an air conditioning mechanic, the daughter of a high school custodian, and the
daughter of the CEO of Hewlett-Packard. Simitian recalled that in 1967, nobody thought it unusual that kids of modest means went
to the same school as the daughter of HP’s CEO. These kids would eventually grow up to become mayors and middle school
teachers; there was no limit to what they could aspire toward. Unfortunately, Simitian said, the uncertain fate of the Buena Vista
Mobile Home Park vividly demonstrates that’s not the case in today’s Silicon Valley. A few years back, Buena Vista’s owners
decided they wanted to sell the mobile home property. Given the high demand for land in the Bay Area, it was reasonable to assume
that a developer would buy the park and immediately replace it with more lucrative housing. The average Buena Vista household
currently makes $35,000 per year. Rent at Buena Vista is approximately $750 per month. If the residents are forced to leave as part
of the sale, but wish to remain in Palo Alto, they’ll be faced with the prospect of paying three to four times that much. And the
neighboring cities aren’t much cost-friendlier. Despite the mobile home park’s invisibility, the people who live at Buena Vista do a
lot of the work that Palo Alto residents have come to rely on. One female resident makes sandwiches in the deli at Molly Stone.
Another works at the Four Seasons hotel in East Palo Alto. A third resident was the Rotary Club president of East Palo Alto.
Simitian noted that it’s harder to “otherize” people once you know who they are and what their place in the community is. The
dispute over the closure of Buena Vista is ultimately a city issue, but Simitian felt early on that something had to be done for the 117
families. Months and months of work have resulted in public backing from local newspapers, school board members, mayors,
council members, and an astoundingly successful rally in which 500 people from all parts of the economic spectrum gathered to
support their fellow community members. The city of Palo Alto and the county have now set aside millions of dollars to help settle
the dispute with the property owners and keep the residents of Buena Vista in their homes. Despite these impressive efforts, the
opposing parties are still deadlocked in litigation. With many questions unanswered for the residents of Buena Vista, the question
posed by Simitian to the Public Sector Roundtable was, “Do we have an ethical obligation to make the South Bay a place of
opportunity for all?” In Palo Alto in particular, there’s a 3-to-1 jobs-to-housing imbalance. When new housing does pop up, it’s
$4,000-a-month housing for people who work at high tech companies. Simitian explained that this Bay Area housing problem has
developed into a major traffic problem, as people who work in the Bay Area can no longer afford to live in the Bay Area. Monday
through Friday thousands of people shuffle in and out of the Bay Area from remote places like Tracy and Gilroy. These people aren’t
just sandwich makers and hotel concierges. They’re law enforcement officers, firefighters, and nurses. Additionally, local small
businesses are having great difficulty attracting employees. It’s a dynamic that Simitian believes does not create the kind of
community we’re looking for. One member of the Public Sector Roundtable suggested that the case of the Buena Vista Mobile
Home Park is an argument for the need for common good. In Simitian’s 1967 Palo Alto, everybody in the community was given a
shot. Not a guarantee, but a shot. Now as the community separates into those who can afford to live within the city limits and those
who cannot, that opportunity, the participant said, may very well get taken away. Some members of the community will matter-offactly
state that not everyone gets to live in Palo Alto, or Mountain View or Los Altos. The economics simply don’t justify it, they
reason. And while Simitian acknowledges that this may be true, he maintains that if we want to have the kind of community where
we can go to the deli and say “Hi Sally,” we need to do the best we can for as many as we can. So exactly who is responsible for
determining the fate of our community experience? The state? The city? The market? Simitian explained that it’s often human nature
to pass the buck and task someone else with solving the collective’s problem. But when a man in a crowd drops to the ground from
an apparent heart attack, isn’t it everyone’s responsibility to do whatever they can to help? Housing is usually a regional issue, but
it’s typically handled city by city. Simitian pointed out that one challenge is that different cities have different visions for what their
city is all about. For instance, the community members of a small, sleepy town might shy away from an initiative to bring affordable
housing within its borders because of the stigma that “affordable housing” implies. A lot has been made over the last few years about
the 117 families whose community member status hangs in the balance. The question has been raised: Why these 117 families?
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Simitian believes that one problem with talks about affordable housing is that the people who need the housing most are never in the
room when the conversation is happening. The abstract affordable housing dilemma does not often have a human dimension, but
with these 117 families, he pointed out, the human dimension is undeniable. You can go to the mobile home park and actually see
these people. It’s a real, immediate concern.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case.
Q2. Dis cuss the background of Mr. Joe Simitian.
Case (20
Marks)
There’s a new deputy sheriff in town and her name is Sally Quillian Yates, deputy attorney general of the United States. In
September, she announced significant Department of Justice policy shifts in the prosecution of corporate wrongdoing. Monday her
memo was clarified, making it even clearer that the DOJ wants companies to cooperate and do so in a timely way. The changes, six
of them listed below, are a sea change in leadership direction at the DOJ. The thrust of the changes moves from seeking the most
amount of money from corporate coffers to insuring that individuals are held accountable for crimes they commit on the corporate
watch. Is this a big deal? You bet. These new guidelines will likely change how executives and boards and ethics and compliance
functions divvy up internal investigations to protect interests that have been separated with these changes. No longer are the
employee accused and the company where that employee works going to find mutual benefit in a shared defense. Remember
“Prisoner’s Dilemma,” the economic game theory you learned in college that introduced the concept of win-win in negotiating. The
game proves that people do not always act rationally and sometimes can achieve a better outcome by cooperating than pursuing just
their self-interest. It uses captured criminals in separate interrogation rooms to demonstrate these effects. Each would get the best
outcome for himself if he turned in his fellow criminal but if they both act in their own self-interest, their punishment is even greater.
In other words, it was a win-win for them to collaborate and seek a solution that worked for both of them even though an initial
analysis might have led them to believe that not collaborating, or cooperating, with one another would serve their personal interests
more. In a beautiful, ironic twist, Yates is deploying the prisoner’s dilemma to turn up the heat on white-collar criminals. Yes, the
notion of two people choosing not to be truthful is a paradoxical choice to use in discussing how these policy shifts will change the
dynamics in corporate corruption investigations. Yates has introduced six key changes, outlined here, that effectively drive a wedge
between employee and employer when it comes to doing wrong in the name of a corporation. Now, internal corporate compliance
officers must share internal information implicating employees who acted badly—or their supervisors—or risk steeper fines or other
penalties. Prior to these changes, the company and the bad actor were in fact motivated to cooperate with one another to protect
criminal claims against the employee who broke the law and reduce fines the company would have to pay under the DOJ sentencing
guidelines. Yates has reset the playing field so that the company and the employee who has erred are each motivated to protect their
own interests by disclosing as much as possible about the other party. Predictions are that early examples will be made of corporate
executives to achieve deterrence, a shift from the goal of netting the most money possible in lucrative settlements to pursuing justice
and personal accountability. How will this change corporate and corporate compliance dynamics? Compliance has been ruling the
day in response to increasing regulation enacted to prevent more Enrons, AIGS, Big Pharma pricing issues and Volkwagen-like
unethical product design. Let’s hope these changes help the pendulum swing back to ethics with its emphasis on doing what is right
in the first place rather compliance’s concern with mitigating punishment when caught. Perhaps these changes will drive for a
separation of ethics from compliance in corporate life, a move I could support if ethics became the domain of leadership and human
resource professionals, rather than attorneys, as it should be now in order to cultivate a culture that helps employees to do the right
thing, even when no one is looking. Decisions are made more quickly with these conditions, in my view, and strategic and employee
alignment is easier to achieve, all of which bodes well for the business playing for long-term returns.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case.
Q2. How it is possible to separate ethics from compliance in corporate life.Debate.

Consumer Behaviour
Case Studies
case (20
Marks)
1. Sunder singh had studied only up to high school. He was now 32 years of age, lived alone in a rented room, and worked together
eight hour shift at on epetrol pump, then went to the other one for another eight hour shift. He had a girlfriend and was planning to
marry. One day when he returned to work, he got anote from his girlfriend that she was getting married to someone else and he need
not bother her. This was a terrible shock to sunder singh and he fell apart. He stopped going to work, spent sleepless nights, and was
very depressed. After a month, he was running low on his savings and approached his earlier employers to get back his job, but they
would not give him a second chance. He had to quit his rented room, and sold the few things that he had. He would do some odd
jobs at the railway station or the bus terminus. One day, nearly two years ago, he was very hungry and did not have any money and
saw a young man selling newspapers. He asked him what he was selling and he told him about Guzara(an independent, non profit,
independent newspaper sold by the homeless and economically disadvantaged men and women of this metro city). Sunder singh
approached the office and started selling the newspaper. He did not make lot of money, but was good at saving it. He started saving
money for a warm jacket for next winter. He was reasonably happy; he had money to buy food, and no longer homeless and shared a
room with two others. One day, with his savings he bought a pair of second hand nike shoes from the flea market. Sunder singh is
not unique among low income consumers, especially in large cities, in wanting and buying nike shoes. Some experts believe that low
income consumers too want the same products and service that other consumer wants. The working poor are forced to spend a
disproportionate per cent of their income on food, housing, utilities and healthcare. They solely rely on public transportation, spend
very little on entertainment of any kind, and have no security of any kind. Their fight is mainly for day-to-day survival.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case
Q2. Discuss about the plight of low income group people
case (20
Marks)
18. Winning firms nurture human capital, cherish customers and build mutually beneficial relationships with suppliers. They have
the abiliy to do better and better by making the right moves at right time. Companies such as Walmart, southwest airlines, FedEx,
Glaxo, intel have proved this beyond doubt again and again by delivering outstanding value to customers at a reasonable price. Sony
and APPle have endlessly identified new and surprising fields to enter—from the Walkman and Playstation to the iPod(iPad also)
and the iMac. Jeff Bezos at Amazon saw in 1994 that the internet could become a powerful platform vehicle for e-commerce and
that selling books online would work particularly well. Further down the line, Amazon concentrated consistently on changes that
would make it easier to buy books, from reviews and suggestions on other purchases to I-click ordering. Almost every change was
introduced keepingthe unique requirements of the customers in mind. Dell hs shown PC buyers that they do naot have to sacrifice
quality or state of the art technology to buy personal computers easily and inexpensively. In the mid-1980s, while Compaq focused
attention on making its PCs cheaper and faster than IBMs college student Michael Dell saw a chance to outdo both companies by
concentrating not on the product but on the delivery system. He realized that he could outsell others by eliminating middlemen.
Answer the following question.
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Q1. Give an overview of the case
Q2. What do the winning firms do?
case (20
Marks)
6. Shruti is a urbane woman. She is well educated and genteel. She is an officer in a national bank, and active in her club affairs and
community activities. Socialising is an important part of her life. She is a doer, interested in watching cricket, politics and current
affairs. Her life is hectic as she has a lot to do for home and office everyday. Still she often enjoys
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is your perception about shruti’s efficiency and effectiveness?
Q2. Are these types of customers easy or difficult to tackle?
case (20
Marks)
14. After the 1995 release of microsofts windows 95 multimedia operating system, every journalist started writing an obituary
column of apple inc and despite the best efforts of the then CEO Gil Amelio, the company was steadily moving towards bankruptcy.
When Steve jobs took over in 1976, not many people gave any chance to apple to survive the brutal competition in the personal
computer business. Steve did unleash many ruthless actions, that surprised many in the industry; in an attempt to put Apple back on
track. Steve cut all of the 15 desktop anmd portable models that apple was struggling to sell, back to one. He showed the door to
printers and peripherals. He cut development engineers. He cut software development. He cut distributors. He cut out virtually all
manufacturing, moving it offshore to Taiwan. This paved the way for reducing inventory by over 80 percent. Apple started selling
PCs through a new web store. Armed with the best operating system that he brought from NeXT, steve started serving customers
with a simplified product line through a limited set of outlets. Apple’s miraculous rise from the ashes, many researchers now
attribute to these well orchestrated, coordinated set of actions put in place by Steve in quick succession. Through Pixar, the ipod and
the iphone, steve revolutionised the major industries of movies, music and phones-creating and exploiting opportunities that came
along the way. A good strategy is a product of coherent design, the application of strength to capture most promising opportunity.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case
Q2. How Steve changed the fortune of Apple?

Human Resource Management
Case Studies
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The case study focuses on the HR problems faced by Honda Motor Cycle & Scooters India (HMSI). The case discusses the various
reasons which led to the dispute between the management and employees of HMSI. It elaborates the incidents, which led to the
strike at the company that resulted in HMSI workers being severely beaten up by the police. Labor strife and the management’s
inability to deal with it effectively had resulted in huge losses for the company due to the fall in the production level at the plant. In
addition to this, the company also received a lot of negative publicity as newspapers and TV channels gave wide coverage to the
violence of the action. It highlights the growing number of instances of clashes between the employees and the management of
companies in India, which is often guided by external parties such as trade unions and political parties.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give the factors that lead to labor unrest at a factory and the impact of such incidents on the employees and the
company
Q2. Explain HR policies adopted by organizations to prevent labor unrest at the workplace.
Q3. Analyze the role of external parties such as trade unions; political parties etc., in disturbing the working
environment in a company
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Recruitment has become an important process in the highly competitive labour market. The traditional methods of recruitment had
been revolutionized by the emergence of the Internet. e-Recruitment is the latest trend in the recruitment process and it has been
adopted in many organizations from large to small-sized companies. Many companies use e-Recruitment to post jobs and accept
resumes on the Internet, and correspond with the applicants by e-mail. The main success factors of e-Recruitment are the valueadded
services provided by the job sites, cost-effectiveness, speed, providing customized solutions, helping to establish relationships
with HR managers and facilitates brand building of the companies. Though there are many benefits to the employers and the job
seekers in e-Recruitment, it still has its own limitations and shortcomings. The case helps to analyze the pros and cons of e-
Recruitment and its increasing scope in the recruitment process of a company.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Compare the traditional recruitment process with e-Recruitment and also discuss the advantages and disadvantages
of e-Recruitment
Q2. Analyze the potential of e-Recruitment and the challenges faced by it.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
On July 24, 2008, two Muslim women filed a lawsuit against the world’s largest fast food restaurant chain, McDonald’s, its
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management company at Dearborn, Michigan, USA, and one of its managers, alleging that they had been discriminated against
during their job interviews because they were wearing the hijab. In the lawsuit filed in Wayne County Circuit Court, Michigan, the
women claimed that the discrimination had been going on for years and demanded US$10 million as compensation. The two women
Toi Whitfield (Whitfield) of Detroit, and Quiana Pugh (Pugh) of Dearborn alleged that the manager had told them that they would
not be considered for employment unless they removed their hijab. According to the women, Pugh had approached McDonald’s for
an interview in July 2008, while Whitfield had her interview in November 2006.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case.
Q2. Give your opinion on the discrimination of women, with full justifications
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Stress is a rising concern among employees, especially those belonging to the IT sector. It not only affects employees’ health and
productivity but also hampers the financial health of the company. The IT and health ministers became concerned about the effect of
stress in the IT sector in India – which was detrimental to employee health and likely to wipe off a large amount of national income
in India. Stress had hampered the professional and personal life of the employees which necessitated the need for a work life balance
in the organizations. Infosys Technologies had initiated various programs for the work life balance of their employees. The
systematic approach toward work life balance would help employees to attain individual as well as organizational goals.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the impact of stress on employee health and productivity.
Q2. Debate on the importance of the initiatives taken by Infosys on work life balance and their impact.

International Business
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are the functions of the distribution channels ? (10 marks)
Q2. Explain the types of data collected during marketing research. (10 marks)
Q3. Describe the functions of financial market. (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss the two modern theory of trade. (10 marks)
Q5. Write Short note on IBRD. (10 marks)
Q6. Write Short note on free trade & warehousing zones (FTWZ) (10 marks)
Q7. What are the objectives of IMF? (10 marks)
Q8. Explain theory of global competitiveness alignment (10 marks)

Marketing Management
Answer the following question.
Q1.
R.K.Industries Ltd., intends to launch a new folding exercise cycle in Indian market. As a marketing manager which
steps would you like to take while launching this product? How will you conduct the test marketing for this product.
Make necessary Assumptions and justify your answer.
(10
marks)
Q2. “Ware – housing decision are growingly becoming more critical” . Discuss quoting examples (10
marks)
Q3. What is Price sensitivity? (10
marks)
Q4. A New brand of a ‘Tyre –that-Never –punctures’ is to be launched in India by a multinational company with your
advice about concept – testing and test – marketing Justify your contention
(10
marks)
Q5. Advertisement expenses are usually wasteful, with no guarantee of enhanced sales or higher loyalty from among the
target audience” .Do you agree with this statement ?Present your view – point.
(10
marks)
Q6. Define the term Marketing Mix. Explain the significance of appropriate marketing mix in the present competitive
environment. Cite examples to support your answer.
(10
marks)
Q7. Explain Warehousing and Inventory Decisions (10
marks)
Q8. Explain Psychological Pricing (10
marks)

Marketing Management
Case Studies
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Ford Motors (Ford), one of the biggest manufacturers of automobiles in the US lost could not sustain its Lincoln brand due to
mismanagement. The company Concentrated more on its trucks division for profits and let its luxury car business slide. It faced
falling sales and profits due to a bloated product line, which was out of sync with the market. To get back to its former eminence,
Ford initiated the rebranding of its Lincoln luxury-car brand.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the concepts of brand, brand image and brand loyalty in the context of Ford.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Coca-Cola Company was universally recognized as a market leader in soft drinks with worldwide revenue of $23.1 billion and
presence in over 200 countries (2006). The Company manufactured beverage concentrates and syrups. The Coca-Cola Company
owned four of the world’s top five soft-drink brands, which included Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite. In America, sales of
carbonated drinks declined a little in 2005 as government campaigns and media coverage raised concerns over obesity. Bottled teas
and nutrition-enhancers were big opportunities for Coca-Cola. Sales of bottled teas were growing steadily and nutrient drinks had a
market of about $1 billion by 2006. According to a study conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, Americans opted
for a healthy alternative to their daily dose of energy instead of carbonated drinks. The study prompted Coca-Cola to go in for the
calorie burning Enviga. On 6th November, 2006, Coca-Cola along with Nestlé launched Enviga, a Nestea carbonated canned greentea
drink. Enviga burnt 60 to 100 calories per three 12-ounce cans in healthy adults aged between 18-35 years. For overweight
Americans, the release of Enviga was meant to bring good news. According to Coca-Cola, Enviga helped in reducing obesity. But
according to doctors green tea was unlikely to make anyone shrink, so the Center for Science in the Public Interest, an organization
that focuses on health and nutrition issues in US sued Coca-Cola and Nestle for their ad campaign of Enviga but the company had no
plans to change its claims. In the recent past Coca-Cola had already faced two soft-drink flops out of their four releases in the form
of Coca-Cola C2 and Vanilla Coke. What would Coca-Cola’s strategy be with the new drink? Would it be able to make it a success
despite the initial controversy that surrounded it? Would consumers take to Enviga?
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the trouble faced by Coca-Cola in 2005.
Q2. Debate Coca-Cola’s marketing strategies for Enviga and discuss whether Colca-Cola will succeed in its new
product.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The Indian watch industry was in a state of flux and market leader ‘Titan’ had to gear up its marketing strategies to retain its brand
positioning. Titan as a brand had established itself for its style and choice of design. Titan’s clear segmentation strategy had served it
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well and the challenge Titan faced was to combat the onslaught of popular international brands like Rado and Rolex. Would Titan be
able to match up by leveraging on its brand equity?
Answer the following question.
Q1. State the challenges faced by an Indian watch brand due to the entry of foreign players
Q2. Analyze the impact of brand equity for market sustenance.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Nike, one of the leading brands of athletic footwear, apparel, equipment and accessories is Oregon, US based company. It company’s
50% of the revenue comes from international sales and it registers it presence in more than 160 countries. Nike owns 400 retail
outlets which operate domestically as well as internationally. Over the past few years Nike’s subsidiaries have been performing well
and as a part of the company’s growth strategy and to maintain its position in the market Nike started concentrating on its subsidiary
business in the year 2006. With the acquisition of the Starter the company also envisaged to setup itself in the value retail. The case
analyses the impact of Nike’s subsidiary brand on its core brand.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the segmentation, targeting and positioning strategies of core brands and subsidiary brands.
Q2. Give an overview of the case.

Operation Management
Case Studies
Case study (20
Marks)
A new phenomenon called ‘Apparel on Demand’ is slowly making its presence felt. It is an extension of JIT linking retailers and
manufacturers for a just-in-time responsiveness. Nair Clothing Inc., promoted by a young management graduate has recently
ventured into the business of making reasonably priced custom jeans for women. It has partnered with many stores selling women
garments. In the stores, women are electronically measured and information like colour, fabric, style, etc., are recorded. The
information reaches the Nair manufacturing facility at Ahmedabad almost immediately through a state-of-the-art information
system. Nair guarantees delivery of the custom jeans within 10 days. With the growing acceptance of jeans among the women in
India, especially in the urban areas, the market for women’s jeans is growing at a fast pace. Nair with its unique business model
hopes to garner a significant share of this market. The promoter of Nair along with her top executives is confident that their concept
of JIT jeans would work.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Do you think Nair’s strategy would work? Why or why not? What is the importance of retailers in its business
strategy?
Q2. Will customers wait for 10 days to have the jeans delivered? What can Nair do to compete on customer service if
delivery takes this much time?
Case study (20
Marks)
After the 1995 release of Microsoft’s windows 95 multimedia operating system, every journalist started writing an obituary column
of apple inc and despite the best efforts of the then CEO Gil Amelio, the company was steadily moving towards bankruptcy. When
Steve jobs took over in 1976, not many people gave any chance to apple to survive the brutal competition in the personal computer
business. Steve did unleash many ruthless actions that surprised many in the industry; in an attempt to put Apple back on track.
Steve cut all of the 15 desktop and portable models that apple was struggling to sell, back to one. He showed the door to printers and
peripherals. He cut development engineers. He cut software development. He cut distributors. He cut out virtually all manufacturing,
moving it offshore to Taiwan. This paved the way for reducing inventory by over 80 percent. Apple started selling PCs through a
new web store. Armed with the best operating system that he brought from NeXT, Steve started serving customers with a simplified
product line through a limited set of outlets. Apple’s miraculous rise from the ashes, many researchers now attribute to these wellorchestrated,
coordinated set of actions put in place by Steve in quick succession. Through Pixar, the iPod and the iPhone, Steve
revolutionized the major industries of movies, music and phones-creating and exploiting opportunities that came along the way. A
good strategy is a product of coherent design, the application of strength to capture most promising opportunity.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case
Q2. Discuss the strategy used by Steve to capture the opportunity?
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Case study (20
Marks)
The demand for a product generally tends to follow a predictable pattern called the PLC. Product life cycle has been defined as an
attempt to recognize different distinct stages in the sales history of the product and a generalized model of sales and profit trends for
a product class or category over a period of time” The various stages are introduction, growth, maturity saturation and decline.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the introduction stage in brief.
Q2. Explain the maturity stage in brief.
Case study (20
Marks)
Finland-based Nokia Corporation (Nokia) is the world’s leading manufacturer of mobile devices. Analysts attributed Nokia’s success
to its supply chain management practices. The company had an integrated supply chain which inter-linked suppliers, manufacturing
plants, contract manufacturers, sales, logistics service providers, and the consumers. It entered into a long-term relationship with its
suppliers and also supported them in improving their processes, which in turn helped the company. Nokia was able to keep its costs
low because of its efficient manufacturing systems and processes. The company adopted a hybrid manufacturing system which was a
combination of in-house manufacturing and outsourcing. It also adopted the Smart manufacturing technique so as to enhance the
competitiveness of its manufacturing facilities Nokia comprised three business groups – Devices, Services, and Markets. These three
groups were supported by the Corporate Development Office. The Devices division developed and managed Nokia’s mobile device
portfolio, including the sourcing of components… The company had a wide distribution network which helped it to effectively reach
the end customers. Nokia has unique supply chain management practices. Despite the impact of global economic slowdown on
Nokia’s revenues and profitability, the company made its supply chain efficient to counter the impact of reduced demand of mobile
handsets.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the importance of efficient supply chain management practices in the success of any business.
Q2. Explain the operations of the supply chain management practices at Nokia.
Q3. Appreciate the need for a customized supply chain while operating in different countries.
Q4. Analyze the challenges faced by Nokia in the near future.

Operations Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. What is continuous improvement (CI)? What are the major tools for this philosophy?
2. What is the logic of Taguchi methods?
3. Describe briefly the steps to develop a forecasting system.
4. Regression and correlation are both termed “causal” methods of forecasting. Explain how they are similar in this respect and also how they are different.
5. Define the terms “Qualitative Methods”, “Trend Analysis Method (Time Series Method), and “Causal Forecast”. Describe the uses of them.
6. What do you see as the main problem with qualitative (judgmental) forecasts? Are they ever better than “objective” methods?
7. Describe total quality management (TQM).
8. Explain the process of collaborative planning? How is available to promise involved?

Principles and Practice of Management
Case Studies
Case (20
Marks)
This case is about the organization development (OD) initiatives undertaken at Whirlpool Corporation (Whirlpool) to create a new
core competency in the form of building an innovation culture within the organization. In the late 1990s, Whirlpool was faced with
stagnation in revenues, profits, and market share. According to analysts, this was a direct result of the stagnation in its product line
due to the lack of innovative products. Whirlpool used the services of Strategos, a consultancy firm, to develop I-consultants and
various I-mentors from within the organization, to form a coaching network to coach/mentor the employees and help them develop
an innovation mindset. The case discusses the various steps initiated by the top management at Whirlpool to bring about a change in
the company’s corporate culture and embed innovation as a core competency. Analysts felt that these efforts had borne fruit, judging
by the consistent growth in Whirlpool’s revenues since 2002.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the issues and challenges faced by a company in bringing about a change in organization culture.
Q2. Give the role of the senior management in culture change initiatives.
Q3. Explain the importance of coaching/mentoring in changing the organizational culture and creating a core
competency.
Q4. List out the uses of IT for Knowledge Management and Innovation management.
Case (20
Marks)
The Marketing manager of AMK Enterprises, Roopali Deshmukh (Deshmukh) stepped out of the conference hall in a pensive mood
after an important meeting called by the CEO. The meeting was attended by the heads of various departments in the company and
was convened to discuss the targets for the coming assessment year. Deshmukh had a formidable sales target to achieve and
wondered how she would be able to meet those seemingly impossible goals. This fear was further aggravated by the fact that the
productivity levels of employees in the company had been falling. Deshmukh was under tremendous pressure from the management
to improve the performance of her team. She also had to deal with the decreasing levels of employees’ morale in her 24-member
team. As a first step, Deshmukh informed her team members about a meeting that she planned to hold the next day. She then drafted
a plan of action that she intended to discuss with her team. The next day, Deshmukh began the meeting by informing her team
members about the corporate meeting she had attended. She then said, “We have a difficult task ahead for this year, and your
participation and involvement is essential to achieve the goals”. She then invited suggestions from her team members regarding the
role to be played by each of them. The meeting then progressed on to setting of individual targets for by each team member as, it was
felt that this would help in accomplishing the organizational goals. Specific goals were, therefore, set and agreed upon by all the
team members. The team aimed to increase the organizational profits by 18% over the next six months. They sketched out a plan of
action to achieve the targets set for the team and decided that they would meet once every two months to monitor their progress. Two
months later, the team met again and received their progress. Deshmukh also gave a feedback on the performance of every member
of the team. The team then collectively identified the areas of improvement and decided upon the measures they would take to
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overcome their deficiencies. This continued for the rest of the year. The final review meeting was held just before the yearly
corporate meeting attended by the top management. The team was surprised to see that they had achieved their targets. Thus,
effective planning and control mechanisms helped the team achieve their short term goals, and this in turn, helped in the
achievement of the organizational objectives. Besides, the employees were also motivated as the management gave adequate
recognition to their involvement and participation in achieving team goals. The target to be achieved by the team was highly
challenging. This further motivated the team members as they had better opportunities to prove their problems solving skills. Thus,
the outstanding performance of the sales team helped the organization achieve in the long term.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Roopali Deshmukh followed the practice of management by objectives (MBO) while setting goals for team
members. Discuss the various phases of the MBO process that helped her team achieve its goals.
Q2. Explain briefly the process of MBO and the various advantages of implementing MBO in organizations
Case (20
Marks)
This case talks about the environmental vs development issue that cropped up following the proposal by the government of the south
Indian state of Telangana to cut down thousands of trees in KBR Park located in the city of Hyderabad to lay new roads that would
ease traffic in the area. The civic body of the city, Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC), with the intention of easing
traffic snarls in Hyderabad, had taken up an ambitious project to construct flyovers at 54 junctions as a part of the Strategic Road
Development Project (SRDP). Of these, six flyovers were to be constructed around KBR Park. On May 2, 2016, the National Green
Tribunal (NGT), set up by the Government of India on October 18, 2010, under the Green Tribunal Act 2010 to handle cases
involving environmental issues, directed the municipal commissioner of the south Indian city of Hyderabad to withdraw the decision
to cut down thousands of trees in the iconic Kasu Brahmananda Reddy (KBR) national park, Hyderabad, as a part of the Strategic
Road Development Project (SRDP) GHMC proposed to axe thousands of trees as a part of the SRDP. KBR Park had a lot historical
significance and the people of Hyderabad were sentimentally attached to it. The decision taken by the State Government to cut down
the trees in the name of development, therefore, met with a lot of opposition. The National Green Tribunal (NGT) and the State High
court supported the people of Hyderabad by stopping the State Government from cutting down trees around KBR Park till further
hearing. However, the State Government was still confident about getting stay orders vacated by presenting the benefits that were
expected from the construction of the flyovers around KBR Park and by planting hundreds of trees as compensation. This issue once
again brought to the fore the dilemma faced by the urban planners in developing cities in a sustainable manner.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss Sustainable Development.
Q2. Debate the decision taken by the state Govt. and give your opinion with justification.
Case (20
Marks)
Ajay Sharma is manager -SU4, i.e. Sub Unit 4 and is direct uncharged of around forty five workers and ten supervisory staff. The
company is ISO9002 certificate holder and the policy clearly spells out objectives for all levels of employees. For the next two years.
Each unit has its own production target and any deviation from these targets is reflected in weekly reports prepared by head of units.
Ajay however is worried about his unit. Since he joined this new position to weeks ago, he has observed the functioning of the
workers and made notes on how they work. Out of 10 supervisors, only 2 of them have been recruited directly. But all the workers
show no difference of attitudes for direct supervisors. Ajay realized that his sub unit has defaulted on five occasions to meet the
target in the last 3 months. He emphasized the need to tackle this issue urgently. During his observations, Ajay noticed that a certain
supervisor, Chander Pal is most vocal and is seen discussing all issues with everybody in free time and is doing his a work very
efficiently. Ajay in a formal discussion with all his 10 supervisors raised the issue of failing to meet the weekly targets. He proposed
to form 3 work groups within the sub unit, who will be responsible for meeting weekly production targets and also for maintaining
performance ratings for individual workers. He suggested that Chander Pal should be the leader of these groups. He also made it
clear that there was no provision for performance related compensation or incentives. But based on the performance monitoring, we
will select a ‘Performer of SU-4’ on weekly basis. Ajay entrusted the following 3 major responsibilities to the groups. (a) Create
awareness on production target and quality. (b) Check the production achieved as against the targets on daily basis. (c) Monitor
individual performance.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss Ajay’s approach to the situation
Q2. Why Ajay has chosen Chander Pal as leader of group? Discuss the role of a group leader.
Q3. Whether the groups formed will show immediate results or not. Explain.
Q4. Debate the likely differences in departmental promoted and directly recruited supervisors.


GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT ISBM MBA MAY EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

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CONTACT:DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
COURSE : Total Marks : 80
Attempt any 8 question (10 marks each)
1) What are the elements of business environment?
2) Discuss and comment on the Industrial policy Resolution 1948.
3) Write a brief note on M.R.T.P Act.
4) What are the social responsibilities of business towards the community?
5) Point out the basic objectives of Investment.
6) Briefly state the guidelines of SEBI for the ‘Rights Issue”.
7) Enumerate the problems faced by small scale units.
8) Write short notes on MNCs.
9) Discuss the social environment of business.
10) Critically analyse the industrial licensing policy of India.
11) What is meant by social audit? Trace its evolution growth.
12) Discuss the role of SIDBI and NABARD in the promotion and development of SSI units.
13) Is foreign capital a necessary evil? Outline the features of Government policy towards foreign
capital.
14) Bring out the importance and different aspects of “Portfolio management’.
15) Explain the different environment affecting the business.
16) Discuss how political factors affect Business Environment.

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
COURSE : Total Marks : 80
N.B. : 1) All questions carry equal marks.
2) All questions are compulsory.
Q1) What is the Nature of international Business? (10 Marks)
Q2) Define a business environments. Evaluate critically the role of political
environment in international business? (10 Marks)
Q3) Define International strategic management and explain its nature and features? (10 Marks)
Q4) Analyze the environmental factor which affect international marketing. (10 Marks)
Q5) What are trade barriers? Explain tariff and non tariff barriers. (10 Marks)
Q6) What do you mean by international marketing strategies? Explain in brief the
factors to be considered in formulating marketing strategies. (10 Marks)
Q7) What are the factors that influence the choice of suitable channel for export
Marketing? (10 Marks)
Q8) What are the major elements of marketing mix? Discuss the role of 4Ps in
marketing. (10 Marks)

INTERCULTURAL MANAGEMENT & ETHICS
Total Marks : 100
Attempt all questions
All questions carry equal marks.(10 marks)
1. Explain ethical vision of management with reference to vedantic approach.
2. Give your view on “holistic for human values: Retrospect and Prospect”
3. Write a detailed note on morality in Indian corporate world.
4. Do you think ethics are essential for individual motivation or inspiration?
5. What is a role of leadership character in corporate ethics?
6. Write a detailed note on “Leadership Transformation: Insights from the Shastras”
7. Write a detailed note on “Transforming Work Ethos: The Subjective Secret”
8. State the different sources of ethics and values
9. Write a note on work ethics in India.
10. What is relationship between the Indian heritage and productivity.
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INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
Total Marks: 100
1) Attempt all questions
2) All questions carry equal marks. (10 marks)
Q.1) What is exchange rate determination and forecasting?
Q.2) Explain financial management in a global context.
Q.3) Explain in detail:
a) Accounting implications of international activities
b) Tax implications of international activities
Q.4) What is forwards, swaps and interest Parity?
Q.5) Explain short-term financial management in a multinational corporation.
Q.6) Explain long-term borrowing in the global capital markets.
Q.7) What are different currency options?
Q.8) Explain currency and interest rate futures.
Q.9) Write a detailed note on the foreign exchange market in India
Q.10) What is balance of payments?
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INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Total Marks : 100
Attempt all questions
All questions carry equal marks.(10 marks)
1. What is International human resource management? Explain nature of
international human resource management.
2. Explain role of multiculturalism in international human resource management.
3. Explain significance of HRM in cross-border mergers & acquisitions.
4. Explain Strategic HRM.
5. What is staffing of international business?
6. What is international compensation management?
7. Write a detailed note on ethics & social responsibility.
8. What is performance management?
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9. Write down the importance of training & development.
10. Write a detailed note on international industrial relations.


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PROJECTS
CASE STUDY : 1
The sales of a certain product during a 15 year period have been as follows.
Period Sales Period Sales Period Sales
1 1000 6 2050 11 2950
2 1150 7 1900 12 3500
3 1320 8 2400 13 4050
4 1600 9 2650 14 4250
5 1750 10 3040 15 4600
Q1) Find the least squares regression line for the data given?
Q2) For the data given above, assume that the forecast for period 11 was 3250. If it is equal to 0.4 derive
the forecasts for the periods 12 to 15, using the exponential smoothing period?
Q3) Explain moving average method?
Q4) For the data given in this problem, set n equal to 4 and develop forecasts for the periods 12 to 15 using
the moving average method?
CASE STUDY : 2
Your company is considering two projects – Project M and Project N, each of which requires an initial outlay
of Rs 50 million. The expected cash inflows from these projects are :-
Year Project M Project N
1 Rs 11 Million Rs 38 Million
2 19 22
3 32 18
4 37 10
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Q1) What is the payback period for each of the projects?
Q2) What is the discounted payback period for each of the projects if the cost of capital is 12 percent?
Q3) If the two projects are independent and the cost of capital is 12 percent which project (s) should the firm
invest in?
Q4) If the two projects are mutually exclusive and the cost of capital is 10 percent, which project should the
firm invest in?
CASE STUDY : 3
Praveen B a Ph D in molecular biology, is working as a professor in the International Science Institute.
Based on this research work, he has developed an enzyme which he believed has commercial potential.
Praveen B has set up Enzy Laboratories to commercially develop the product.
Enzy Lab. Has approached Gamma Venture Capital with a funding request for Rs 200 million by way of
equity. Gamma requires a rate of return of 30 per cent from its equity investment in Enzy and its planned
holding period is 5 years. Enzy has projected an EBITDA of Rs 300 million for year 5, which Gamma
considers to be credible. Gamma believes that an EBITDA multiple of 6 for year 5 to be reasonable. At the
end of year 5, Enzy is likely to have a debt of Rs 200 million and a cash balance of Rs 80 million.
Q1) What share in equity of Enzy will Gamma ask for?
Q2) What factors generally influence valuation of VC deals?
Q3) What incentive mechanisms are usually incorporated in VC deals?
Q4) Discuss the considerations an entrepreneur like Praveen B should bear in mind while approaching a VC
Fund?
CASE STUDY : 4
Sam Company has 20 million equity shares outstanding. The book value per share is Rs 40 and the market
price per share is Rs 120. Sam Company has two debentures issues outstanding. The first issue has a face
value of Rs 300 million, 12 percent coupon, and sells for 90 percent of its face value. It will mature in 5
years. The second issue has a face value of Rs 200 million, 14 percent coupon, and sells for 102 percent of
its face value. It will mature in 6 years. Sam Company also has a bank loan of Rs 200 million on which the
interest rate is 15 percent.
Q1) What are Sam Company’s capital structure weights on a book value basis?
Q2) What are Sam Company’s capital structure weights on a market value basis?
Q3) Which weights would you use?
Q4) Why explain in detail?


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Course : Masters Program in Business Administration (MBA) Subject : Business Communication

Answer the following question.

Q1. What is group discussion? How is it Evaluated? And what is the techniques of GD (10 marks)
Q2. Mention Checklist for interview preparation (10 marks)
Q3. Define Interview & explain any 5 types in details (10 marks)
Q4. Explain 7 phases of negotiating tactics (10 marks)
Q5. State some Strategies to overcome Stage fear (10 marks)
Q6. Why do listening barriers succeed? (10 marks)
Q7. What are the different barriers of Communication (10 marks)
Q8. Explain two way process of Communication with diagrammatical representation (10 marks)

Course : Specialisation
Subject : Hospitality Management

Answer the following question.

Q1. Discuss about sport tourism? (10 marks)
Q2. Describe about food service innovations? (10 marks)
Q3. Describe about floating hotels & government houses? (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss about hygiene, sanitation & safety (10 marks)
Q5. Which rules are covered in agreement by travel agency revenue? (10 marks)
Q6. Which relationships are provided by the international chain to individual owners? (10 marks)
Q7. Classify food &beverage facilities? (10 marks)
Q8. Explain about housekeeping department? (10 marks)

Course : Specialisation
Subject : Human Resource Management

Answer the following question.

Q1. What are the pay-surveys? And whats its usefulness? (10 marks)
Q2. Discuss 360 degree method of performance evaluation? (10 marks)
Q3. What are the factors affecting Job Design? (10 marks)
Q4. What are the various categories of difficult employees? (10 marks)
Q5. What are the main functions of Trade Unions? (10 marks)
Q6. Write short note on Ownership (10 marks)
Q7. What are the alternatives of Recruitment? (10 marks)
Q8. What is Management By Objectives (MBO)? (10 marks)

Course : Masters Program in Business Administration (MBA) Subject : International Business

Answer the following question.

Q1. Discuss the needs of conducting international marketing research. (10 marks)
Q2. Define international marketing research. (10 marks)
Q3. What is absolute advantage in international business ? (10 marks)
Q4. Describe on international chambers of commerce. (10 marks)
Q5. Discuss about organization structure of the WTO (10 marks)
Q6. Explain international economic law. (10 marks)
Q7. Explain different types of dumping (10 marks)
Q8. What is agricultural & village industry facility in special focus initiatives? (10 marks)

Course : Masters Program in Business Administration (MBA) Subject : Organizational Behaviour

Answer the following question.

Q1. Discuss about the contemporary organizational challenges in Indian industrial scenario (10 marks)
Q2. Discuss about the contemporary organizational challenges in Indian industrial scenario (10 marks)
Q3. What is Job Analysis? How do you determine various performance criteria? (10 marks)
Q4. Define leadership and briefly explain important leadership theories (10 marks)
Q5. Define Conflict. What are the sources of organizational conflict? How do we solve interpersonal conflict? (10 marks)
Q6. Some critics have argued that “People first” approach do not lead to high profits. Give your views. (10 marks)
Q7. Discuss the importance of values (10 marks)
Q8. Define communication (10 marks)

Course : Masters Program in Business Administration (MBA) Subject : Principles and Practice of Management

Answer the following question.

Q1. Write a short note on Principle of scalar Chain & Staffing as function of management (10 marks)
Q2. Management is what management does. Explain. (10 marks)
Q3. Write a detailed note on seven out of FAYOL’s 14 principles of Management. (10 marks)
Q4. Explain factors influencing group cohesiveness. (10 marks)
Q5. Explain main tools of operational research in decision making. (10 marks)
Q6. Difference between (i) authority & responsibility (ii) authority & power. (10 marks)
Q7. Discuss steps of planning. (10 marks)
Q8. Which variables must be considered in establishing the span of control? (10 marks)


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Quantitative Methods
Page 1 Out of 1
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks
1. Three numbers, whose sum is 12, are in AP. If 1,2 and 6 are added to them, the resultin g
numbers are in GP. Find the numbers
2. Average rainfall on a city from Monday to Saturday is 0.3 inch. Due to heavy rainfall on
Sunday, the average rainfall for the week increased to 0.5 inch. What was the rainfall on
Sunday?
3. Calculate median from the following data
Marks 10-25 25-40 40-55 50-70 70-85 85-100
Frequency 6 20 44 26 3 1
4. Given the following results of the height and weight of 1000 students. The mean height is 170
cm, the mean weight is 75 kg. the standard deviation of the height and weight are 6 cm and 6
kg respectively r = 0.6. amit weighs 50 kg, sumeet is 1.5 m tall. Estimate the height of Amit
from his weight and the weight of sumeet from his height
5. In a sample of 500 people from a village in rajasthan, 280 are found to be rice eaters and rest
wheat eaters. Can we assume that both the food articles are equally popular?
6. In a binomial distribution 31% of the items are under 45 and 8% are over 64. Find the mean
and variance of the distribution
7. In a large number of group of children 55% are under 60 cm heighty nd 40% are between 60
and 65 cm. Assuming a normal distribution, find the mean and SD of height
8. Construct index number form the data by applying Marshall edge worthmethod
Commodity Price 2004 Quantity Price 2006 quantity
A 2 8 4 6
B 5 10 6 5
C 4 14 5 10
D 2 19 2 13

Research Methodology
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. The monthly income of two persons are in the ratio 4:5 and their monthy expenditures are
in the ratio 7:9. If each saves rs. 50 per montrh, find their monthly incomes.
2. A tour operator charges rs. 136 per passenger for 100 passengers with a discount of rs. 4
for each 10 passengers in excess of 100. Determine the number of passengers that will
maximize the amount of money the tour operator services.
3. A firm has current sales of rs. 50000 e0.02t per month. The firm wants to embark upon a
certain advertising campaign that will increase the sales by 2% every month over the 12
months period ofcampaign. Find total increase of sales as a result of the campaign.
4. There are two branches of an establishment employing 200 and 160 persons respectively.
If the AMs of the monthly salaries paid by the two branches are rs. 550 and rs. 450
respectivvely, find AM of the salaries of the employees of the establishment as a whole.
5. Calculate the median for the following frequency distribution
Marks 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 45-50
No of
students
7 15 24 31 42 30 26 15 10
6. For the cost function y = 500x – 40×2 + 3×3 for x units, find the average cost, marginal
cost and marginal average cost.
7. A man borrows rs. 1500 and agrees to repay the debt in 5 equal instalmenst with 6%
interest, compounded annually. If the first payment is to be made at the end of the first
year, how much should each payment be?
8. A manufacturer can sell x items per month at a price of P = 300 – 2x rupees. Producing x
items cost the manufacturer y rupees where y = 2x + 1000. How much production will
yield maximum profit.


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GENERAL MANAGEMENT
Total Marks : 80
CASE-1 : ATTEMPT ANY 4 CASES, EQUAL MARKS PER CASE (20 Marks)
Case on Discomfort in a factory and Management Decision Making
Mohan remembered the call from the head office as he puts down the telephone receiver. His boss
from head office he said, “I just read your analysis and I want you to go down to our plant in Kollakal
near Mysore right away. You know we cannot afford this plant any more – the costs are just too high.
So go down there, check out what would be our operational costs would be if we move, and report
back to me in a week.”
Mohan knew the challenge quite well as the branch manager of the Good will Specialty Products. His
company is into manufacturing of special apparel for injured and people with other medical conditions.
He needs to deal with high-cost labor in a remote village not so sophisticated plant, unionized
manufacturing plant. Although he had done the analysis there were 480 people who made a living at
this facility and if it is closed most of them will find it very difficult to get another job in the small
town consisting of about 10 000 people.
Instead of the Rs.20/- per hour paid to the Kollakal workers the wages paid to the migrant workers near
Aurangabad will be much cheaper Rs.7/- hour working in sub human conditions. This provides a
saving of 15 lakhs to the company for a year, which, can now be used to meet the costs for training,
transportation and other matters.
After two days of talking with Migrant workers association and representatives of other companies
using the same services in the town, Mohan had enough information to formulate alternative plan for
production and the cost figures for production and transportation. What was bothering him was only
the thought that how is going to handover the termination of service notice to the Kollakal workers.
The plant in Kollakal had been in operation since 1930s making special apparel for persons suffering
from injuries and other medical conditions. Mohan has often talked to the employees who would
recount stories of their fathers and grant fathers working in the company plant-the last of the original
manufacturing operations in the town.
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But friendship aside competitors had already edged past Good will in terms of price and were
dangerously close to overtaking it in product quality. Although Mohan and his Boss had tried to
convince the union to accept the lower wages, union leaders resisted it. In fact, in one occasion when
Mohan tried to discuss a cell manufacturing approach, which would cross train employees to perform
up to three different jobs, local union leaders could barely restrain their anger. Yet probing beyond
their anger Mohan sensed their vulnerability, but could not break through.
Tomorrow he will discuss his report with the CEO. Mohan does not want to be responsible for
dismantling of the plant at Kollakal, an act, which Mohan believes is personally wrong, but he is
helpless. Mohan said to himself “The costs are too high, the union’s unwilling to cooperate, and the
company needs to make a better return on its investment if it has to continue at all. It sounds right, but
it feels wrong. What should I do?
Questions :
1. Assume you want to lead the change to save the Kollkal plant. Describe how you would proceed?
2. What is the primary type of change needed – technology, product, structure or people/culture?
3. What techniques would you use to overcome union resistance and implement change?
CASE-2 (20 Marks)
A small group of managers at Falcon Computer met regularly on Wednesday mornings to develop a
statement capturing what they considered to be the ‘Falcon Culture’. Their discussions were wideranging,
covering what they thought their firm’s culture was, what it should be and how to create it.
They were probably influenced by other firms in their environment since they were located in the
Silicon Valley area of California. Falcon computer was a new firm, having been created just eight
months earlier. Since the corporation was still in the start- up phase managers decided it would be
timely to create and instill the type of culture they thought would be most appropriate for their
organization. After several weeks of brain storming, writing, debating, and rewriting, the management
group eventually produced a document called ‘Falcon Values’, which described the culture of the
company as they saw it. The organizational culture statement covered such topics, as treatment of
customers, relations among work colleagues, preferred style of social communication, the decision
making process, and the nature of working environment.
Peter Richards read over the Falcon values statement shortly after he was hired as a software trainer.
After observing managerial and employee behaviors at Falcon for a few weeks, he was struck by wide
discrepancy between the values expressed in the document and what he observed as actual practice
within the organization. For example the Falcon values document-contained statements such as this:
“Quality; attention to detail is our trademark; our goal s to do it right the first time. We intend to
deliver defect free products and services to customers on the date promised.”
However Richards had already seen shipping reports showing that a number of defective computers
were being shipped to customers. And his personal experience supported his worst fears. When he
borrowed four brand-new Falcon computers from the shipping room for use in a training class he
found that only two of them started up correctly without additional technical work on his part.
Another example of the difference between the Falcon Values document and actual practice concerned
this statement on communication: “Managing by personal communication is part of the Falcon way.
We value and encourage open, direct, person to person communication as part of our daily routine.”
Executives bragged about how they arranged their chairs in a circle to show equality and to facilitate
open communications whenever they met to discuss the Falcon values document Richards had heard
the “open communication” buzzword a lot since coming to Falcon, but he hadn’t seen much evidence
of such communication. As a matter of fact all other meetings used a more traditional layout with top
executives at the front of the room. Richards believed that the real organizational culture that was
developing at Falcon was characterised by secrecy and communications that followed the formal chain
of command. Even the Falcon values document Richard was told had been created in secret.
Richards soon became disillusioned. He confided in a coworker on afternoon “the falcon values
document was so at avarice with what people saw everyday that very few of them took it seriously.”
Employees quickly learned what was truly emphasized in the organization-hierarchy, secrecy, and
expediency and focused on those realities instead, ignoring many of the concepts incorporated in the
values document. Despite this frustration Richards stayed with Falcon until it filed for bankruptcy two
year later. “Next time” he thought to himself as he cleaned out his desk “ill pay more attention to what
is actually going on, and less to what top management says is true. Furthermore, I guess you just can’t
create values.”
Questions
1. What is more important the statement in a corporate culture document or actual managerial
behaviour?
2. Why did the Falcon executives act as they did?
3. Why didn’t employees like Richards blow the whistle on Falcon, challenging the inconsistency
between values and behaviour?
4. How can executives go about changing the old values that govern an organization?
CASE-3 (20 Marks)
Study the case below.Discuss customer insight? Define CRM,role and advantages for todays
management?
Archana Tuli (Owner of a water purifier): Look at my water purifier. Last week a person came to my
house saying my service contract was up for renewal. Mind you, that was the first time in 10 months I
was seeing anyone from Purifo. I did not like his barging into my time without prior notice. But that
did not bother him. He had a list to clear, never mind if I was in the midst of cooking lunch.
I asked him about the servicing, since under the maintenance contract the company should have
serviced the unit twice that year. ” You should have called the company,” he said. But that was a
preventive maintenance contract and it was for the company to call and take a date.
Finally, he set about servicing the machine. I found that his handling of the machine was rather
clumsy. He dropped the casing twice and strewed the carbon all over the sink. I discovered that he was
just four months old in the Company. Before that, he used to sell plastic boxes. Is this what I get for
being your customer?
Then he said the filter candle needed to be changed which I would have to pay for. That annoyed me. I
showed him the contract, which clearly stated that the company would replace the candle once a year
at its cost. He did not know that. Would you believe that? Clearly such service contracts are simply a
means to make money. There is no attitude to servicing. He came because it was February and he had
contract renewal targets to complete. He came without calling, expecting we would drop everything
else to serve him. He had no clue as to what he had to give the customer for the contract. He messed up
my kitchen and did not even attempt to tidy it up.
The worst was that when I started the machine, the water would not flow. I was furious. Purifo sends
incompetent, inexperienced people to cut costs. I carry the responsibility of providing my family a
safe, hygienic environment at home, so I am prepared to pay for preventive maintenance. But what did
I get?
But it is a good product and I am an informed consumer who knows how to work around a
manufacturer’s inefficiency. I simply gave the service contract to a private firm. I don’t want to have
anything to do with Purifo.
Ritikant Sharma (Credit Card holder): Every month, I receive a credit card bill and my payment is sent
the very next day. Five months ago, the bill did not come on the 22nd evening as it normally would. I
received the bill 10 days later with a charge of Rs. 675/- for overdue interest. I was taken aback and
called up by the bank. But the bank manager argued that the bill had been sent earlier. It was my word
against his.
I wrote to Monet Bank, protesting against this undue charge. Eventually, after six letters from me,
including one to the managing director, the bank ” waived” the interest. But I was left with a bitter taste
in my mouth. I wondered why the bank did this to me. Did I deliberately delay payment? I had this
card for three years and not once had I defaulted on payment.
I also wondered if the bank considered the cost of this argument to me. Was it worth the Rs. 675/-?
Why was the customer not right this time? And what about all those times when I paid four days
before the due date? I was amazed that the bank treated me like an errant schoolboy. Since then I have
not felt good about using the Monet credit card.
Worse, every month the bill continues to show the overdue interest and every month there is a fresh
exchange of letters on the matter. Only last week I received an invitation to become a member of
another credit card company. I am planning to surrender the Monet Card.
Divya Mathur (Owner of a washing machine): You say I am an important customer of Crysta. Great.
But for your customer service cell, I am just a number. For six months now, I have been having
problems with the washing machine. Last month, when I called the customer service cell to follow up
an old complaint about the motor, the lady who took the call asked me to repeat the details: model
number, date of purchase, and the like. When I pointed out that all these details had been given several
times before and all she needed to do was check the complaint order number, her response was
shocking. ” May be, but I can’t boot the system. I am only standing in for someone who has not
reported today. So, you have to give the details again.” She said.
Tell me what am I getting for being your customer? Respect? Good handling? No. Now you come here
and ask me personal details like family income, number of members, husband’s designation. You still
haven’t told me why you need all this information. You are researching. Are you collecting this
information to help your company or me?
Then there was the problem with the V-belt. Within a day of replacing it, there were some cracking
sounds. The engineer said he would have to wait for the senior supervisor to examine it. Reason? ” We
recently changed our supplier and all his pieces are turning out to be defective.” I was taken aback. It
frightened me to know that there was no quality check at your end. We outsource a lot of stuff for our
garment business, but every button and needle is checked before it is used. We are not a multinational,
just an old family-managed business.
Radhika Iyer (School Teacher): That feeling for the customer is simply not there. The customer is not a
person but a collective noun. If the customer was important, wouldn’t my water purifier Company tell
me when it changed the service agent? When I called the number in my contract card, I discovered that
the number now belonged to a courier company. I had to call the head office in Mumbai and get the
new service agent’s number in Delhi.
Is this fair? Or does it matter? I guess the Company’s attitude was: ” If a customer needs service, let her
break her back and spend money to find out who the new agent is. ” The only motives are profits and
sales volumes. Not customer loyalty or service. Therefore a customer is one who buys your product,
not one who has bought your product. Once you’ve bought the product you are a ‘has been’. Why
would you want to invest energy in a set of people to whom a sale has been made? You spend energy
as long as a sale is not made. Once a sale is done, it is for the customer to invest energy in sustaining
his relationship with the manufacturer. Isn’t that how it is? The manufacturer’s attitude is-you need me
more than I need you, so guess who should work harder?
And everyone once in a while, there is a new face at my door asking me if I own a Zento purifier.
Dammit, don’t you have a customer file? No, he says. We go from door to door. Splendid. Then what
do you do with all the data you collect? And every one of these men asks me the same questions: when
did you buy it, what is your model number, is it working properly? The worst is: ” What is your
address?” I don’t care what the information is being used for. But I don’t want to be disturbed for
information, which you already have.
We believe that because India now manufactures Coke and Mercedes, we have progressed. But this
new market is no different from the gray market, where you can buy anything but cannot expect
service. For instance, I bought a packet of macaroni, which said I had to boil it in 250 ml of water. I
did that, but after the prescribed five minutes of boiling, there was enough water left in the pan. I then
boiled it for another three minutes, and the pasta dissolved into a unrecognizable mass.
One day, I met someone who worked for this macaroni company. I told him about my experience. He
said I should let the pan rest for five minutes after turning off the heat. The residual water would get
absorbed. That worked. Couldn’t the firm have said so on the pack? Or is it cheaper to let the customer
learn? Does the Company use experienced hands-on cooks while designing these products or are they
MBAs who can’t tell a stove from a cigarette lighter?
I bought a jar of mayonnaise the other day. The label said it should be used within six months. Of
what? Of the date of manufacture or of the date of opening the seal? Do I refrigerate it or not? It takes
us back to what I said before: once the sale has been made, the consumer does not matter anymore.
The sale is not on the customer’s involvement, loyalty or satisfaction. It never was; it will never be.
DIPANKAR BARUAH (Cell Phone Owner): There are numerous messages that are flashed on the cell
phone to announce the sale of wedding suits, printers, shoes, or TV programmes, or updates on cricket
scores. These messages usually send out a single, short beep. Only personal messages are announced
with a long, continuous beep. Last week, I was distracted by six ad messages for a chocolate. And all
of them were long beeps. It made me mad because I was in the midst of meeting clients and that kind
of triviality is distracting.
The cell phone is a great device. It helps me catch messages, which I would otherwise have missed.
But I don’t want it to distract me during a meeting. Please respect my privacy. The cell phone is for my
convenience, not for the convenience of callous advertisers. Now, I leave the cell phone with the
secretary and she calls me only if the message is a personal one.
Tell me, has the advertiser benefited? He sought to get his messages across to 1,50,000 subscribers at
one go. It appears to me that my cell phone has become a cheap medium for advertising. Since it has
done me the favour of selling me the cell phone, the cell phone operator can pass on my personal
details to advertisers without even asking me. The cell phone is a private medium of communication,
not a public address system like a radio.
We have allowed a million new products to enter the country but along with that, we have not allowed
the market mindset to evolve or grow. Few people realize that the customer needs to be treated with
respect.
BERYL DIAS (owner of a laser printer): This printer cost me Rs. 28,000. My company did not fund it.
I saved for it for a year. Saving that kind of money was not easy. I wanted the best, which is what I
thought I got when I bought it., It worked very well and I know it is a good product. But that’s where
my ecstasy ends.
One day, the paper jammed and I needed help. So I called up the company. The lady who took the call
said: ” You will have to bring the printer here, we are not going to come there.” I felt that was very
hostile. I expressed surprise that their service engineers would not come to my home. The lady gave
me a silly reason. ” If your mixie breaks down wouldn’t you take it to the service center?” Maybe she
took the liberty to talk down to me because I was a woman and I operated a home office. But there’s a
world of difference between a Rs. 2,500 mixie and a Rs. 28,000 printer. But she was surly from the
word go. Worse, their office was located very far from where I lived and going there would mean
wasting an entire morning.
It was her surly behaviour that angered me the most. I recall how the sales engineers hovered around
me when I had first contacted the company for a brochure. For three weeks someone from the
company would call me practically daily. They virtually pushed me into buying the printer. I
remember I still had the last Rs.1,500 /-to save up, when they decided to give me a Rs.1,000/- discount
to hasten my decision. Their sales pitch mesmerized me. Today, I am just a statistic. I can almost hear
them saying: “You have no choice. If your printer is not working, that’s your problem. If you live afar,
that’s also your problem.!”
I had not considered the after – sales trauma when I brought the printer. I assumed that the company
would come home to repair it, as other companies do for other products. They did not tell me about
their service terms at the time of the sale. It was not important, I guess. For, all they wanted was my
Rs.28, 000/-.
To repair the printer, I went through an agent, who lost my complaint order papers, forgot to intimate
the company about the part I wanted and made me wait for four weeks before the printer was repaired.
Then I discovered it had not been repaired at all. I decided then that I wouldn’t have anything to do
with the company ever again. I sold that printer and brought another brand after ascertaining that there
was a service agent close by. My old printer was state of the art, but the real differentiator is the effort
a firm is willing to put into customer service.
CASE-4 : (20 Marks)
Company Social Responsibility & AIDS
The AIDS epidemic today is unparalleled in the challenges it poses to the world, and it is clearly an
issue that no one can address alone. Business is an essential partner in the response to AIDS. The
private sector like the other sectors is not immune from AIDS. Involvement of the private sector in the
response to HIV/AIDS is crucial to the success of our country’s efforts against the epidemic.
Questions
1. What is the impact of AIDS on businesses? Do you agree that businesses in the near future would
be actively interested in addressing the issue of AIDS? Justify your answer
2. ABC Corporation wants to partner with an NGO and address the issue of AIDS around its factory,
discuss what steps should ABC Corporation take to initiate, manage and sustain its partnership
with the NGO .
CASE-5 : (20 Marks)
Read the following case study and answer the questions that follow
Prakash Gupte is a sales representative with Beta Water Purifiers. Prakash is a star sales representative
with the highest sales turnover record for 5 consecutive months. He is an aggressive and a dynamic
sales person with a strong target-orientation. His marketing manager Shreyans Desai is very proud of
his accomplishments. Based on his performance appraisal, Prakash has been promoted to the rank of
Assistant Manager (Marketing). He is now required to supervise the work of 6 sales representatives
and to manage sales targets for his area.
After assuming charge as an Asst. Marketing Manager, Prakash set the targets for the first month and
communicated these to the sales representatives in a direct and explicit manner. 4 sales representatives
found the targets to be too ambitious but reserved their comments. After the meeting they discussed the
issue informally and dispersed. Prakash called the fortnightly review meeting to take stock of the
situation. He was extremely disappointed to know that all the six representatives were trailing behind
in target achievement. He was very blunt in communicating his disappointment and told their team to
get their targets by the end of the month. After the meeting, all the six representatives expressed their
displeasure with the meeting and found the demand of Prakash unreasonable. They commonly
perceived him to be a difficult person to deal with. They thought of approaching Shreyans for this.
Harish and Sameer, two of the representatives met Shreyans and discussed this with him. Shreyans was
a little upset with Prakash, but he thought to himself that Prakash is very efficient but lacks tact to
work with people. He assured the duo that he will speak to Prakash in this regard.
Shreyans called Prakash for an informal chat and advised him to go a little easy with people. Prakash
was clearly agitated about this since he took this as a personal affront, as he sensed during this meeting
that someone must have complained about his behavior to Shreyans. Instead of going easy with the
team, he turned more bitter in his approach. He called a meeting of all the sales representatives, and
indirectly communicated his displeasure with the incident. He once again made it clear that the targets
were attainable but needed a greater sense of commitment from the group. Obviously the sales
representatives did not like this. At the month-end briefing, Prakash was absolutely disappointed with
the team for having under-achieved on the targets’ count. He rebuked them for going slow on their
work and told them sternly to adhere to the targets in the next month. Deepak, on of the sales
representatives, objected to highly monthly targets and suggested that the targets be made more
reasonable. To this Prakash retorted by saying that the targets were absolutely reasonable. Obviously
the team was disheartened with this. They all decided to collectively approach Shreyans this time and
seek his intervention. When they met Shreyans to brief him about the situation, Shreyans was sure that
he had made a mistake somewhere.
QUESTIONS:
1) What happened when Prakash got promoted to the position of Asst. Manager (Marketing)? Why
did this happen?
2) If you were entrusted with the responsibility of managing 6 sales representatives & creating an
effective sales team, how would you do it?

HOTEL MANAGEMENT
Q1) What are the minor operating departments of a hotel? Explain each.
Q2) What are the basic principles in requisitioning guest and cleaning supplies?
Q3) Write short notes on the following (Any 2)
a) Role of the housekeeping control desk.
b) Lost and found procedure
c) Responsibilities of the Public area supervisor.
Q4) How can we reduce physical stress?
Q5) What are the types of notices in a house keeping operation?
Q6) How do small hotels survive?
Q7) Explain briefly what services dos a franchisor provide to a franchisee?
Q8) Explain the role of maintenance (engineering department)?
Q9) Discuss the relationship between management and supervisors?
Q10) Explain the meaning of the various occupancy codes?
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL

AEREN FOUNDATION’S Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724
SUBJECT : MARKETING MANAGEMENT
Total Marks : 80
Case-1 : The use of the marketing mix in product launch
Introduction
NIVEA® is an established name in high quality skin and beauty care products. It is part of a range of
brands produced and sold by Beiersdorf. Beiersdorf, founded in 1882, has grown to be a global company
specialising in skin and beauty care.
In the UK, Beiersdorf’s continuing goal is to have its products as close as possible to its consumers,
regardless of where they live. Its aims are to understand its consumers in its many different markets and
delight them with innovative products for their skin and beauty care needs. This strengthens the trust and
appeal of Beiersdorf brands. The business prides itself on being consumer-led and this focus has helped
it to grow NIVEA into one of the largest skin care brands in the world.
Beiersdorf’s continuing programme of market research showed a gap in the market. This led to the
launch of NIVEA VISAGE® Young in 2005 as part of the NIVEA VISAGE range offering a
comprehensive selection of products aimed at young women. It carries the strength of the NIVEA brand
image to the target market of girls aged 13-19. NIVEA VISAGE Young helps girls to develop a proper
skin care routine to help keep their skin looking healthy and beautiful.
The market can be developed by creating a good product/range and introducing it to the market
(product-orientated approach) or by finding a gap in the market and developing a product to fill it
(market-orientated approach). Having identified a gap in the market, Beiersdorf launched NIVEA
VISAGE Young using an effective balance of the right product, price, promotion and place. This is
known as the marketing mix or ‘four Ps’. It is vital that a company gets the balance of these four
elements correct so that a product will achieve its critical success factors. Beiersdorf needed to develop
a mix that suited the product and the target market as well as meeting its own business objectives.
The company re-launched the NIVEA VISAGE Young range in June 2007 further optimising its
position in the market. Optimised means the product had a new formula, new design, new packaging and
a new name. This case study shows how a carefully balanced marketing mix provides the platform for
launching and re-launching a brand onto the market.
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Product :
The first stage in building an effective mix is to understand the market. NIVEA uses market research to
target key market segments which identifies groups of people with the same characteristics such as
age/gender/attitude/lifestyle. The knowledge and understanding from the research helps in the
development of new products. NIVEA carries out its market research with consumers in a number of
different ways. These include:
• using focus groups to listen to consumers directly
• gathering data from consumers through a variety of different research techniques
• product testing with consumers in different markets.
Beiersdorf’s market research identified that younger consumers wanted more specialised face care
aimed at their own age group that offered a ‘beautifying’ benefit, rather than a solution to skin problems.
NIVEA VISAGE Young is a skin care range targeted at girls who do not want medicated products but
want a regime for their normal skin.
Competitor products tend to be problem focussed and offer medicated solutions. This gives NIVEA
competitive advantage. NIVEA VISAGE Young provides a unique bridge between the teenage market
and the adult market.
The company improved the product to make it more effective and more consumer-friendly. Beiersdorf
tested the improved products on a sample group from its target audience before finalising the range for
re-launch. This testing resulted in a number of changes to existing products. Improvements included:
• Changing the formula of some products. For example, it removed alcohol from one product and used
natural sea salts and minerals in others.
• Introducing two completely new products.
• A new modern pack design with a flower pattern and softer colours to appeal to younger women.
• Changing product descriptions and introducing larger pack sizes.
Each of these changes helped to strengthen the product range, to better meet the needs of the market.
Some of these changes reflect NIVEA’s commitment to the environment. Its corporate responsibility
approach aims to:
• reduce packaging and waste – by using larger pack sizes
• use more natural products – by including minerals and sea salts in the formula
• increase opportunities for recycling – by using recyclable plastic in its containers.
Price :
Lots of factors affect the end price of a product, for example, the costs of production or the business
need to maximise profits or sales. A product’s price also needs to provide value for money in the market
and attract consumers to buy.
There are several pricing strategies that a business can use:
• Cost based pricing – this can either simply cover costs or include an element of profit. It focuses on the
product and does not take account of consumers.
• Penetration price – an initial low price to ensure that there is a high volume of purchases and market
share is quickly won. This strategy encourages consumers to develop a habit of buying.
• Price skimming – an initial high price for a unique product encouraging those who want to be ‘first to
buy’ to pay a premium price. This strategy helps a business to gain maximum revenue before a
competitor’s product reaches the market.
On re-launch the price for NIVEA VISAGE Young was slightly higher than previously. This reflected
its new formulations, packaging and extended product range. However, the company also had to take
into account that the target market was both teenage girls and mums buying the product for their
daughters. This meant that the price had to offer value for money or it would be out of reach of its target
market.
As NIVEA VISAGE Young is one of the leading skin care ranges meeting the beautifying needs of this
market segment, it is effectively the price leader. This means that it sets the price level that
competitors will follow or undercut. NIVEA needs to regularly review prices should a competitor enter
the market at the ‘market growth’ point of the product life cycle to ensure that its pricing remains
competitive.
The pricing strategy for NIVEA is not the same as that of the retailers. It sells products to retailers at one
price. However, retailers have the freedom to use other strategies for sales promotion. These take
account of the competitive nature of the high street. They may use:
• loss leader: the retailer sells for less than it cost to attract large volume of sales, for example by
supermarkets
• discounting – alongside other special offers, such as ‘Buy one, get one free’ (BOGOF) or ‘two for
one’.
NIVEA VISAGE Young’s pricing strategy now generates around 7% of NIVEA VISAGE sales.
Place
Place refers to:
• How the product arrives at the point of sale. This means a business must think about what distribution
strategies it will use.
• Where a product is sold. This includes retail outlets like supermarkets or high street shops. It also
includes other ways in which businesses make products directly available to their target market, for
example, through direct mail or the Internet.
NIVEA VISAGE Young aims to use as many relevant distribution channels as possible to ensure the
widest reach of its products to its target market. The main channels for the product are retail outlets
where consumers expect to find skin care ranges. Around 65% of NIVEA VISAGE.
Young sales are through large high street shops such as Boots and Superdrug. Superdrug is particularly
important for the ‘young-end’ market. The other 35% of sales mainly comes from large grocery chains
that stock beauty products, such as ASDA, Tesco and Sainsbury’s. Market research shows that around
20% of this younger target market buys products for themselves in the high street stores when shopping
with friends. Research also shows that the majority of purchasers are actually made by mums, buying for
teenagers. Mums are more likely to buy the product from supermarkets whilst doing their grocery
shopping.
NIVEA distributes through a range of outlets that are cost effective but that also reach the highest
number of consumers. Its distribution strategies also consider the environmental impact of transport. It
uses a central distribution point in the UK. Products arrive from European production plants using
contract vehicles for efficiency for onward delivery to retail stores. Beiersdorf does not sell direct to
smaller retailers as the volume of products sold would not be cost effective to deliver but it uses
wholesalers for these smaller accounts. It does not sell directly through its website as the costs of
producing small orders would be too high. However, the retailers, like Tesco, feature and sell the
NIVEA products in their online stores.
Promotion
Promotion is how the business tells customers that products are available and persuades them to buy.
Promotion is either above-the-line or below-the-line. Above-the-line promotion is directly paid for, for
example TV or newspaper advertising.
Below-the-line is where the business uses other promotional methods to get the product message across:
• Events or trade fairs help to launch a product to a wide audience. Events may be business to consumer
(B2C) whereas trade fairs are business to business (B2B).
• Direct mail can reach a large number of people but is not easy to target specific consumers costeffectively.
• Public relations (PR) includes the different ways a business can communicate with its stakeholders,
through, for example, newspaper press releases. Other PR activities include sponsorship of high profile
events like Formula 1 or the World Cup, as well as donations to or participation in charity events.
Branding – a strong and consistent brand identity differentiates the product and helps consumers to
understand and trust the product. This aims to keep consumers buying the product long-term.
• Sales promotions, for example competitions or sampling, encourage consumers to buy products in the
short-term.
NIVEA chooses promotional strategies that reflect the lifestyle of its audience and the range of media
available. It realises that a ‘one way’ message, using TV or the press, is not as effective as talking
directly to its target group of consumers. Therefore NIVEA does not plan to use any above-the-line
promotion for NIVEA VISAGE Young.
The promotion of NIVEA VISAGE Young is consumer-led. Using various below-the-line routes,
NIVEA identifies ways of talking to teenagers (and their mums) directly.
• A key part of the strategy is the use of product samples. These allow customers to touch, feel, smell
and try the products. Over a million samples of NIVEA VISAGE Young products will be given away
during 2008. These samples will be available through the website, samples in stores or in ‘goody bags’
given out at VISAGE roadshows up and down the country.
• NIVEA VISAGE Young launched an interactive online magazine called FYI (Fun, Young &
Independent) to raise awareness of the brand. The concept behind the magazine is to give teenage girls
the confidence to become young women and to enjoy their new-found independence. Communication
channels are original and engaging to enable teenagers to identify with NIVEA VISAGE Young. The
magazine focuses on ‘first time’ experiences relating to NIVEA VISAGE Young being their first
skincare routine. It is promoted using the Hit40UK chart show and the TMF digital TV channel.
• In connection with FYI, NIVEA VISAGE Young has recognised the power of social network sites for
this young audience and also has pages on MySpace, Facebook and Bebo. The company is using the
power of new media as part of the mix to grow awareness amongst the target audience.
Conclusion
NIVEA VISAGE Young is a skincare range in the UK market designed to enhance the skin and beauty
of the teenage consumer rather than being medicated to treat skin problems. As such, it has created a
clear position in the market. This shows that NIVEA understands its consumers and has produced this
differentiated product range in order to meet their needs.
To bring the range to market, the business has put together a marketing mix. This mix balances the four
elements of product, price, place and promotion. The mix uses traditional methods of place, such as
distribution through the high street, alongside more modern methods of promotion, such as through
social networking sites. It makes sure that the message of NIVEA VISAGE Young reaches the right
people in the right way.
Answer the following questions:
1. Describe what is meant by a business being ‘consumer led’.
2. What are the key parts of the marketing mix? Explain how each works with the others.
3. Explain why the balance of the marketing mix is as important as any single element.
4. Analyse the marketing mix for NIVEA VISAGE Young. What are its strongest points? Explain why
you think this is so.
Case-2 : SWOT analysis in action at Škoda
Introduction
In 1895 in Czechoslovakia, two keen cyclists, Vaclav Laurin and Vaclav Klement, designed and
produced their own bicycle. Their business became Škoda in 1925. Škoda went on to manufacture
cycles, cars, farm ploughs and airplanes in Eastern Europe. Škoda overcame hard times over the next 65
years. These included war, economic depression and political change. By 1990 the Czech management
of Škoda was looking for a strong foreign partner. Volkswagen AG (VAG) was chosen because of its
reputation for strength, quality and reliability. It is the largest car manufacturer in Europe providing an
average of more than 5 million cars a year – giving it a 12% share of the world car market. Volkswagen
AG comprises the Volkswagen, Audi, Škoda, SEAT, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles, Lamborghini,
Bentley and Bugatti brands. Each brand has its own specific character and is independent in the market.
Škoda UK sells Škoda cars through its network of independent franchised dealers.
To improve its performance in the competitive car market, Škoda UK’s management needed to assess its
brand positioning. Brand positioning means establishing a distinctive image for the brand compared to
competing brands. Only then could it grow from being a small player. To aid its decision-making, Škoda
UK obtained market research data from internal and external strategic audits. This enabled it to take
advantage of new opportunities and respond to threats.
The audit provided a summary of the business’s overall strategic position by using a SWOT analysis.
SWOT is an acronym which stands for:
• Strengths – the internal elements of the business that contribute to improvement and growth
• Weaknesses – the attributes that will hinder a business or make it vulnerable to failure
• Opportunities – the external conditions that could enable future growth
• Threats – the external factors which could negatively affect the business.
This case study focuses on how Škoda UK’s management built on all the areas of the strategic audit.
The outcome of the SWOT analysis was a strategy for effective competition in the car industry.
Strengths
To identify its strengths, Škoda UK carried out research. It asked customers directly for their opinions
about its cars. It also used reliable independent surveys that tested customers’ feelings. For example, the
annual JD Power customer satisfaction survey asks owners what they feel about cars they have owned
for at least six months. JD Power surveys almost 20,000 car owners using detailed questionnaires. Škoda
has been in the top five manufacturers in this survey for the past 13 years. In Top Gear’s 2007 customer
satisfaction survey, 56,000 viewers gave their opinions on 152 models and voted Škoda the ‘number 1
car maker’. Škoda’s Octavia model has also won the 2008 Auto Express Driver Power ‘Best Car’.
Škoda attributes these results to the business concentrating on owner experience rather than on sales. It
has considered ‘the human touch’ from design through to sale. Škoda knows that 98% of its drivers
would recommend Škoda to a friend. This is a clearly identifiable and quantifiable strength. Škoda uses
this to guide its future strategic development and marketing of its brand image.
Strategic management guides a business so that it can compete and grow in its market. Škoda adopted a
strategy focused on building cars that their owners would enjoy. This is different from simply
maximising sales of a product. As a result, Škoda’s biggest strength was the satisfaction of its
customers. This means the brand is associated with a quality product and happy customers.
Weaknesses
A SWOT analysis identifies areas of weakness inside the business. Škoda UK’s analysis showed that in
order to grow it needed to address key questions about the brand position. Škoda has only 1.7% market
share. This made it a very small player in the market for cars. The main issue it needed to address was:
how did Škoda fit into this highly competitive, fragmented market?
This weakness was partly due to out-dated perceptions of the brand. These related to Škoda’s eastern
European origins. In the past the cars had an image of poor vehicle quality, design, assembly, and
materials. Crucially, this poor perception also affected Škoda owners. For many people, car ownership is
all about image. If you are a Škoda driver, what do other people think?
From 1999 onwards, under Volkswagen AG ownership, Škoda changed this negative image. Škoda cars
were no longer seen as low-budget or low quality. However, a brand ‘health check’ in 2006 showed that
Škoda still had a weak and neutral image in the mid-market range it occupies, compared to other players
in this area, for example, Ford, Peugeot and Renault. This meant that whilst the brand no longer had a
poor image, it did not have a strong appeal either. This understanding showed Škoda in which direction
it needed to go. It needed to stop being defensive in promotional campaigns. The company had sought to
correct old perceptions and demonstrate what Škoda cars were not. It realised it was now time to say
what the brand does stand for. The marketing message for the change was simple. Škoda owners were
known to be happy and contented with their cars. The car-buying public and the car industry as a whole
needed convincing that Škoda cars were great to own and drive.
Opportunities and Threats
Opportunities
Opportunities occur in the external environment of a business. These include for example, gaps in the
market for new products or services. In analysing the external market, Škoda noted that its competitors’
marketing approaches focused on the product itself.
Audi emphasises the technology through its strapline, ‘Vorsprung Durch Technik’ (‘advantage through
technology’). BMW promotes ‘the ultimate driving machine’. Many brands place emphasis on the
machine and the driving experience. Škoda UK discovered that its customers loved their cars more than
owners of competitor brands, such as Renault or Ford.
Information from the SWOT analysis helped Škoda to differentiate its product range. Having a
complete understanding of the brand’s weaknesses allowed it to develop a strategy to strengthen the
brand and take advantage of the opportunities in the market. It focused on its existing strengths and
provided cars focused on the customer experience. The focus on ‘happy Škoda customers’ is an
opportunity. It enables Škoda to differentiate the Škoda brand to make it stand out from the competition.
This is Škoda’s unique selling proposition (USP) in the motor industry.
Threats
Threats come from outside of a business. These involve, for example, a competitor launching cheaper
products. A careful analysis of the nature, source and likelihood of these threats is a key part of the
SWOT process.
The UK car market includes 50 different car makers selling 200 models. Within these there are over
2,000 model derivatives. Škoda UK needed to ensure that its messages were powerful enough for
customers to hear within such a crowded and competitive environment. If not, potential buyers would
overlook Škoda. This posed the threat of a further loss of market share.
Škoda needed a strong product range to compete in the UK and globally. In the UK the Škoda brand is
represented by seven different cars. Each one is designed to appeal to different market segments. For
example:
• The Škoda Fabia is sold as a basic but quality ‘city car’
• The Škoda Superb offers a more luxurious, ‘up-market’ appeal
• The Škoda Octavia Estate provides a family with a fun drive but also a great big boot.
Pricing reflects the competitive nature of Škoda’s market. Each model range is priced to appeal to
different groups within the mainstream car market. The combination of a clear range with competitive
pricing has overcome the threat of the crowded market.
The following example illustrates how Škoda responded to another of its threats, namely, the need to
respond to EU legal and environmental regulations. Škoda responded by designing products that are
environmentally friendly at every stage of their life cycle. This was done by for example:-
• Recycling as much as possible. Škoda parts are marked for quick and easy identification when the car
is taken apart.
• Using the latest, most environmentally-friendly manufacturing technologies and facilities available.
For instance, areas painted to protect against corrosion use lead-free, water based colours.
• Designing processes to cut fuel consumption and emissions in petrol and diesel engines. These use
lighter parts making vehicles as aerodynamic as possible to use less energy.
• Using technology to design cars with lower noise levels and improved sound quality. Outcomes and
benefits of SWOT analysis.
Škoda UK’s SWOT analysis answered some key questions. It discovered that:
• Škoda car owners were happy about owning a Škoda
• the brand was no longer seen as a poorer version of competitors’ cars.
However,
• the brand was still very much within a niche market
• a change in public perception was vital for Škoda to compete and increase its market share of the
mainstream car market.
The challenge was how to build on this and develop the brand so that it was viewed positively. It
required a whole new marketing strategy.
Škoda UK has responded with a new marketing strategy based on the confident slogan, ‘the
manufacturer of happy drivers.’ The campaign’s promotional activities support the new brand position.
The key messages for the campaign focus on the ‘happy’ customer experience and appeal at an
emotional rather than a practical level. The campaign includes:
• he ‘Fabia Cake’ TV advert. This showed that the car was ‘full of lovely stuff’ with the happy music
(‘Favourite things’) in the background.
• An improved and redesigned website which is easy and fun to use. This is to appeal to a young
audience. It embodies the message ‘experience the happiness of Škoda online’.
Customers are able to book test drives and order brochures online. The result is that potential customers
will feel a Škoda is not only a reliable and sensible car to own, it is also ‘lovely’ to own.
Analysing the external opportunities and threats allows Škoda UK to pinpoint precisely how it should
target its marketing messages. No other market player has ‘driver happiness’ as its USP. By building on
the understanding derived from the SWOT, Škoda UK has given new impetus to its campaign. At the
same time, the campaign has addressed the threat of external competition by setting Škoda apart from its
rivals.
Conclusion
Škoda is a global brand offering a range of products in a highly competitive and fragmented market. The
company must respond positively to internal and external issues to avoid losing sales and market share.
A SWOT analysis brings order and structure to otherwise random information. The SWOT model helps
managers to look internally as well as externally. The information derived from the analysis gives
direction to the strategy. It highlights the key internal weaknesses in a business, it focuses on strengths
and it alerts managers to opportunities and threats. Škoda was able to identify where it had strengths to
compete. The structured review of internal and external factors helped transform Škoda UK’s strategic
direction.
The case study shows how Škoda UK transformed its brand image in the eyes of potential customers and
build its competitive edge over rivals. By developing a marketing strategy playing on clearly identified
strengths of customer happiness, Škoda was able to overcome weaknesses. It turned its previously
defensive position of the brand to a positive customer-focused experience. The various awards Škoda
has won demonstrate how its communications are reaching customers. Improved sales show that Škoda
UK’s new strategy has delivered benefits.
Answer the
1. What was the key weakness that Škoda was able to identify?
2. What strength did Škoda use to turn its brand weakness into an opportunity?
3. How has Škoda strategically addressed external threats?
4. What in your view are the important benefits of using a SWOT analysis
Case-3 : Marketing strategy for growth
Introduction
Businesses must respond to change in order to remain competitive. Developing appropriate strategies
which allow them to move forward is essential. Wilkinson is a prime example of a business that has
responded to changing customer needs throughout its history. It is one of the UK’s long-established
retailers of a wide range of food, home, garden, office, health and beauty products.James Kemsey (JK)
Wilkinson opened his first Wilkinson Store in Charnwood Street, Leicester in 1930. After the Second
World War, the 1950s saw a rise in the use of labour-saving devices and DIY. Wilkinson responded by
making this type of product the focus of its sales. In the 1960s customers wanted more convenience
shopping. Wilkinson started selling groceries and supermarket goods and created the Wilko brand. In the
1980s Wilkinson extended its range of low-cost products to include quality clothing, toys, toiletries and
perfumes. In 1995 it opened a central distribution centre in Workshop, serving stores in the north of
England and in 2004, a new distribution centre opened in Wales. In 2005 Wilkinson launched its
Internet shopping service, offering over 800,000 product lines for sale online. Wilkinson currently has
over 300 stores, which carry an average of 25,000 product lines. 40% of these are Wilko ‘own-brand’
products. The company’s target is to see this element grow and to have over 500 stores by 2012.
Wilkinson’s growth places it in the top 30 retailers in the UK. Recently it has faced increasing
challenges from competitors, such as the supermarket sector. Wilkinson needed to combat this and
identify new areas for growth. Over two years it conducted extensive market research. This has helped it
create a marketing strategy designed to continue growing by targeting a new market segment – the
student population. This case study focuses on how Wilkinson created and implemented this strategy,
using the findings of its market research to drive the strategy forward.
Marketing strategy aims to communicate to customers the added-value of products and services. This
considers the right mix of design, function, image or service to improve customer awareness of the
business’ products and ultimately to encourage them to buy. An important tool for helping develop an
appropriate marketing strategy is Ansoff’s Matrix. This model looks at the options for developing a
marketing strategy and helps to assess the levels of risk involved with each option. Marketing strategies
may focus on the development of products or markets. Doing more of what a business already does
carries least risk; developing a completely new product for a new audience carries the highest risk both
in terms of time and costs.
Based on its research, Wilkinson committed to a market development strategy to sell its products to a
new audience of students. This is a medium risk strategy as it requires the business to find and develop
new customers. It also carries costs of the marketing campaigns to reach this new group. The main focus
of the strategy was to increase awareness of the brand among students and encourage them to shop
regularly at Wilkinson stores.
Market research
Market research is vital for collecting data on which to base the strategy. Market research takes one of
two main forms – primary research and secondary research. Primary research (also called field
research) involves collecting data first hand. This can take many forms, the main ones being interview,
questionnaires, panels and observation. Secondary research (also called desk research) involves
collecting data which already exists. This includes using information from reports, publications, Internet
research and company files.
Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of primary research are that it is
recent, relevant and designed specifically for the company’s intended strategy. The main disadvantage is
that it is more expensive than secondary research and can be biased if not planned well. Secondary
research is relatively cheap, can be undertaken quickly and so enables decision-making sooner.
However, secondary research can go out-of-date and may not be entirely relevant to the business’ needs.
Wilkinson undertook primary market research using questionnaires from students across the UK and
secondary research using government and university admissions data. The statistics revealed that there
were three million potential student customers.
They had a combined annual spend of around £9 billion per year. This research confirmed that the
choice of focusing on the student market as a means of growth was valid. Wilkinson undertook further
research to identify how to reach students and persuade them to start shopping at Wilkinson stores. This
information was used to formulate a focus strategy. This was aimed specifically at the needs of the
student ‘market segment’.
Marketing to students
Wilkinson involved 60 universities in research, using questionnaires distributed to students initially in
Years 2 and 3 of a range of universities and then to ‘freshers’ (new students) through the University and
Colleges Admission Service. This ensured the widest range of students was included to eliminate bias. It
also gave a wide range of responses. From this initial group, students were asked a second set of
questions. Participants were rewarded with Amazon vouchers to encourage a good take-up. The research
focused on two areas:
1. student awareness of the Wilkinson brand and
2. reasons why students were currently not using the stores regularly.
The market research enabled Wilkinson to put together its marketing strategy. The aim was to ensure the
student population began shopping at Wilkinson stores early in their student experience. This would
help to maintain their customer loyalty to Wilkinson throughout their student years and also to develop
them as future customers after university. Repeat business is key to sustained growth. Wilkinson
wanted to create satisfied customers with their needs met by the Wilkinson range of products. A
marketing campaign was launched which focused on a range of promotional tactics, specifically
designed to appeal to university students:
• Wilkinson being present at freshers’ fairs – and giving free goody bags with sample
products directly to students
• direct mail flyers to homes and student halls, prior to students arriving
• advertisements with fun theme, for example, showing frying pans as tennis racquets
• web banners
• offering discounts of 15% with first purchase using the online store
• gift vouchers
• free wallplanners.
The challenge was to get students into Wilkinson stores. The opportunity was to capture a new customer
group at an early stage and provide essential items all year round. This would lead to a committed
customer group and secure repeat business.
Outcomes/evaluation
Wilkinson wanted to know what would inspire students to shop at Wilkinson more and what factors
would help to attract non-customers. The research provided significant primary information to analyse
the effects of the campaign. Wilkinson used questionnaires collected from the first year undergraduates
to gather qualitative data. In addition, Wilkinson obtained quantitative data from various other
sources, including:
• redemption rates – how many people used the discount vouchers when buying
• sales analysis – how much extra business did the stores handle
• footfall in stores analysis – how many extra people went into stores.
This information helped Wilkinson to develop its plans for future marketing campaigns. It identified
Motivation factors for the student audience which would help to encourage future purchase. Key
factors included products being cheaper than competitors and easy access to stores. 23% of students
questioned gave ‘distance from university’ as a reason for not regularly visiting the store. The layout of
the store was another major problem affecting repeat visits. These findings have been taken on board by
Wilkinson in its future planning of store locations and layouts.
Researching students’ opinions after the campaign showed that:
• Awareness of Wilkinson brand had significantly risen from 77% to 95% of those interviewed. This
brought it in line with Morrison supermarkets, a key competitor.
Conclusion
Wilkinson’s marketing strategy began with its corporate aim to grow and increase stores across the UK.
It was facing increased competition from supermarkets and needed to identify an area to focus on. To
pursue a growth strategy, Wilkinson used market research to identify new target customers. This enabled
it to prepare marketing strategies to fit the audience.
Primary and secondary research was used to find out customer views regarding its brand. Data indicated
the student market segment was a significant area to focus on to achieve market development. A
marketing campaign using data from a follow-up survey was put in place. The campaign showed
significant increase in students’ levels of awareness about Wilkinson and its products. It encouraged
them either to shop more or to try Wilkinson for the first time. The campaign helped to achieve many of
the business’ aims, creating increased brand awareness and repeat visits. It also helped to inform the
company’s future strategies for growth. Market research gathered will help to formulate future plans for
new stores. These will be in line with Wilkinson commitment to providing communities with affordable
products across the country.
Answer the following questions
1. What is the difference between primary and secondary research? Identify one example of primary and
secondary research carried out by Wilkinson.
2. Explain why Wilkinson needed a marketing strategy to help them to grow.
3. Evaluate the benefits of the marketing campaign to Wilkinson.
4. Analyse how effective the marketing campaign was in helping Wilkinson respond to competitive
pressures.
Case-4 : Extending the product life cycle
Introduction
Businesses need to set themselves clear aims and objectives if they are going to succeed. The Kellogg
Company is the world’s leading producer of breakfast cereals and convenience foods, such as cereal
bars, and aims to maintain that position. In 2006, Kellogg had total worldwide sales of almost $11
billion (£5.5 billion). In 2007, it was Britain’s biggest selling grocery brand, with sales of more than
£550 million. Product lines include ready-to-eat cereals (i.e. not hot cereals like porridge) and nutritious
snacks, such as cereal bars. Kellogg’s brands are household names around the world and include Rice
Krispies, Special K and Nutri-Grain, whilst some of its brand characters, like Snap, Crackle and Pop, are
amongst the most wellknown in the world.
Kellogg has achieved this position, not only through great brands and great brand value, but through a
strong commitment to corporate social responsibility. This means that all of Kellogg’s business aims
are set within a particular context or set of ideals. Central to this is Kellogg’s passion for the business,
the brands and the food, demonstrated through the promotion of healthy living.
The company divides its market into six key segments. Kellogg’s Corn Flakes has been on breakfast
tables for over 100 years and represents the ‘Tasty Start’ cereals that people eat to start their day. Other
segments include ‘Simply Wholesome’ products that are good for you, such as Kashi Muesli, ‘Shape
Management’ products, such as Special K and ‘Inner Health’ lines, such as All-Bran. Children will be
most familiar with the ‘Kid Preferred’ brands, such as Frosties, whilst ‘Mum Approved’ brands like
Raisin Wheats are recognised by parents as being good for their children.
Each brand has to hold its own in a competitive market. Brand managers monitor the success of brands
in terms of market share, growth and performance against the competition. Key decisions have to be
made about the future of any brand that is not succeeding. This case study is about Nutri-Grain. It shows
how Kellogg recognised there was a problem with the brand and used business tools to reach a solution.
The overall aim was to re-launch the brand and return it to growth in its market.
The product life cycle
Each product has its own life cycle. It will be ‘born’, it will ‘develop’, it will ‘grow old’ and, eventually,
it will ‘die’. Some products, like Kellogg’s Corn Flakes, have retained their market position for a long
time. Others may have their success undermined by falling market share or by competitors. The product
life cycle shows how sales of a product change over time. The five typical stages of the life cycle are
shown on a graph. However, perhaps the most important stage of a product life cycle happens before
this graph starts, namely the
Research and Development (R&D) stage. Here the company designs a product to meet a need in the
market. The costs of market research – to identify a gap in the market and of product development to
ensure that the product meets the needs of that gap – are called ‘sunk’ or start-up costs. Nutri-Grain was
originally designed to meet the needs of busy people who had missed breakfast. It aimed to provide a
healthy cereal breakfast in a portable and convenient format.
1. Launch – Many products do well when they are first brought out and Nutri-Grain was no exception.
From launch (the first stage on the diagram) in 1997 it was immediately successful, gaining almost 50%
share of the growing cereal bar market in just two years.
2. Growth – Nutri-Grain’s sales steadily increased as the product was promoted and became well
known. It maintained growth in sales until 2002 through expanding the original product with new
developments of flavour and format. This is good for the business, as it does not have to spend money
on new machines or equipment for production. The market position of Nutri-Grain also subtly changed
from a ‘missed breakfast’ product to an ‘all-day’ healthy snack.
3. Maturity – Successful products attract other competitor businesses to start selling similar products.
This indicates the third stage of the life cycle – maturity. This is the time of maximum profitability, when
profits can be used to continue to build the brand. However, competitor brands from both Kellogg itself
(e.g. All Bran bars) and other manufacturers (e.g. Alpen bars) offered the same benefits and this slowed
down sales and chipped away at Nutri-Grain’s market position. Kellogg continued to support the
development of the brand but some products (such as Minis and Twists), struggled in a crowded market.
Although Elevenses continued to succeed, this was not enough to offset the overall sales decline. Not all
products follow these stages precisely and time periods for each stage will vary widely. Growth, for
example, may take place over a few months or, as in the case of Nutri-Grain, over several years.
4. Saturation – This is the fourth stage of the life cycle and the point when the market is ‘full’. Most
people have the product and there are other, better or cheaper competitor products. This is called market
saturation and is when sales start to fall. By mid-2004 Nutri-Grain found its sales declining whilst the
market continued to grow at a rate of 15%.
5. Decline – Clearly, at this point, Kellogg had to make a key business decision. Sales were falling, the
product was in decline and losing its position. Should Kellogg let the product ‘die’, i.e. withdraw it from
the market, or should it try to extend its life?
Strategic use of the product life cycle
When a company recognises that a product has gone into decline or is not performing as well as it
should, it has to decide what to do. The decision needs to be made within the context of the overall aims
of the business. Kellogg’s aims included the development of great brands, great brand value and the
promotion of healthy living. Strategically, Kellogg had a strong position in the market for both healthy
foods and convenience foods. Nutri-Grain fitted well with its main aims and objectives and therefore
was a product and a brand worth rescuing.
Kellogg decided to try to extend the life of the product rather than withdraw it from the market. This
meant developing an extension strategy for the product. Ansoff’s matrix is a tool that helps analyse
which strategy is appropriate. It shows both market-orientated and product-orientated possibilities.
Extending the Nutri-Grain cycle – identifying the problem
Kellogg had to decide whether the problem with Nutri-Grain was the market, the product or both. The
market had grown by over 15% and competitors’ market share had increased whilst Nutri-Grain sales in
2003 had declined. The market in terms of customer tastes had also changed – more people missed
breakfast and therefore there was an increased need for such a snack product.
The choice of extension strategy indicated by the matrix was either product development or
diversification. Diversification carries much higher costs and risks. Kellogg decided that it needed to
focus on changing the product to meet the changing market needs.
Research showed that there were several issues to address:
1. The brand message was not strong enough in the face of competition. Consumers were not impressed
enough by the product to choose it over competitors.
2. Some of the other Kellogg products (e.g. Minis) had taken the focus away from the core business.
3. The core products of Nutri-Grain Soft Bake and Elevenses between them represented over 80% of
sales but received a small proportion of advertising and promotion budgets.
4. Those sales that were taking place were being driven by promotional pricing (i.e discounted pricing)
rather than the underlying strength of the brand.
Implementing the extension strategy for Nutri-Grain having recognised the problems, Kellogg then
developed solutions to re-brand and re-launch the product in 2005.
1. Fundamental to the re-launch was the renewal of the brand image. Kellogg looked at the core
features that made the brand different and modelled the new brand image on these. Nutri-Grain is
unique as it is the only product of this kind that is baked. This provided two benefits:
• the healthy grains were soft rather than gritty
• the eating experience is closer to the more indulgent foods that people could be eating (cakes and
biscuits, for example). The unique selling point, hence the focus of the brand, needed to be the ‘soft
bake’.
2. Researchers also found that a key part of the market was a group termed ‘realistic snackers’. These
are people who want to snack on healthy foods, but still crave a great tasting snack. The re-launched
Nutri-Grain product needed to help this key group fulfil both of these desires.
3. Kellogg decided to re-focus investment on the core products of Soft Bake Bars and Elevenses as these
had maintained their growth (accounting for 61% of Soft Bake Bar sales). Three existing Soft Bake Bar
products were improved, three new ranges introduced and poorly performing ranges (such as Minis)
were withdrawn.
4. New packaging was introduced to unify the brand image.
5. An improved pricing structure for stores and supermarkets was developed.
Using this information, the re-launch focused on the four parts of the marketing mix:
• Product – improvements to the recipe and a wider range of flavours, repositioning the brand as
‘healthy and tasty’, not a substitute for a missed breakfast
• Promotion – a new and clearer brand image to cover all the products in the range along with
advertising and point-of-sale materials
• Place – better offers and materials to stores that sold the product
• Price – new price levels were agreed that did not rely on promotional pricing. This improved revenue
for both Kellogg and the stores.
As a result Soft Bake Bar year-on-year sales went from a decline to substantial growth, with Elevenses
sales increasing by almost 50%. The Nutri-Grain brand achieved a retail sales growth rate of almost
three times that of the market and most importantly, growth was maintained after the initial re-launch.
Conclusion
Successful businesses use all the tools at their disposal to stay at theSuccessful businesses use all the
tools at their disposal to stay at the top of their chosen market. Kellogg was able to use a number of
business tools in order to successfully re-launch the Nutri-Grain brand. These tools included the product
life cycle, Ansoff’s matrix and the marketing mix. Such tools are useful when used properly.
Kellogg was able to see that although Nutri-Grain fitted its strategic profile – a healthy, convenient
cereal product – it was underperforming in the market. This information was used, along with the aims
and objectives of the business, to develop a strategy for continuing success. Finally, when Kellogg
checked the growth of the re-launched product against its own objectives, it had met all its aims to:
• re-position the brand through the use of the marketing mix
• return the brand to growth
• improve the frequency of purchase
• introduce new customers to the brand.
Nutri-Grain remains a growing brand and product within the Kellogg product family.
Answer the following questions:
1. Using current products familiar to you, draw and label a product life cycle diagram, showing which
stage each product is at.
2. Suggest appropriate aims and objectives for a small, medium and large business.
4. Consider the decision taken by Kellogg to opt for product development. Suggest a way in which it
could have diversified instead. Justify your answer.

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
Total Marks : 80
CASE-1 (16 Marks)
Bloomsday Outfitters produces T-shirts for road races. They need to acquire some new stamping
machines to produce 30,000 good T-shirts per month. Their plant operates 200 hours per month, but
the new machines will be used for T-shirts only 60 percent of the time and the output usually includes
5 percent that are “seconds” and unusable. The stamping operation takes 1 minute per T-shirt, and the
stamping machines are expected to have 90 percent efficiency considering adjustments, changeover of
patterns, and unavoidable downtime. How many stamping machines are required?
CASE-2 (16 Marks)
In the table given below the Distribution Manager is expected to service these DCs as per the demands
placed. If the actual sales after completing week one is as follows, what would be the quantities that
would need amendment as far as Distribution Manager is concerned to service for week two and
onwards?
After week one the actual sales to Forecasted sales for week one ratio is as under: Mumbai did 80 % of
forecast , Lucknow did 75 % of forecast Kolkata did 60 % of week one forecast Chennai did 125 % of
forecast and Delhi did 150 % of week one forecast
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Note : Kolkata will receive transit stocks in week 2 .
CASE-3 (16 Marks)
After working for 30 years, Ramjee Somjee Dutt opted for VRS and started a courier company and did
very well in the first four years. He was now looking for expansion of his business and decided to
venture into Road transportation business between Chennai and Mumbai and Mumbai and Delhi as he
felt that he could do well on this line. However before taking a final decision he hires your
Management Consultant firm formed by yourself. He has requested you to work out the Price to quote
his clients for these two routes considering the costs involved. He expects to earn a minimum profit of
Rs 1000 per day per truck after meeting all expenses. Your analysis of market conditions tell you the
following:
Vehicle cost Rs 7 lacs Depreciation 15 % Maintenance costs per day Rs 150 Drivers monthly Salary
Rs 5000 : Attendants monthly salary Rs 3000 . Misc expenses Rs 200 per day. Driver allowance is Rs
125 per day and attendant gets Rs 75. Diesel cost per liter is Rs 25 and the vehicle gives an average
mileage of 4 km to a liter. The Financial institutions offer loans at 10 % interest pa, which Ramjee has
been negotiating. It has been observed that on an average the vehicle covers 400 km per day. The
distance between Mumbai to Delhi is 1500 km and Mumbai to Chennai is 1350 km. The driver gets
rest day in Mumbai only for one day after they return from any trip.
CASE-4 (16 Marks)
A company is operating in two unrelated businesses. The first one is making common salt, which is
sold in one-kilogram consumer packs. The second business is making readymade garments. The owner
of the businesses has decided to implement Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) in one of the two
businesses, which is likely to give him greater benefit. Assuming that the current turnover and profits
of both the units are comparable, compare the relative benefits and limitations of Materials
Requirement Planning (MRP) for these two businesses.
CASE-5 (16 Marks)
A Manufacturer of motorcycles buys spark plugs at Rs.15 each. Now he wishes to manufacture the
plugs in his own factory. The estimated cost for the manufacture of spark plugs is around
Rs.50,000=00 and the variable cost comes to Rs.5 per spark plug. The Production Manager advises the
Manufacturer that the factory should go for manufacturing instead of procuring them from the open
market.
List out reasons for the decision of the Production Manager backed up by the necessary data.


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OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
COURSE : Total Marks : 80
NB.1) All questions carry equal marks.
2) All questions are compulsory.
3} read questions carefully.
4} Figures to the right indicate full marks.
Q1) Explain the concept Six Sigma. Bring out the significance of Six Sigma in Quality
Management? (10 Marks)
Q2) Define Project Management and explain its nature and features? (10 Marks)
Q3) What is Process Analysis? Explain the steps in Manufacturing Process Selection
and Design? (10Marks)
Q4) Enumerate and explain the Theory of Constraints? (10 Marks)
Q5) Write short notes (any two) (10 Marks)
a) Inventory Control
b) Operations Scheduling
c) Aggregate Sales and Operations Planning
Q6) Explain the following concept (any two) (10 Marks)
1) Product Design
2) Strategic Capacity Management
3) Lean Productions
Q7) Define Material Requirements Planning. Discuss its various components? (10 Marks)
Q8) What is Supply Chain Strategy? Discuss its characteristics? (10 Marks)
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Network Management
MARKS: 80
Section A
1. (i) List the five key differences between TCP reference model and OSI reference model. (2)
(ii) Write the similarities and differences between packet and cell switching. (2)
(iii) Why is the data link layer in a LAN subdivided into Logical Link Control (LLC) and Medium Access
Control (MAC) sub-layers ? (2)
(iv) List the characteristics of broadband coaxial cable. (2)
(v) Differentiate between virtual circuit and datagram’s. (2)
(vi) The maximum payload of TCP segment is 62 1/2,2 1/212 1/2 bytes. Why ? (3)
(vii) What are sliding window protocols ? Explain one-bit sliding window protocol with an appropriate
diagram. (2)
2. (i) Name all the basic network topologies and describe advantages of each. Draw proper diagram tor each
topology. (2)
(ii) Explain the following terms : (2)
(a) Bandwidth
(b) Channel capacity
(c) Multiplexing
(d) Quality of Service (QoS)
(e) Full-Duplex Transmission
(iii) What is the basic purpose of MAC layer protocol ? Explain the function of following MAC layer
protocols :
(a) Ethernet
(b) Token bus (2)
3. (i) Describe the characteristics and application or the following network devices : (6)
(a) Routers
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(b) Bridges
(c) Switches
(iii) Answer the following : (4)
(a) Explain ISDN BRI Services.
(b) Differentiate between broadband and baseboard services.
(c) Describe the following three fields of TCP header :
(d) Sequence number
4. (i) What is congestion control ? How does it occur ? (2)
(ii) How does TCP handle connection establishment and crash recovery ? (2)
(iii) List and explain any five ISDN applications. (2)
5. (i) Describe and compare the following routing algorithms : (4)
(a) Shortest path routing
(b) Flooding
(ii) How does ATM differ from frame relay ? List and briefly define the ATM service classes. (6)
Section B
1. (a) Write any two differences between OSI and TCP/IP protocol suit. Also give reasons why OSI is not
popular. (3)
(b) Why is layering of the protocols done in TCP/IP stack ? (3)
(c) Explain any two functions of each layer of TCP/IP protocol stack. (2)
(d) How many address bits does the latest version of IP (IPv6) have ? What is the maximum number of IP
addresses possible with IPv6 ? (3)
(e) Identify the header of each flag and explain its meaning : (4)
(i) URG
(ii) ACK
(iii) FIN
(iv) RST
(f) How is flow control managed by Sliding Window protocol ? (3)
2. (a) What is Ethernet ? How does it work ? Also explain the fields of Ethernet Frame Format. (4)
(b) What is First-Octet Rule ? Give an example to explain it. (3)
3. (a) What is the significance of hierarchical naming scheme ? Differentiate among following addresses and
their meaning with reference of DNS : (5)
(i) www.isbm.edu
(ii) www.isbm.ac.in
(iii) www.Isbm.rnet.in
(iv) www.isbm.nic.in

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
COURSE : Total Marks : 80
Time : 2 & ½ Hours
N.B. : 1) There are four questions in paper.
2) All Questions are compulsory
A) List down the role of a Line manager and an HR manager in: (20 Marks)
1. Recruitment & Selection
2. Appraisals
3. Training
B) Draw up a Sample Performance Appraisal form. Clearly define the rating scale that you
choose (10 Marks)
C) Explain the various components of compensation with examples of each. (10 Marks)
D) Please mention the generic role of HR department in any organization? (20 Marks)
E) Explain the functional & behavioral competencies. List down 5 functional & 5 behavioral
competencies for evaluation of a management trainee. (20 Marks)
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL


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INTERNATIONAL FINANCE MANAGEMENT
COURSE : Total Marks :
CASE STUDY : 1
Following are the data for India’s B.O.P.
Year 2004-05 Rs (in Mn)
1) Merchandise Exports 3,62,661
2) Merchandise Imports 5,33,778
3) Income on Travel, Transportation MIS 2,27,762
4) Payments on Travel, Transportation MIS 1,63,353
5) Receipts for Maintenance of Embassies 1,812
6) Payments for Maintenance of Embassies 1,172
7) Unrequired Transfer Received 96,318
8) Unrequired Transfer Outwards 1,939
9) Investment Income Received 21,098
10) Investment Income paid to Foreign Residents 39,014
11) Foreign Investment (FDI, FPI) Received 2,06,696
12) Foreign Investment made by Indian Films 1,53,377
13) Other Capital Receipts 2,90,100
14) Other Capital Outflows 1,98,016
Question :
1) Calculate balance of Visiable Trade?
2) Calculate balance of Invisiable Trade?
3) Calculate balance of Capital Account?
4) Calculate change in Reserves?
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CASE STUDY : 2
The Indian Foreign Exchange market has grown substantially during the liberalization
period of the Indian economy. The growth in the retail segment of the market has
increased the foreign exchange business turnover of `Authorised Dealers’ while the
increase in tourism has boosted the business volumes of `Money Changers’.
This period has seen several landmark developments such as change in the vehicle
currency, introduction and withdrawals of the `Liberalised Exchange Rate Management
System (LERMS), change in the modality of quoting exchange rates, stepwise
introduction of convertibility of the Indian Rupee etc. The Foreign Exchange Dealers
Association of India (FEDAI) has played a significant part in helping the market to
assimilate these changes thereby ensuring the smooth functioning of the market.
Question :
1) Define Foreign Exchange Market? What are its characteristic features?
2) What were the provisions of LERMS?
3) What are the function of FEDAI?
4) Which is the currency used as vehicle currency in India?
5) Who are `Money Changers’?
CASE STUDY : 3
US $ Millions 1998-1999 1999-2000
Exports 34,298 38,285
Imports 47,544 55,283
Trade Balance -13,246 -17,098
Invisibles 9,208 12,935
Current A/c Balances -4,038 -4,163
External Assistance 820 901
NRI Deposits 1,742 2,140
Foreign Investments 2,412 5,191
Borrowings & Others 3,591 2,010
Total Capital A/c 8,565 10,242
Overall Balance 4,222 6,402
Given the above data.
Question :
1) Compile the basic balance?
2) Examine the trade balance vis-à-vis the current account balance and explain its effect
on the economy?
3) Explain the behavior of the Capital Account entries and how can they affect the
economy?
4) Is the increasing positive `Overall balance’ good for the economy? Why?
CASE STUDY : 4
Following the experience of successive financial crises in countries such as Maxico,
Russia, Brazil, Turkey & Argentina. Besides South-East Asian countries over the past
decade. It is now widely held within policy circles in developing countries that full
capital account convertibility, which allows any entity to transfer their funds at will in
and out of a country, causes more harm than good.
Introducing capital account convertibility at this stage would further encourage such
speculative inflows and reckless commercial borrowings.
This increased risk within the country’s financial system had the potential of harting the
common people, who would have to bear the brunt of adjustments once the boom comes
to an end convertibility will increase the number of billionaires in India, not through
entrepreneurial profit but through untaxed capital gains. This massive inflow of
portfolio investments does not have any positive impact on the productive sectors of the
economy.
Question :
1) What is capital account convertibility?
2) What are the risks in capital account convertibility in India context?
3) What is the present status of capital account convertibility in India?
4) Bring out the arguments in support of convertibility?


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BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
Page 1 Out of 1
Total Marks : 80
N.B. : 1) All questions carry equal marks.
2) All questions are compulsory.
Q1) Write short notes (any two) (10 Marks)
a) The right Resumes for Effective job hunting
b) E-Mail Messages as tool for successful business communication
c) The art of Web Writing
Q2) Explain the following (any two). (10 Marks)
a) Communicating Across Cultures
b) Using Visuals as aid for business communication
c) Designing Documents, Slides for effective business communication
Q3) Explain in brief the process of effective Job hunting (10 Marks)
Q4) How business meetings are planned and discuss the process of Conducting and Recording
Meetings (10 Marks)
Q5) Discuss the various aspects of writing Research Reports. (10 Marks)
Q6) Discuss the various aspects of Creating Goodwill in business communication. (10 Marks)
Q7) Critically evaluate Using of Choosing the Right Word, Revising Sentences and Paragraphs in an
effective business communication. (10 Marks)
Q8) Define Team for business communication and Explain in brief the effective ways of Working
and Writing in Teams. (10 Marks)

BUSINESS ETHICS
Total Marks : 80
NB.1) All questions carry equal marks.
2) All questions are compulsory.
3} read questions carefully.
4} Figures to the right indicate full marks.
Q1) What is Ethical Analysis and discuss its Application: in Corporate Decision
Making? (10 Marks)
Q2) Define Corporate Ethical Leadership and discuss its nature and features? (10 Marks)
Q3) What is Corporate Social Responsibility? Explain its characteristics? (10 Marks)
Q4) Enumerate and explain the Ethical Implications of Technology? (10 Marks)
Q5) Write short notes (any two) (10 Marks)
a) Ethical Analysis and its Application in Personal Decision Making.
b) Corporate Culture
c) Reputation Management.
Q6) Explain the following concept (any two) (10 Marks)
a) Social Reporting.
b) Ethics in Finance Accountancy.
c) Values in the Employment Relationship.
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Q7) Define Ethics. Discuss the relation of Ethics and Human Resources Management? (10 Marks)
Q8) What is the role of Ethics in Marketing? (10 Marks)

CORPORATE LAW
Total Marks—80
1) All questions carry equal marks.
2) All questions are compulsory
Q1) Write short notes (any two) (10 Marks)
a) Void Contracts and Void able Contracts
b) Standard Terms and Freedom of Contract
c) Banking Law
d) Negotiable Instruments
Q2) Explain the procedure of Incorporation of Companies, issuance of
Prospectus and Rising of Capital? (10 Marks)
Q3) Explain the law of Contract and discuss the term Offer, Acceptance and
Agreement? (10 Marks)
Q4) Discuss the Fundamental Rights of the Business? (10 Marks)
Q5) Discuss the aims and objectives Indian Sale of Goods Act, 1930?
(10 Marks)
Q6) What is the Intellectual Property Rights Law. Discuss its relevance to
liberalization and Globalization? (10 Marks )
Q7) What is the aims and objectives of the Standards of Weights and
Measures Act, 1976? (10 Marks)
Q8) Discuss in brief the Consumer Protection Act 1986? (10 Marks)
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Financial & Cost Accounting
Page 1 Out of 1
1. Differentiate between idle cost and standard cost?
2. What is a trial balance? Explain its objective.
3. Distinguish between Accrual basis of accounting and cash basis of accounting.
4. Standard costing is a valuable aid to management discuss. State in brief limitation of
standard costing?
5. Define Budgetary Control and explain the pre-requisites for its successful introduction and
implementation?
6. How the total cost, variable cost and marginal cost differ from each other?
7. What are the advantages of cost audit?
8. Which are the different ways by which the cost can be analyzed?


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ENERGY MANAGEMENT
COURSE : Total Marks : 80
Attempt any 4 questions ( 10 marks each )
PART-1
Q1) A plant consumes 4,500 tons of furnace oil per year (GCV =10,200 kCal/kg), as well as
43,000 MWh of electricity per year. Draw the pie-chart of percentage share of each type of
energy based on consumption in kCal (1 kWh = 860 kCal)
Q2) How much steam is required in a heat exchanger to heat 120 kg/ hour of a process fluid
From 40o C to 90o C. The specific heat of process fluid is 0.24 kCal/kg oC and the latent heat
of steam is 540 kCal/ kg.
Q3) The following table shows the import bill of fossil fuels in million metric tones (MMT) and its
cost in Crores Rupees over the last eight years.
1. Calculate the average annual percentage increase of fossil fuel imports
2. Calculate the average annual percentage increase of the import bill
3. Calculate the average costs for the last eight years, in Rs.Per metric ton of imported fossil fuels.
Import bill of fossil fuels
Year Quantity (MMT) Value (Rs.Crore)
1996-97 33.90 18,337
1997-98 34.49 15,872
1998-99 39.81 19,907
1999-00 57.80 40,028
2000-01 74.10 65,932
2001-02 84.90 80,116
2002-03 90.00 85,042
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2003-04 95.00 93,159
Q4) Fuel substitution from a high cost fuel to a low cost fuel in boilers is common to reduce
energy bill. For the following situations calculate:
1. Annual reduction in energy costs in Crore Rs.
2. Annual change in energy consumption in %. (Calorific value of fuels not required for calculations)
Q5) A company invests Rs.10 lakhs and completes an energy efficiency project at the beginning of
year 1. The firm is investing its own money and expects an internal rate of return, IRR, of at
least 26% on constant positive annual net cash flow of Rs.2 lakhs, over a period of 10 years,
starting with year 1.
1. Will the project meet the firm’s expectations?
2. What is the IRR of this measure?
Before substitution:
Steam output = 6 tons/hour
Fuel consumption = 1 ton oil per 13 tons of steam.
Operating hours = 6400 / Year
Fuel costs = Rs.13,000 /ton of oil
Boiler thermal efficiency (yearly average)= 82%
After Substitution:
Steam output = 6 tons/hour
Fuel consumption = 3 tons of waste wood per 13 tons of steam
Fuel costs = Rs.2,000 / ton of waste wood
Boiler thermal efficiency (yearly average) = 74%
PART -2
BOTH QUESTIONS COMPULSORY (20 MARKS EACH)
Q.1) A waste heat recovery system can be installed in a furnace, which will cost Rs. 7,00,000/- to
install. This system is expected to have a useful life of 6 years. The salvage value will be Rs.
2,00,000/-. The system will reduce the energy cost by Rs. 2,00,000/- per year, when it operates
at full capacity. However the plant will be operating at partial capacity for the first 3 years and
the annual energy savings will be at 70% of the energy cost savings at full capacity
(Rs. 1,40,000/-). (20 Marks)
The new system will entail a maintenance cost of Rs. 10,000/- per year for the first 3 years
and Rs.12,000 per year for the next 3 years. A major overhaul is required in the 3rd year, which
will cost Rs 1,00,000/-
a) If discount rate is 10%, calculate the NPV and find out whether this energy conservation
measure is profitable
b) What is the profitability index for the project?
Q2) An energy auditor undertakes the energy audit of a steam system. The operating data is
given as per the schematic diagram given below (20 Marks)
Bo ile r
C ap acity
8 T PH
Fe e d
P ump
Fe e d Water
T ank
S te am
F low ra t e = 7 TP H
P re s s u re = 1 0 k g /c m 2 (g )
Tem p e ra t u re = 1 8 0 °C
C o nd e n s a te
R e t u rn
Q u a n t ity = 5TPH
Tem p . = 9 4 °C
Ma k e -u p w a te r
Q u a n t ity = 2TPH
Tem p . = 2 8 °C
Ba re P ip e
Key data and assumptions are enunciated below:
a) Specific enthalpy of water at 10 kg/cm2 (g) pressure : 186 kCal/kg
b) Specific enthalpy of evaporation/latent heat at 10 kg/cm2 (g)
pressure
: 478 kCal/kg
c) Dryness fraction of steam generated : 0.95
d) Coal consumption : 840 kg/ hr
e) Net calorific value (NCV) of imported coal : 6269 kCal/kg
f) Moisture in coal : 3.5%
g) Hydrogen in coal : 4%
Other parameters as indicated in the above figure :
1) Based on preliminary data assessment as stated above, calculate the following:
2) Feed water temperature to boiler
3) Boiler efficiency by direct method on GCV basis
If the condensate return is enhanced to 6 TPH (steam generation of 7 TPH remaining same) what will
be the reduction in coal consumption?

Operation Management
Page 1 Out of 1
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks
1. Ilhan’s, a local bakery, is worried about increased costs – particularly energy. Last year’s
records can provide a fairly good estimate of the parameters for this year. Ilhan Balci,
the owner, does not believe things have changed much, but he did invest an additional 3
000 MU for modifications to the bakery’s ovens to make them more energy efficient. The
modifications were supposed to make the ovens at least 15 % more efficient. I. Balci has
asked you, as a brilliant graduate of EMU, to check the energy savings of the new ovens
and also look over other measures of the bakery’s productivity to see if the
modifications were beneficial. You have the following data to work with:
2. Serra’s Ceramics spent 3 000 MU on a new kiln last year, in the belief that it would cut
energy usage 25 % over the old kiln. This kiln is an oven that turns “greenware” into
finished pottery. Serra is concerned that the new kiln requires extra labour hours for its
operation. Serra wants to check the energy saving of the new oven, and also to look over
other measures of their productivity to see if the change really was beneficial.
Serra has the following data to work with:
Were the modifications BENEFICIAL?
Last Year Now
Production (dozen) 1500 1500
Labour (hours) 350 325
Capital Investment (MU) 15 000 18 000
Energy (kw-hrs) 3 000 2 750
Last Year This Year
Production (finished units) 4000 4000
Greenware (pounds) 5000 5000
Labour (hrs) 350 375
Capital (MU) 15000 18000
Energy (kWh) 3000 2600
Page 1 Out of 1
3. Suzan has a part-time “cottage-industry” producing seasonal plywood yard ornaments
for resale at local craft fairs and bazaars. She currently works a total of 4 hours per day
to produce 10 ornaments.
a. What is her productivity?
b. She thinks that by redesigning the ornaments and switching from use of a wood glue to a
hot-glue gun she can increase her production to 20 ornaments per day. What is her new
productivity?
c. What is her percentage increase (or decrease) in productivity?
4. A company has asked YOU to evaluate the firm’s productivity by comparing this year’s
performance with last year’s. The following data are available:
Last Year This Year
OUTPUT 10500
units
12100
units
Labour Hours 12000 13200
Utilities 7600 MU 8250 MU
Capital 8300 MU 88000 MU
Has the company improved its PRODUCTIVITY during the past year?
5. Mr. Ilhan DALCI makes billiard balls in his Beyarmudu plant. With a recent increase in
taxes, his costs have gone up and he has a newfound interest in efficiency. Mr.Dalci is
interested in determining the productivity of his organisation. He would like to know if
his organisation is maintaining the manufacturing average of 3% increase in
productivity. He has the following data representing a month from last year and an
equivalent month this year.
__________________Last year Now
Units produced 1 000 1 000
Labour (hours) 300 275
Resin (kg.s) 50 45
Capital invested (MU) 10 000 11 000
Energy (BTU) 3 000 2 850
Show the productivity change for each category and then determine the IMPROVEMENT for
labour- hrs, the typical standard for comparison.
Page 1 Out of 1
6. Haldun LOP, the production manager of LOP Chemicals, in Gazimagusa, TRNC, is preparing
his quarterly report which is to include a productivity analysis for his department. One of the
inputs is production data prepared by Meltem SERIN, his operation analyst. The report,
which she gave him this morning, showed the following:
2005 2006
Production (units) 4500 6000
Raw Material Used (barrels ofPetroleum byproducts)
700 900
Labour Hours 22000 28000
Capital Cost applied to the Department (MU) 375000 620000
Haldun LOP wondered if his productivity had increased at all. He called Meltem into his office
and conveyed the above information to her and asked her to proceed with preparing this part
of the report. (Include your interpretations for each productivity figure)
7. Ahmet Uslu makes wooden boxes in which to ship motorcycles. Ahmet and his three
employees invest 40 hours per day making the 120 boxes.
a. What is their productivity?
b. Ahmet and his employees have discussed redesigning the process to
improve efficiency. If they can increase the rate to 125 per day, what
would be their new productivity?
c. What would be their increase in productivity?
8. The manager of a local firm says “the forecasting techniques are more trouble than they
are worth. I don`t forecast at all, and I`m doing 25% more business than last year”.
Comment.

SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Total marks 80
Group A
Case 1 (14 Marks )
Supply Chain Management at Bose Corporation
Bose Corporation manufactures audio premium speakers used in automobiles, high-fidelity systems and
consumer and commercial broad-casting systems. Head quartered in Framingham, Massachusetts, Bose
Corporation has plants in Massachusetts and Michigan as well as in Canada, Mexico and Ireland. Bose
speakers are the best sellers in Japan, the world leader in consumer electronics. Bose’s competence is in
its electronic engineering skills, ‘but the company attributes much of its business success to its tightly
controlled materials management and excellent Integrated supply chain management.
Bose purchases most of its electronic and other components from independent suppliers scattered around
North America, the Far East and Europe. About 50 percent of its purchases are from foreign suppliers,
the majority of them are from the Far East. Its purchasing organisation while decentralized has some
overlap that requires coordination between sides. Bose attempts to coordinate its globally dispersed
supply chain so that material holding and transportation costs are minimised. This requires component
parts to arrive at Bose’s Massachusetts assembly plant just in time to enter the production process. But
because Bose must remain responsive to its customers, it sometimes must respond quickly to increases in
customer demand for certain speakers so as to remain competitive. Since Bose does not want to hold
extensive inventories at its Massachusetts plant, this need for responsiveness requires Bose’s globally
dispersed supply chain o respond rapidly to increased demand for component parts.
Bose’s materials management function is responsible for coordinating the supply chain to meet both
objectives — minimising transportation and inventory holding costs and yet responding quickly to
customer demands. This function achieves coordination through a sophisticated logistics operation. Most
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2
of Bose’s imports from the Far East come via ships to the West coast and then across North America to
its Massachusetts plant via train. Most of the company’s export also move by ocean freight. Bose does
not hesitate to use airfreight when goods are needed urgently.
Bose has a long standing relationship with W.N. Procter. a Boston based freight forwarder and customs
broker. Procter handles customs clearance and shipping from suppliers to Bose. Procter provides Bose
with up-to-the minute electronic data interchange (EDI) capabilities which enable Bose to track parts as
they move through its global supply chain. Procter provides several other services to Bose such as
selecting overseas agents who can help move goods out of the Far East.
Procter’s well-established network of overseas contacts is especially useful when shipments must be
expedited through foreign customs. Procter also is electronically linked into the US customs system,
which allows it to clear freight electronically as much as five days before a ship arrives at a US port or
hours before an international airfreight shipment arrives – This helps to get goods to Bose’s
manufacturing plant several days sooner.
Bose has developed a detailed supplier performance system that measures on-time delivery, quality
performance, technical improvements and supplier suggestions. A report is generated twice a month from
this system to be sent to the suppliers providing feed-back about supplier performance.
Bose has written contracts with suppliers. After six months of delivery without rejects. Bose certifies the
suppliers as qualified suppliers.
Bose uses a sophisticated transportation system which is the best EDI system n the US. This j system
operates close to real time and allows two-way communication between every one of the freighthandlers’
230 terminals and Bose. Information is updated several times daily. This state-of- the art
system helps Bose’s managers to proactively manage logistics time elements in pursuit of better customer
service.
Perhaps one of the most unique features of Bose’s procurement and logistics system is the development
of JIT II. The basic premise of JIT H is: “the person who can do the best job of ordering and managing
inventory of a particular item is the supplier itself” Bose negotiated with each supplier to provide a full—
time employee at the Bose plant who was responsible for ordering. shipping and receiving materials from
that plant, as well as managing on-site inventories of the items. This was facilitated through an EDT
connection between Bose’s plant and the supplier’s facility.
Questions:-
1. Briefly present the salient features of the integrated supply chain management system at Bose?
2. Discuss how the strategy development process might work at a company like Bose?
3. What should be the relationship between Bose’s supply management strategy and the development of
its performance measurement system?
4. Discuss the importance of quality of purchased components to Bose?
3
Case 2 (14 Marks)
SKF Bearing’s Best Practices
“SKF’S outbound logistics outsourcing is characterised by strong control over quality norms and delivery
schedules by SKF personnel”
SKF Bearings is one of the world’s biggest ball bearing manufacturing units, and they have: a sizeable
presence i India. As part of its supply chain management practice. SKF Bearings handles the training,
implementation and quality control activities themselves, while outsourcing the actual
operations to logistic solution providers. Outbound warehousing and transportation practices outsourced
to logistic solution providers and national transporters.
(A) Inbound transportation and warehousing: Complete vendor outsourced, i.e. transportation and
warehousing managed and handled by vendors.
B) Outbound transportation : Handled predominantly by national fleet operators, with some
responsibilities of contingency transportaton outsourced to organised players.
(C) Outbound warehousing : Completely outsourced to organised players with five players handling
different warehouses of the company.
SKF’s outbound logistics outsourcing is characterized by strong control over quality norms and delivery
schedules by SKF personnel. Outbound warehousing which is a completely outsourced activity is
controlled by SKF personnel by integrating the warehouses through their in-house developed ERP
software platform.
Training of logistics company personnel to load/unload goods, assemble and disassemble and for
integrating scheduling and supply orders is imparted by SKF. Through this, they have managed to
achieve 100 percent order cycle fulfillment, bring down damaged/ short/over delivery instances to almost
0.25 percent of total annual order and train logistic personnel to meet all in-house developed quality
norms.
Even though majority of their logistics partners have IT capabilities of their own, SKF Bearings doesn’t
use them as they have integrated their own IT platform to schedule orders, keep track of consignments
and to manage both effective and efficient distribution. Their warehousing costs are higher than their
outbound transportation costs because of the extensive warehousing practices, but they have achieved
gains through the application of internal control over implementation of quality norms, strict adherence
to Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and a robust system of IT implementation throughout their
supply chain, Future Plans: Moving slowly towards Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) for inbound
4
sourcing and also looking at outsourcing more warehouse management responsibilities. Looking to
implement more definitive 3PL solutions for outbound activities of the supply chain, but will still, keep
operational control in its own hands.
Questions
1. Discuss the activities involved in the supply chain of SKF Bearings?
2. Explain how .SKF establishes strong control over its outbound logistics?
3. What is meant by vendor managed inventory (VMI)?
4. What meant by third party (3PL) logistics solutions? Explain how SKF will be able to implement the
same?
Case 3 (14 Marks)
Chrysler Unseats its Competition with Supplier Partnerships
When Lee lococea gave the co ahead to Chrysler’s Neon Project in I NO, he \\ as taking a big risk. Until
that time; no American subcompact ear had been able to turn a profit for its manufacturer. l3ut Chrysler’s
Neon ultimately reversed this trend: mainly because of the unprecedented partnerships Chrysler entered
into with its suppliers in the earliest stages ot the Neon Project.
Robert Marcell. head of Chrysler’s small -car division, knew that such partnerships held the key to
Chrysler’s success. In order to make a profit, Marcell had to meet stringent production schedules for
which he had to bring suppliers on board early. This is crucial because outside companies would be
furnishing 70 percent of the value of the car in the form of tyres seats,suspension, and other components.
In an unprecedented move, Marcell allowed engineers from key potential suppliers to dose the first
Neon prototype during an October 1990 meeting. His team then issued a cost challenge. inviting
suppliers to make use of sensitive Chrysler financial data and ideas in a mutual effort to Cut costs.
Companies who entered into this unique partnership found that collaborating with Chrysler was a twoway
street. For exarple Johnson controls, Inc was initially to make the Neon’s seats within Chrysler’s
price targets, but Chrysler was unhappy with their safety. Weight and comfort. After the supplier
partnership agreement, ten Chrysler engineers moved into Johnson controls’ firm near Detroit to work
with the engineers of Johnson controls. After working together for five days together the partners agreed
on new weight, cost and performance standards that were so on target that they didn’t have to be changed
again.
As a result of this unique partnership, Chrysler was able to accept higher component Costs from Johnson
controls because of overall savings for Chrysler. At Chrysler’s request Johnson designed some rear seats
with the capability of folding down to expand trunk space. But Chrysler engineers insisted that Johnson
design the special seats so that they could be installed the same as other seats. This made each seat cost
5
more, but Chrysler ultimately could save about $ one million overall in final assembly costs. Thanks to
its successful partnership with Johnson controls and other major suppliers, Chrysler met its stringent cost
and time deadlines for the Neon- and came out with Detroit’s first profitable subcompact car in the
bargain.
Questions
1. Discuss the approach of Chrysler’s operations managers in developing arid building the Neon model?
2. Discuss the relevance of this case to the study of supply chain management?
3. What benefits a manufacturing firm can achieve from its suppliers, through outsourced manufacturing?
4. Discuss the differences between outsourcing and out-partnering?
Case 4 (14 Marks)
Delphi Automotive Setting New Norms
“Logistics service provider and transporter evaluation is done on the basis of requirement levels met,
which is 100 percent for any component before it goes on to the line”.
Delphi Automotive India Ltd. is the Indian arm of the global giant Delphi Automotive. The major
components that Delphi supplies in the country are steering columns, half shafts, AC Units, Engine
Management systems, Catalytic Converters and Wiring Harnesses. The Company also takes up sourcing
requirements of clients based out of India.
Suppliers are generally selected on the basis o their proximity to the company’s four manufacturing units
in India, which are located in Bangalore, Karnataka (two plants), one in Noida, Uttar Pradesh and one in
Gurgaon (Haryana). Delphi believes in efficient sourcing from its suppliers. Nearby suppliers are
required to supply the plant everyday while far flung suppliers are required to supply 2-3 times in a week.
Delphi has streamlined the inbound process by procuring high volume, low cost items from nearby
suppliers and high cost, low volume items from far flung suppliers.
Delphi Automotive India has outsourced the entire inbound sourcing part of the supply chain to its
suppliers, totaling about 150. They are responsible for the inbound transportation and warehousing of
components before the latter reaches any of Delphi’s manufacturing plants.
For outbound trá1sportation and warehousing. the company works with a mixture of national transporters
and organised logistics solution providers, Its outbound warehousing has been outsourced to a trading
company with capabilities in warehouse management.
To make sure that quality norms are adhered to and supply schedules are met, logistics service 1?rovider
and transporter evaluation is done on the basis of requirement levels met, which is 100 percent for any
component before it goes on to the line. This is a very Important service level definition on which logistic
solution providers and transporters are evaluated.
Since the stock and inventory checking aspects of the supply chain have been automated, details of stocks
and status of delivery can be tracked. Web enabled
6
consignment tracking facilities are provided by Delphi India to its foreign customers enabling the latter to
track the status and location of their’ consignments at any given point in time. Indian customers are
slowly being provided with this facility. Also, Indian customers can place orders from Delphi using the
company’s extranet system as and, when the requirement arises.
Future Plans: Will slowly move towards a more structured system of logistics outsourcing, which would
mean that it will increasingly start looking at more 3PL outsourcing arrangements.
Questions
1. Explain the supply chain of Delphi Automotive.
2. Explain how Delphi Automotive manages its inbound sourcing.
3. Explain how Delphi Automotive manages its outbound logistics.
4 Suggest a suitable strategy for Delphi Automotive to Improve its supply chain effectives.
Group B
Case 5 (24 Marks)
Karnataka Engineering Company Limited
By 1983 (the case time context), the two-wheeler market had been liberalised and companies had to deal
with the new realities. Logistics was one of the business activities which got a strong look. The case of
Karnataka Engineering Company Limited (KEC) provides the background for analysing a key set of
logistical concerns.
Strengthening the distribution network for finished products is one of the most direct ways of improving
service effectiveness and cost efficiency of a firm’s marketing related operations. The cost of selling up
and operating different facilities in the distribution network have to be viewed vis-à-vis the recurring
transportation and inventory costs in the distribution network and increasingly, service measures such as
response time to different sets of downstream customers.
In this case, the logistics manager s faced with the issue of designing a distribution network. ‘Twowheelers
have to be distributed from a single factory to several dealers. For illustrating the nature of the
decision, one state (Andhra Pradesh) is taken up for detailed analysis. Here, it is assumed that distribution
will be done state-wise, because of commercial (tax) considerations.
Five hierarchical decisions have to be made in this case; deciding on the number of warehouses, the
location of those warehouses, the allocation of demand points to a warehouse, the selection of a shipment
size, and an order processing and routing policy for the actual distribution from warehouse to demand
7
points. Here, shipments from depots to dealers are through trucks or LCVs. Depending on the order
processing discipline that is selected, one could have the possibility of meeting the demands of two or
more dealers with a single trip. This would need a routing procedure.
Questions
1. At what volumes is the opening of a warehouse in a state justified primarily on the grounds of the 4 per
cent central sales tax for transactions across states?
2. How many warehouses do you think are required for the distribution of KEC’s products in Andhra
Pradesh? What could the candidate locations of the warehouses be? What would be the criteria on which
to select the candidates?
3. Determine the optimal selection of warehouses and the best allocation of demand points to the selected
warehouses?
4. What are the best choices for shipment (truck) size from warehouses to demand points? Given the size,
what routing would you recommend for a typical dispatch run?
Approach for Analysis
The problem here is a relatively complex one, in theory, because of the number of different but
interrelated decisions that have to he made. Two options are suggested to approach this problem. One is
to decompose the decision areas (typically in the order of the hierarchy described above) and calculate
only the aggregate contributions from other decisions. For example, a shipment size can be assumed
while deciding the number and location of warehouses (and that would determine the relevant costs), and
this can be repeated for each significant option.
Another approach is to explicitly and simultaneously consider two or more interrelated decisions. This is
a very common practice in, for example, location allocation models. This makes decision-making more
accurate. But this is not always possible.
A combination of these two approaches may be helpful here. A reasonable set of scenarios for shipment
size for making the upper-level decisions, a combined model for location and allocation, and again an
aggregate consideration for deciding the number of warehouses (based on the fixed costs vis-à-vis the
maximum savings in transportation) can be prepared. The routing decision can be separately made after
the allocation decisions are made, for each shipment size possibility. For the location-allocation decision,
even the number of warehouses to be opened can be left open, and a model developed based on Mixed
Integer Linear Programming. The model size should be kept small enough that a simple solution should
be obtained by running the model on a PC. Extensions of such models in m1aitleve1 distribution, where
explicit consideration of warehouse location costs and transport link fixed costs have been combined with
allocation decisions, have been among the most successful applications of models to practical decisionmaking.
Karnataka Engineering Company Limited (KEC)*
8
Karnataka Engineering Company Limited, Raichur, entered the two-wheeler industry in 1981 with the
production of mopeds. In 1983, they set up a scooter production line in Raichur. The two-wheeler scene
in India was very much a seller’s market in the early years, with waiting times of several months for
potential customers.
In 1987, there was a slump in the Two-wheeler market which affected all manufacturers badly. The
market became extremely competitive. This forced KEC to look for ways to tackle the increased
competitiveness. It was felt by the Staff Vice-President (Corporate Planning) that the physical
distribution function was a source of competitive advantage which, if properly handled, could yield
substantial dividends that would be visible in the immediate future.
KEC had set up a team to aggressively lead their marketing efforts in the slumping markets, called ‘Go
For It’. At a meeting of ‘Go For It’, the Staff VP (Corp. Planning) put forth his ideas for rationalising the
management of the physical distribution function, which was accepted by everyone, including the
Managing Director. Prior to this meeting, he had circulated a letter to all concerned (Exhibit
1). The organisation structure of KEC is given in Exhibit 2. Value added by KEC based on 1986-1987
financial data is given in Exhibit 3
Present Distribution
From Raichur, the two-wheelers are transported by specially adapted trucks, which can carry either 80
mopeds or 50 scooters or a combination of both. This phase of the distribution, called primary
transportation, is organised at Raichur itself by the central marketing office.
KEC has 19 branches spread all over India. Exhibit 4 gives a list of the branches (along with the
states/Uts) and their rnonh1y offtakés with sales value. Every branch is manned by a branch manager,
who is the 501C KE.C employee there. He wage labour for the loading and unloading operations. The
econda1y tansport arrangements transport from the branch to the dealers arc made by KEC Marketing
offices located in most states. A list of the marketing offices is given in Exhibit 5.
The consultant, based on discussions with the Staff VP arid Chief Operating Officer, arrived at a
framework for analysis, quite similar to the one outlined in Exhibit 1.
Branch Operating Costs and Locations
The operating expenses of a branch were estimated to be Rs 17,000 per month. The break-up is given in
Exhibit 6. However, the actual average expenses were closer to Rs 21,000 per month. The inventory cost
for each branch has been determined by examining the average branch inventory as given in Exhibit 7. It
should be kept in mind that the period January-July 1988, on which the data is based, represents a slump
in the market resulting in higher than normal inventories.
Given the costs, it can be determined that at 4 per cent central sales tax, the minimum throughput that
would justify the setting up of a branch in a state would be Rs 4.25 lakh per month. This translates into
78 mopeds (at Rs 5,500 per moped) or 33 scooters (at Rs 13,000 per scooter) per month or any
combination thereof. From Exhibit 4 it can be seen that it would be advantageous to locate branch
warehouses in 18 states/UTs. New branches need to be set up in Goa, Orissa and Pondicherry.
9
The branch in Jammu and Kashmir can be discontinued. The north-eastern part of the country should be
examined in greater detail with a state with break up
For the states where a branch location is deemed Essential the next task was to determine how many
branches should be opened iii each state arid where exactly they should be located.
The principal factor to examine when considering whether more than one branch is justified would be to
see if the savings in total transportation costs (primary and secondary transportation costs) would be more
than the additional cost of a new branch.
Distribution in Andhra Pradesh
The logistics expert decided to examine the case of AP in detail for an interim presentation to KEC. The
existing position was that KEC had two branch warehouses at Adoni and Mahbubnagar,f serving roughly
the northern and southern halves of AP. Exhibit 8 shows the locations of the dealer points on a map.
Exhibit 9 gives the actual average monthly offtake to the dealer points in Al’ based on January-July 1988
data.
The marketing office at Hyderabad would collate the orders and issue instructions by telephone to the
branch manager at Adoni and Mahbubnagar regarding secondary despatches. Actual routing decisions
were the responsibility of the branch manager. Both the branch managers found it difficult to get through
to dealers by telephone. Further, the Mehboobnagar branch manager frequently complained about
difficulties in arranging secondary transport. It must be mentioned here that the principle that motivated
KEC to select Adoni and Mahbubnagar as branch locations is that they are the first major towns in AP
after crossing the border.
Transportation and Routing
To get a good handle on the nature of transportation cogs, the consultant defined a unit called the moped
unit km. where one moped unit km is performed by transporting one moped unit for a distance of one
kilometre. One scooter was taken as equivalent to 1.6 moped units as a full truckload carries 1.6 times
more mopeds than scooters. He further set out to determine an average1 figure of the transport cost per
moped unit km, both for primary and secondary transportation.
The truck rates for various truck sizes are given in Exhibit 10. An important decision here is the optimal
size of shipment (which size truck to use). Exhibit 11 gives the distance math between the dealer points
and potential branch locations. The potential locations were selected based on offtake levels, demand
spread, quality of life, etc.
For primary transportation, it was found that the trucks were generally run at full capacity The 80 moped
units capacity truck was normally used. To determine primary transport cost, the distance figures from
Raichur to the potential branch locations are given as Adoni (70 km) Cuddappah (270 km), Hyderabad
10
(190 km), Kurnool (100 km—not a good road, 170 km—by good road), Mehboobnagar (100 km) and
Vijayawada (480 km via Hyderabad). For secondary transportation. six sample routings as given in
Exhibit 12 were chosen to determine the transport cost per moped unit km.
The average pipeline inventory was also a cost consideration. At the national level, average pipeline
inventory for primary transportation can be calculated given the average lead for mopeds as 700 km and
for scooters as 900 km. A truck does average of 350 km per day. Secondary transport pipeline inventory
was negligible, accept in large states.
The consultant now felt that he was ready to analyse the alternatives for branch location shipment size,
etc.
EXHIBIT I
From Staff VP (Corporate Planning)
To COO (Chief Operating Officer)
All members of Go For It
The recent slump in the market for two-wheelers is hitting not only our bottomline but also the morale of
the staff. We have been caught almost unaware by this and our sales forecasts look ridiculous. We are
faced with the all too visible problem of a build-up in finished goods inventory at Raichur and the
branches on account of lower offtake. The problem is so severe that sometimes trucks have had to wait
for more than a week to unload at branch points.
An important, but unfortunately neglected area to which we must pay attention is our logistics function.
If the right decisions are taken here, the potential to save money and provide an optimum level of service
to the consumer exists. Studying our logistics requirements should lead to savings in transportation costs
and inventory costs. The other benefit would be that our response time to orders would be acceptable to
the customer without imposing unjustifiable additional costs. As a first step, it would be useful for us to
recognise the significance of logistics costsas a proportion of value added to products. As I see it, the
first-level decision should be to make up our minds as to which states we should have branches in. The
financial advantage of having a branch warehouse in a state is that we then don’t have to pay the 4 per
cent central sales tax which is based on interstate sales.
The second-level decision should be to determine where in a state the branch should he located and
whether more than one branch would be justified. Related decisions would be the size of shipment,
frequency of shipment. inventory positioning at branches and routing of primary and secondary transport.
As we do not have any suitable person in KEC who is qualified to examine the issues involved, I have
identified an external management logistics expert to conduct the study.
11
EXHIBIT 3
Value Added Statement for 1986-87
Mopeds Scooters Total
Sales 63.20 41.10 104.30
Raw Material and Component Cost (67%
for mopeds) (69% for Scooters)
42.34 28.36 70.70
Value Added 20.86 12.74 33.60
EXHIBIT 4
12
State/UT-wise Monthly Average Sales (January-July 1988)
S.No State/UT Branch Location Mopels Scooters Sales Value (Rs 000)
1 Andhra
Pradesh
Adoni/M nagar 465/1460 78/210 3571.5/10760
2 Bihar Ranchi 360 125 3605
3 Daman Daman 15 300 3982.5
4 Delhi Delhi 65 30 747.5
5 Goa – 55 50 952.5
6 Gujarat Vadodara 80 70 1350
7 Haryana Faridabad 60 20 590
8 Himachal
Pradesh
– 10 10 185
9 Jammu &
Kashmir
Ja 5 25 352.5
10 Karnataka R 2400 150 15150
11 Kerala Cochin 80 60 1220
12 Madhya
Pradesh
Bhopal/Raipur 290/300 80/60 2635/2430
13 Maharashtra Mumbai 180 360 5670
14 North-east – 30 35 620
15 Orissa – 60 20 590
16 Pondicherry – 65 25 682.5
17 Punjab &
Chandigarh
Chandigarh 300 180 3990
18 Rajasthan Jaipur 210 120 2715
19 Tamil Nadu Vellore 1100 120 7610
13
20 Uttar Pradesh Luknow/Varanasi 750/300 170/70 6335/2560
21 West Bengal Medinipur 100 40 1070
Total 8740 2408 79374
Exhibit 5
Marketing Officer
Tamil Nadu Chennai
Karanataka Bangalore/Raichur
Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad
Kerala Cochin
Maharashtra Mumbai
MP Bhopal
UP Lucknow
Bihar Ranchi
West Bengal Calcutta
Rajasthan Jaipur
Gujarat Ahmedabad
J & K Srinagar
Punjab & Haryana Chandigarh
Delhi Delhi
Exhibit 6
Branch Opening Cost
Item Rs/Month
14
Utility ect 2000
Rent 4000
Salary 4000
Inventory 11000
Total 21000
Exhibit 7
Average Inventory Position at Branches (January-July 1988)
1 Adoni 63 24
2 M’nagar 58 30
3 Ranchi 30 14
4 Daman 39 91
5 Delhi 20 32
6 Vadodara 96 112
7 Faridabad 0 0
8 Jammu 29 25
9 Cochin 0 0
10 Bhopal 143 132
11 Raipur 55 59
12 Mumbai 63 109
13 Chandigarh 75 119
14 Jaipur 115 53
15 Vellore 53 32
16 Lucknow 165 146
15
17 Varanasi 86 146
18 Medinipur 50 32
Average Inventory at Branches 63.33 64.22
19 Raichur (including finished goods inv.)1122 768
Exhibit 8
Andhra Pradesh-KEC Branches
16
17
EXHBIT 9
Average Monthly Offtake in Andhra Pradesh (January –July 1988)
Mopeds Scooters moped-units
From Adoni
1 Adoni 25 10 41
2 Chittoor 90 10 106
3 Nellore 20 15 44
4 Ongole 20 0 20
5 Chirala 50 3 54.8
6 Cuddappah 55 4 61.4
7 Hindupur 60 7 71.2
8 Anantapur 60 10 76
9 Kurnool 20 3 24.8
10 Tirupati 65 16 90.6
From M’nagar
11 Guntur 95 15 119
12 V’Wada 205 30 253
13 Khammam 80 15 104
14 Warangal 65 15 89
15 R’Mundry 80 0 80
16 Kakinada 70 4 76.4
17 Vizag 115 6 124.6
18 V’nagram 30 5 38
19 M’nagar 20 10 36
20 Hyderabad 600 80 728
18
21 Nizamabad 45 15 69
22 K’nagar 55 15 79
Total 1925 288 2385.8
EXHIBIT 10
Truck Rates (Rs per km)
Transporter 80 Mopeds or 50
Scooters(large truck)
56 Mopeds or 35
Scooters(medium
truck)
20 Mopeds or 12
Scooters (LCV)
PC Rao Brother 6.00 4.80 –
Raichur Roadways 6.00 4.80 –
Adoni Travels 6.50 5.00 4.00
Mehboobnagar
Trucking Society
6.90 5.50 4.60
EXHIBIT 11
AP Distance Matrix
S No. Adoni Cuddappah Hyderabad Kurnool M’nagar V’wada
1. Adoni 0 200 240 125 150 540
2.
Anantapur
110 120 340 130 240 400
3. Chirala 360 210 380 280 280 90
4. Chittoor 340 140 515 320 450 420
5. 200 0 365 180 280 310
19
Cuddappa
6. Guntur 390 270 320 250 410 30
7.
Hindupur
230 180 475 240 330 470
8.
Hyderabad
240 365 0 175 90 290
9.
Kakinada
740 520 500 390 590 210
10.
K’nagar
420 615 250 320 270 280
11.
Khammam
430 400 190 290 270 130
12.
Kurnool
120 180 175 0 125 290
13.
M’nagar
150 280 90 125 0 380
14. Nellore 280 130 470 260 360 240
15.
Nizamabad
435 515 150 330 285 360
16. Ongole 320 160 425 240 290 125
17.
R’mundry
680 460 440 370 530 150
18. Tirupati 330 130 485 310 440 390
19. V’wada 540 310 290 290 380 0
20. Vizag 900 680 660 590 750 370
21.
V’nagaram
950 730 710 640 800 420
22. 380 480 120 310 230 210
20
Warangal
EXHIBIT 12
Sample Routings for Dealer Point Delivery (Based on Invoice Statements)
Shipment
Number
Routing
From 1 To 2
Offtake at 2
Mopeds3 Scooters4
Offtake at
2
Sector
Distance
1 Adoni Anantpur 12 __ 12 110
Anantapur Hindupur 8 __ 8 120
2 Adoni Trupati 10 25 50 330
Triupati Nellore __ 15 24 120
3 Adoni Cuddappah 40 __ 40 200
Cuddappah Nellore 40 __ 40 130
4 M’ Nagar Hyderabad __ 30 48 90
Hyderabad Warangal __ 20 32 120
5 M’nagar Hyderabad 24 20 56 90
6 M’nagar Vijayawada 30 __ 30 380
Vijayawada R’mundry 30 __ 30 150
R’mundry Kakinada 20 __ 20 60
Analyze in minute details this Case with reference to the Principles of Logistics and supply chain
Management

AEREN FOUNDATION’S Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724
SUBJECT: SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Total Marks: 80
CASE – 1 (20 Marks)
E-TENDERING IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT-VENDOR SELECTION
The e-tendering process has meant a transformation from a traditional vendor selection process
through tenders to an online process making huge advances in efficiency, transparency and Data
Storage solutions and retrieval systems. Wipro Infotech Enterprise application practice through its eprocurement
application development service has ensured a smooth migration for governments.
The e-tendering service offering allows vendors to electronically upload and download documents,
access project details as well as enabling you to maintain a track on the overall status of the tenders.
The key benefits of our E-tendering service offering include:
 Reducing collusion among vendors and making the process fair and competitive
 Enabling systematic documentation of the complete tendering process and hence reducing
administrative costs and minimising human error
 Ensuring significant reduction in processing time and tender cycle time
 Ensuring timely completion of tendering process thereby resulting in better utilisation of
available funds from financial institutions
 Providing onsite service and training to ensure that government adopts the new system
without any difficulties
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Questions
 How has technology helped SCM ?
 Is e-tendering a good process to select vendors?
CASE-2 (20 Marks)
Supply Chain: definition of a supply chain as a partnership of organizations sharing a common goal
of delivering a set of goods or services to an end-customer. Thus, the supply chain includes not only
the upstream suppliers of an item and the organizations that make the components used to create that
item, but also the downstream retailers or distributors for the item. Other authors have called these
value chains or webs, in an attempt to highlight the fact that supply chains don’t just include suppliers
but also their customers and that the relationships aren’t always linear but more commonly look like a
network or web.
Supply Chain Collaboration: any kind of joint, coordinated effort between two parties in a supply
chain to achieve a common goal. Note that these words on their own give no indication of whether
the effort I am talking about is at a strategic, tactical, or operational level, what kind of business
process is involved, or the degree of collaboration. These things aren’t often stated explicitly enough
when we talk about collaboration or the tools used to support it.
Since there are numerous processes that partners can collaborate on, it is critical that we are clear
about which processes are involved in the collaboration. On this site, we focus primarily on
Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR) activities when talking about supply
chain collaboration, rather than other activities such as collaborative design or marketing. However,
once organizations begin the strategic shift towards more collaborative relationships, it is much easier
to experience process gains in many other areas.
Questions
 Define supply chain and supply chain collaboration?
CASE-3 (20 Marks)
Decisions on Three Levels
Supply chain management decisions are often said to belong to one of three levels; the strategic, the
tactical, or the operational level. Since there is no well defined and unified use of these terms, this
Section describes the how they are used in this thesis. Figure shows the three level of decisions as a
pyramid shaped hierarchy. The decisions on a higher level in the pyramid will set the conditions
under which lower level decisions are made.
On the strategic level long term decisions are made. According to Ganeshan and Harrison [12], these
are related to location, production, inventory, and transportation. Location decisions are concerned
with the size, number, and geographic location of the supply chain entities, such as plants,
inventories, or distribution centers. The production decisions are meant to determine which products
to produce, where to produce them, which suppliers to use, from which plants to supply distribution
centers, and so on. Inventory decisions are concerned with the way of managing inventories
throughout the supply chain. Transport decisions are made on the modes of transport to use.
Decisions made on the strategic level are of course interrelated. For example decisions on mode of
transport are influenced by decisions on geographical placement of plants and warehouses, and
inventory policies are influenced by choice of suppliers and production locations. Modeling and
simulation is frequently used for analyzing these interrelations, and the impact of making strategic
level changes in the supply chain.
On the tactical level medium term decisions are made, such as weekly demand forecasts, distribution
and transportation planning, production planning, and materials requirement planning. The
operational level of supply chain management is concerned with the very short term decisions made
from day to day. The border between the tactical and operational levels is vague. Often no distinction
is made, as will be the case in this thesis.
Questions
 Define hierarchy of decision making in supply chain management?
CASE-4 (20 Marks)
Inventory is a “Flexibility Buffer”
A manufacturers flexibility is its ability to respond to changes in demand. Imagine a company that
can receive customer orders, order and receive components, assemble these, fill the orders, and ship
them to customers in one single day. This company would have a total flexibility. It would be able to
respond to any unforeseen events on a daily basis, and could easily attain a hundred percent customer
satisfaction without any inventory. But this is of course rarely the case. A supply chain may consist of
many levels of production, transportation, and warehousing, each level adding to the lead time. The
time from the first materials are ordered at the beginning of the supply chain till the finished products
reach the customer may be long. In the US apparel industry this time is typically 58.5 weeks ! (from
1990, Flaherty.
It is evident that customers will not wait this long from order to delivery. The manufacturer needs to
plan ahead, and therefore also to estimate future demand by making demand forecasts. If planning of
production and inventories was perfect we would be able to implement a pure Just in Time strategy,
with components arriving as they are needed, and finished goods being shipped as they leave the
assembly line. But in a supply chain there are many events that can not be foreseen and uncertainties
that need to be accounted for. These may be: late shipments from suppliers, defect incoming material,
imperfect production yield, production process breakdown, or highly uncertain product demands.
The longer the planning horizon, the less accurate the plans will be. A typical US apparel
manufacturer must see more than a year into the future ! For it to maintain a high level of customer
service, all uncertainty of the year must be accounted for (see Pitfall 5 below). The long lead times
make the manufacturer inflexible, and vulnerable to unforeseen changes and inaccurate demand
forecasts.
A manufacturer will account for the uncertainties and unforeseen events by keeping safety stocks.
The safety stocks assure the necessary flexibility, or rather they act as buffers for the lack of
flexibility in the supply chain.
As we decrease lead times in the supply chain, we decrease the planning horizon, and thereby
increase the flexibility. The need for a buffer in the form of inventory will also diminish. In other
words; higher flexibility allows less inventory to maintain the same level of customer service.
Inventory vs. Customer Service: A Trade-Off
If we assume lead times to be constant, the ability to fill orders is directly dependent on the inventory
levels in a supply chain. As long as there are products in the finished goods inventory (FGI), from
which products are taken, orders can be satisfied. Other inventories, such as raw product inventories
will have a more indirect effect on customer satisfaction. Stock-outs in any of these will obstruct
production and may eventually lead to stock-out in the FGI. For this reason, it is common in supply
chain management to keep exaggerated inventory levels. But as mentioned above inventory holding
costs are often calculated as high as 30-40% of inventory values.
While oversized inventories is a costly inventory management strategy, low fill rates are also costly.
Business may be lost through cancelled orders, and the company’s reputation may be severely
damaged. It is therefore in a company’s interest to balance inventory holding cost and the cost of
imperfect customer satisfaction. The trade-off inventory vs. customer satisfaction is one of the classic
issues of logistics and supply chain management.
Pitfalls in Inventory Management
Based on knowledge and experience from supply chain management in electronics, computer, and
automobile companies, Lee and Billington [16] identify 14 pitfalls in inventory management. Eight of
which are found relevant to this project:
Pitfall 1. No Supply Chain Metrics:
In a supply chain with multiple sites, each site will often have its fairly autonomous
management team. The objectives of the various teams may differ, and even be
conflicting. Inventory may for example be reduced at a Site A of a supply chain, and
thereby, seen from a local perspective, the performance is enhanced. But the inventory
decrease may also decrease Site A’s flexibility. Because Site A now responds more slowly
to changes, Site B, which is Site A’s customer will have to increase its inventory (of Site
A parts) in order to maintain its flexibility and level of customer service. The lack of
supply chain metrics has prevented managers at Site A to see that their local
improvements has not lead to improved overall performance of the supply chain. The
objective of supply chain metrics is to give the basis for evaluations of the performance of
the whole supply chain as one system.
Pitfall 2. Inadequate Definition of Customer Service:
Too few and in-concise metrics for customer service. The evaluation of performance
becomes difficult, and certain aspects of customer service may be overlooked.
Pitfall 3. Inaccurate Delivery Status Data:
Customers are not correctly informed of delivery dates of orders and of late deliveries.
Companies can often not readily retrieve the information needed to do so.
Pitfall 4. Inefficient Information Systems:
Databases at different operation sites that describe system environment, inventories,
backlog, future production plans, and so on are often not linked. Information must be
retrieved manually, and this can be a long process. Planning cycles may therefore be long,
using highly uncertain demand forecasts. The wrong products are made, and inventories
and backlogs grow.
Pitfall 5. Ignoring the Impact of Uncertainties:
Too often supply chains do not track uncertainties such as suppliers’ delivery times, the
quality of incoming materials, manufacturing process time, transit times, and so on. This
leads to non-optimal stocking levels. In some cases uncertainties are properly tracked, but
there is no follow-up.
Pitfall 6. Simplistic Inventory Stocking Policies:
Stocking policies are often not linked to knowledge of the uncertainties mentioned above.
Stocking policies are often based on the quantity usage of the items stocked. This says
nothing about the uncertainty associated with the usage. Analysis show that stocking
levels could be greatly reduced by transferring stocking policies from being quantity
based to being uncertainty based.
Pitfall 7. Organizational Barriers:
Entities in a supply chain may belong to different organizations within the same company.
The organizations will independently measure the performance of the entities. While each
entity is occupied with achieving local goals (much like in pitfall 1), important synergies
may be lost.
Pitfall 8. Incomplete Supply Chain:
Supply chain managers are often focussed only on the internal supply chain. Going
beyond the internal supply chain by including external suppliers and customers often
exposes new opportunities for improving internal operations
Questions
 Define Inventory is a “Flexibility Buffer’’?
 What are the various pitfalls in inventory management?


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EFFECTIVE H.R TRAINING
& DEV STRATEGY
COURSE : ADHRM Total Marks : 80
INSTRUCTIONS :
1) Answers must be written in legible handwriting without using abbreviations or SMS
language.
2) Figures to the right indicate the marks assigned to each question.
4) All Questions are compulsory.
5) Read the cases carefully and then attempt answers.
CASE – 1 (20 Marks)
Rajiv Grover clutched his forehead and groaned. A combination of embarrassment and guilt had
worked its way to a stiff neck and a dull pain at the base of his skull. He had complicated his
condition with quick remedies : an aspirin, neck exercises and a cup of black coffee. Feeling woozy,
he stepped out of the taxi warily, hoping the scene, which he had been witness to a little while ago,
and which triggered off his condition, had dissipated. It had. The six consultants, who only 45
minutes ago had flung angry words around, had withdrawn exhausted, into their cubicles. A strange
calm pervaded the halls of Personnel Consulting Group Ltd (PCGL), punctuated only by keyboard
clicks and the drone of the printer.
Rajiv declared it was time to get help. He called Rajnish Dogra, a friend of long standing and
an HR Consultant, and said, “We have to talk”. Rajiv was a senior manager at PCGL, a fast growing
consultancy firm in New Delhi. Rajiv, who had been among those who had established PSG in 1988,
looked after human relations, recruitment, training, quality control, and client planning and
management. Rajiv was not qualified HR person – he had worked for 15 years selling soaps and
detergents, training sales staff and writing manuals. He chose this role until PSG had found its
foothold in the ruthlessly competitive industry.
AN ISO 9001 : 2000 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Page 1 Out of 1
“Just hear me and suggest what direction I should take to bring about a sense of tolerance and
harmony at work place,” he said to Rajnish when they met. “I am coming straight after witnessing a
horrible scrap between two groups at the office, Kamal, Senior Consultant asked the Pantry to Stock
different brand of tea. It was simple and trivial as that. Two Consultants, who heard that, remarked,
this is not a coffee shop with a menu. And thus took off. Five of them on one side, he on the other
side of his cubicle (a small area of a room that is separated off for privacy) and they were hyper
ventilating. Embarrasingly enough, it came to angry, loud words. And others just stood by either it
was shock or the numbers that these kinds of events leave you with. No one offered support or tried
to defuse the situation.
“What bothered me was that we did not handle it well. I feel something more was called for then.
Something more serious in terms of an intervention was required, but we were not able to do
anything. Frankly, this was the first time, I was witnessing anything like this in an office setting and
I recall my mind only observing shock and embarrassment. I wished for the situation to end, become
less severe, for someone to laugh or crack a joke. But I was unable to invoke the manager in me.
That embarrasses me.
“At this point, I must tell you that Kamal is a direct recruit at the senior level. Now just get used to
some terminology. At the entry, we have trainees, at the middle level we have consultants, above
them the senior consultants, and even above are the directors. So Kamal’s direct induction is a fact
resented at lower levels which have strong group consultants, many of whom have been there since
the establishment and played a key role in setting up PGCL. But more of that later.
“The fact also is, while Kamal is a good systems and IT person, he is not top drawer material.
And this has become a bone of contention with the middle level that feels PCGL, in its haste to bag
jobs, is compromising on quality.
“Now let me explain the nature of our industry and the size of our firm. We are a small firm
with 50 people. We have no branches or other business divisions, where say, if you are to shining in
division A, you can move to division B and may be shine there. All work is consulting work and
most people, except those in systems are multi-skilled. There is a difference in projects, but the kind
of work is similar.
“Thus to an extent, perceptions of competency are based on the narrow field of work where
you are. We restructured the company last year, since we have now more systems and marketing
work.
“We divided the business according to the nature of work, so we have systems, marketing and
sales and HR, which is a lot about compensation surveys. The heads of these businesses are ten top
level management. Every division has a top level too, made up of senior consultants at the senior
level and consultants at the middle level. It is between these two that we have problem.”
Rajnish was listening with a keen ear. Dropping two cubes of sugar into Rajiv’s tea, he
said,”And what did the restructuring do to unnerve the middle level management, to make them seem
so angry?”
Stirring his tea, Rajiv said, “Earlier we did not have business divisions. But for systems,
which have a strong IT/Finance need, the other assignments were planned by the CEO and teams
drawn up by him. So you could have an assignment with three Consultants and no Senior
Consultant, but since the assignment itself was being managed by the CEO, no problem was
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perceived. But in the process, one of the consultants soon came to be seen as the Chief Consultant
for the assignment and that gave him a perceived seniority.
“Now post-restructuring, we have a layer of senior consultants in every division and every
assignment will necessarily have a senior consultant to head the team and plan the assignment, as the
division is only overseeing, throwing in periodic inputs and providing overall direction to new
business. Nothing extra ordinary, for this is how most companies operate.”
“In the earlier scenario, very often a consultant led an assignment that was periodically
overseen by the CEO. Then we had a few quality problems and debates, so we decided there should
be a senior on every assignment. Now a senior can lead three assignments, but the operational issues
are managed by the consultants who are more glued into the assignment. But when the senior
decides to do a few checks and controls on the assignment, trouble begins. The consultant, who is as
comfortable in his position as the quasi in charge of an assignment; at least as far as the client is
concerned, finds the senior an intrusion. That is when he questions the competency and worth of the
senior.
“Now also know this, a senior consultant is typically 28-30 year old. The Consultant is 24-26. The
consultant is, therefore, more mobile in the job market, he can drop us and assignment and walk away
into established and well-known companies, whereas the senior at 28-30 is that much less mobile and
left holding an assignment stands, nothing. Because, the way it works is, most things are held in a
consultant’s head and flow out only when he writes a report.
“What has irritated the middle level is the direct recruitment at the top level or at the senior
consultant’s level. Earlier a consultant grew into a senior consultant. So, there was always that
promise that the road ahead is clear. And in a growing company, it falls nicely in place. You grow,
the company grows, so there is more room at the top. But now when the direct recruits are coming
in, there is a lot of insecurity for the older employees.
“So what happens to the consultant? Most of the divisions already have three senior
Consultants each. Is there room at the top? Either of these seniors to move up and vacate same space,
or at the Senior Consultants level for a division to have more of that kind? The answer is, its
expensive and those levels cannot operate as parking slots”.
Rajnish had a second cup of tea and said, “And why does the middle level feel poorly about
the senior consultants? Is it because they feel their chances of growth have been blocked by direct
recruits?”
“That’s not true”, said Rajiv. For example, I did ask two consultants to move up and take on
the senior role. I thought, with a lot of support, and they will find their foothold soon. But Funnily
enough, the two men I asked said no, that they were not fully ready for such a senior position. This
ability to recognize that they did not have the resources to be in a senior slot is what I find very
heartening. They could have said Yes, but it was their belief that the company needed someone
better, stronger, and more experienced. They are in honest bunch of people. That is why the current
tension is troubling me so much.
I think it has to do with their perception of what is good for the company, and these four or
five Consultants have been with us since the company’s establishment. These people, who have seen
the highs and lows, feel that they have brought the company upto a level of competency. And we do
believe that competency goes beyond were skills. These men did most of the donkey work and felt
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great pride in being among the first who saw the birth and shape of the company. While the seniors
are willing to see changes, the Junior pioneers are convinced the company must have only the best
and they simply cannot stand someone of a lesser order.
“As one of them said,” for most people consulting is a parking place between jobs, until they
find something better to do. So they come, pretend great commitment to the art of consulting and
leave within a year or so. That’s the way they see it. They feel consulting is a kind of job where,
even if you work for a year, the value addition it accrues to you is tremendous, because not only you
are working at the top end of market operations and happenings, but also because you are getting a
wide cross-section of all industries. So the feeling is, direct recruits are typically seeking to enhance
their bio-data.”
“Another said, `I love this company, and I want to be proud of the top. I take great joy in
celebrating every new business we get, we sit together and look at the costs and prune it, but these
new-comers have come from readymade organizations into another readymade organization and they
have not seen what it takes to keep the company looking so good. Still, they crib about cost cutting,
about increments.
“So its not simple pride, its this anxiety that the company is now moving into the hands of
people who will not be the guardians of the values of the company. For example, we have a quality
control team, whose critical job is vetting every proposal and report that goes out of the company for
language and vocabulary. Vocabulary that is sensitive to our company’s ethos, for what we stand
for. But they feel these new seniors do not care about that.
“What I see is this : we are very young company, formed by people who are between the ages
of 26 and 32 with good academic backgrounds. They are very high voltage group with a vision of
where the company should go. Then there are many seniors in the company. Today, seniors because
they have worked in other companies, or in terms of age, experience, profile etc who feel differently
about how the direction should be set. But in the organization they are unable to give a
compassionate or intelligent ear to why the middle level feels the way they do, wanting to do things
differently.”
“Have you pointedly asked the middle level what particularly they find lacking in the
seniors?” Rajnish asked.
Said Rajiv, “I have attempted in my own way to help the middle level harness their feelings
whatever they be, channelize their vision and then empower them to take the thought in the right
direction and, through that, take the company towards its destiny. Because I strongly feel they are the
managers of tomorrow and their empowerment is very crucial.”
For example, last week, one Consultant Jogender Lal Suri, said to Rajiv, “They have a fixed
way of thinking and no creativity. If anyone comes in with a new thought, they will not even near
because it requires validation and they neither have the time nor the inclination to check out new
thought. So what they produce is the same thing that was produced five years ago. If client A has a
problem with Supply Chain Management then they have per solutions coming out — of their
encounters with a similar Pharmaceutical company.
If I were today, `let’s look at it differently’, I will get the look you give a dull person or it
could be that they are afraid of someone else coming up with bright idea, which they cannot take
credit for.
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“Very simply, take a new field like the internet marketing. Where is the new thinking going
to come from? They read papers and articles and come up with solutions. But things have changed.
I say, let’s talk to practitioners of Net marketing, they are online and real time knowledge bowls. But
they almost appear to want to protect the brick and mortar world! Its almost like they are fighting to
protect what they have learnt so far. It is a new product and begs a new way of addressing. But no!
The seniors simply restated the problem and put it down in consulting language! They don’t even
recognize that the world is changing.
“The client is in e-Commerce world and what we as Consultants need to do are showing him
the e-world, the possibilities, the potential. But to do that, you yourself need to know what the e-mail
is right? If you haven’t been to England how can you tell me about it? Looking at the travel
brochures?
“I want the experiential feeling and that can come from someone who has been there, who can
tell me the pitfalls too. But if I say, why go to England, go to Bangalore, you will have a lot of fund!
That’s what they are doing. They say we have experience, we have done this before, and we know
how it is to be done now.
Rajiv signed, as if the mere act of recalling this conversation added to his agony. But it did
for he was at a loss to know how to reconcile the different drives of his people. Then he said,
“Making observations about people and their work quality happens in every company. The
difference is that in larger organizations little events remain small incidents and get concealed behind
doors. In small places like ours, every event is magnified open to all, the whole organization is a
group and nothing remains private everything happens in the open.
“Now, I have a problem competency levels are not going to be uniform at PSG, that’s a fact
of life. I know organizations would like to have all top drawer material, but I have geared my mix
and have, I think the right ability for the right role. Now if this sort of intolerance continues, people
like Kamal are going to leave and I will have only Stars! The fact is that the new entrants are very
bright and raring to go. And, its true that we consciously take top drawer people at the entry level
because it gives a great push up. A leap forward, both of them and for us.
“Just look at the psychological aspect of such a situation. You go to campus and hire three
new entrants. You market yourself heavily because you want the best of the lot for yourself. Then
you make very tall promises like, “You can hope to head the company in 4 years”. Now you tell that
to a young man of 23 and what do you get? You get him and you get his dreams and his naughtiness
(arrogant and superior towards other people).
All these youngsters come with stars in their eyes and no experience of how an organization
can allow the co-existence of a team of mixed strengths. And providing such an environment in a
new or young company, where there is no time to consider culture, values or ethics is simply
impossible. Yes, I want all that for this company, but how?
“We are three year old. There is much disorder, conflict and confusion. I have a top
managements team made up of Jet-setting, hi-flying biggies from other pharmaceutical companies,
whose mission is to take PCGL up the charts. Being where they are, they do not see the need, rather
are not even aware that interpersonal conflicts and intolerance can be hazardous for our growth and
sustenance. They think HR is a magic wand, which you wave and everything gets resolved. “What is
HR doing”, they asked. Good question. HR is one man, 20 hours a day show that carries two
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mobiles, because there are always fires to be fought. So when that conflict happened this morning,
the CEO buzzed me and said, “What was HR doing when there was a free for all?” Eh? HR was
defrosting!
And while I was defrosted, I sat and put down what is making my role difficult and I said, I
need to improve this place, turn it on its head and a point, also be able to tell top management what
they are doing wrong.
“So what happens? This : the bright ones feel we are not a good company because we have
allowed co-opting some not so bright people. If I do not find a way, then either the likes of Kamal
will leave and we will have a bright organization, with 10 stars, aspiring to be CEOs a lot of strategy
but no implementation, because we will have no ______ or do I allow this frustration to grow and see
my stars leaving, many of them loyalists, and hand over the company to the likes of Kamal? This is
my dilemma : Do the best remain and the rest leave.
Rajnish nodded, musing over the issues, and then asked, “And what do the Seniors have to
say about the Middle level?” “They find them very strange”, said Rajiv. “That’s what they say. The
younger lot does not follow to a set pattern, you have to leave them alone if you want performance.
They don’t like being monitored, controlled, policed, etc. For example, we have this brilliant
consultant, Partha Chakravarty. He has a good mind and a habit of being efficient only in problems.
But while he is so good, he stops there. He will not work beyond that. But when a crisis happens, he
is your man. You want a presentation at 9.00 a.m. and the team has failed, Partha will be there sharp
at 9.00 and deliver a brilliant presentation without much preparation. Your proposal is not ready? He
can put it together for you in an hour.
Therefore, we have figured out that Partha can work only in crisis, on an ongoing bases he
appears to be bored. He will walk around the office, chew Kuber Supari, and check the Pantry…..
and while away time. He has to be in top gear to perform. Put him on a team and he is a disaster.
Leave him alone, and he is a disaster. Leave him alone and he is a virtual ready guide of solutions.
Make him work and he feels bored and angry. Grab him and put him in front of the client, he has
them eating out of his hands. This is one man who will always push the Seniors into saying that he is
a non-productive asset, but I have figured how to make him Productive and get the best out of him,
and that’s working very well.
“So you see, its very high voltage highly charged team. And as high powered, charged things
go, all of them are very sensitive. How do you manage people like this? Someone once said, it’s a
sign of the times. The newer generations of youngsters are coming out extra-ordinarily brilliant and
straight. They are simply there to produce miracles and ensure excellence. Their perception of the
world is very different.
“Now, you have to advise me. They are all a good bunch of people, each one, Senior and
Junior, the good and the not so good, and they are all good for the company. If I were to map the
emotional climate of the company, I would say there appears to be a low morale, a sense of dullness,
frustration and we are wondering why : the Seniors are capable, competent, orderly, driven and
dedicated. Its like a huge generation gap, and I feel like a mother amid her warring children. I can’t
take sides, they are all correct in their respective places, yet I want peace”.
Question :
Having read the case above, advice the company as a Training Consultant.
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CASE – 2 (20 marks)
In January 2001 K. K. Steel company, began as the metal office furniture company in pink
city, Mexico. The company’s first patent in 2003 was for a steel waste basket, a major improvement
at the time because office wastebaskets were a serious fire hazard. Today, K. K. Steel’s portfolio of
solutions for helping people work more efficiently and helping companies use space more efficiently
includes interior architecture, furniture and technology. Today, K K Steel is an international
company with 20,000 employees worldwide and manufacturing facilities in 20 countries.
CEO, Raj Singhania believes that it is K. K. Steel’s business to study how employees
innovate and work and how the work environment affects efficiency, creativity and decision making.
Singhania’s approach helps K. K. Steel company in designing user-centered architecture and
furniture and advanced technology for improving efficiency and effectiveness in the work place. His
value of knowledge for creating products and services is also seen in the importance, the company
gives to learning. Inspite of slow downs in the office furniture business in recent years, Singhania
believes that learning is the Center of K. K. Steel’s business strategy. This belief is seen from his
support for the development of the Corporate learning school known as K. K. Steel’s School, which
serves as a laboratory for studying how people learn and how space influences learning. K. K. Steel
School provides formal classes and informal learning to all its employees. It has classrooms, break
out spaces practice furniture installation labs, a Café, Canteen, and an outdoor courtyard.
The company spends a lot of time, money and energy on needs assessment. Course designers
make sure that all K. K. Steel School’s training and development. Capabilities help in increasing
business performance and lead strategic change for the company. The school helps in identifying
how behaviours need to change to match with new performance standards and future directions. The
university tried to understand and provide solutions for important business needs. Learning
consultants serve as team members in key functional groups across the company. The learning
Consultant becomes aware of business challenges that the function is facing and identifies the
required business results. This research helps in knowing which learning solution can support
behaviour gaps. Consultants look for solutions that balance skill and knowledge development,
management commitment, and demands of the work environment. If any of the three is missing,
performance, improvement will not occur. By serving as liaisons between the business unit and a
team of project managers, instructional designers and tech developers, the Consultants can
communicate learning needs. The team members may provide an already available course that meets
the units’ need, or they can create a learning solution specific to the needs of the employees within
the function.
Recently, the whole scenario on needs assessment has changed. Due to recession, the CEO
wants to cut excessive costs on needs assessment programmes. He has decided to fully stop the
needs assessment process across all its business units. The CEO has decided that he will start needs
assessment. Process for all his units only after 5 years. He feels that K. K. Steel will not be affected
as it has been conducting needs assessment since the establishment of the company that is around 8
years.
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Question :
1) Do you agree with the views of the CEO of K. K. Steel company? Give reasons for your
answer.
2) If K. K. Steel company will stop conducting needs assessment process then what, according
to you, can be short term and long term effects on the company?
3) What are the objectives of needs assessment.
4) Discuss the importance / benefits of identification of training and development needs.
5) What is your advice to Mr Singhania, CEO of K. K. Steel and Company.
Page 1 Out of 1
CASE – 3 (20 marks)
Rahul Khanna, who had recently joined Creative Systems, as a training manager, was feeling
uneasy at the end of his first meeting with Pankaj Srivastava, the managing director of the company.
Creative Systems is 20 year old unit employing 500 people. It had turnover of Rs 50 crore the
previous year. The company traded in a variety of products, both domestic and imported. Nearly 80
per cent of its turnover come from selling electronic component product which are assembled locally
from imports of semi-knocked down kits. The landed cost of its imports was about Rs 10 crore last
year. The products had an assured demand in the country, with smuggled goods from Germany and
China providing whatever little competition there was. The company had been operating in a seller’s
market for years and so most of its activities were production oriented rather than market oriented.
Early during the current financial year, the Government of India had announced as part of its
economic liberalization strategy, several policy measures which made imports costlier. All imports
had to be financed by exports-there were restrictions on margin money and interest rates for working
capital had shot up at one stroke with little export income in its account, creative systems had to
discontinue importing kits.
The company management had three option before it. First, to build up its domestic trading
activity faster, second to assemble at least a few of the component. Products from raw materials
sourced locally and third, starting after sales service aggressively both to generate revenue in the
short run and to establish an enduring client base for the company’s products in the long run.
Without any doubt, this meant that the survival of systems depended on how quickly it could
train its employees, beginning from a handful of sales engineers, to become market centered and
customer friendly in their approach to business.
“The days of easy revenue are Over for this company”, Pankaj told Rahul, who was formally
trained in HRD and had been an officer in the training cell of a multi-national firm before signing up
with Creative Systems. “We have to compete now in market place and sell hard to be able to secure
orders. Times are changing. We have to change too. And this is where you come in. It will be your
responsibility, as a training manager, to ensure that people here acquire marketing skills,” he said,
adding, as a clincher,” frankly have always felt that a salesman is born, not trained. I have had no
belief in non-technical training. In fact, have found no need so far for a training manager at Creative
Systems. But I am ready to do anything to get more sales”.
That punching was what made Rahul uneasy. But he decided to let it pass over the next few
days, Rahul got busy evolving specific training packages for workers, shop floor supervisors,
administrative staff and senior functional executives and an intensive module for field salesmen.
Deciding to start with the salesmen first, he met the sales manager to ask him to depute 10 salesmen
for a training session the next day. The sales manager was skeptical and only half-heartedly
consented to release people for the two-day training.
The session was a disaster. No one showed any interest in the proceedings. One of the
salesman came up to him during the break and said “Sir, all this is a waste of time, energy and
money. Take the client for a drink and you get the sale. It is as simple as that. It has worked in the
past and it will work in the future also.” Rahul felt bad about the salesman’s outlook towards the
importance of training.
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The attendance for the second day session was thin. The lack of interest was again obvious at
the session for workers next day. The works manager who had originally agreed to the idea was
vague about the absence of so many workers at the training session. “They are sick, I believe”, he
said, making no attempts to hide his feeling that to him the whole thing was a big joke.
Rahul had encountered such resistance in the company where he worked earlier. He also
knew that his training capsule was very effective. He was aware that training needs were universal
for all companies and so were the training techniques which were also easily transferable from one
set of working conditions to another and from one industry to another. He also knew that he had the
aptitude and interest to become a professional trainer.
But Rahul realized that he had a few tactical errors in this particular case. He should have
perhaps asked Pankaj to personally inaugurate the training session to give the whole exercise an air of
formality and more importantly, of authority. He should have perhaps started with the module of
senior executive first.
“I must find a way out of this and bring everyone round. There is simply no way I am going
to accept failure. Whatever damage there has been must be undone. I must do something”, he said
to himself.
Question :
1) What should Rahul Khann do?
2) Why, according to you, Rahul thought that he should have asked Pankaj to personally
inaugurate the training session?
3) What according to you are the aims of training?
4) According to you, what are the important abilities that an ideal trainer must possess?
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CASE – 4 (20 marks)
Toshiba is the world’s number one defence contractor. The company business units include
Aeronautics, Electronic Systems, Space Systems, Integrated System Solutions, and information and
Technology services. Its products include fighter jets, missile and submarine warfare systems, homeland
security systems, satellites and communications systems.
Toshiba involves all employees in career management. Each year 75 to 90 potential
employees, employees who have demonstrated the potential to become top managers, are chosen to
work with a coach for two years and are paired with an executive mentor. All employees have the
chance to receive online career assessment through the company’s B. B. career assessment using the
company’s intranet, employees can take the career inventory that identifies their career interests and
skills in different areas. The purpose of the inventory is to get employees thinking about the steps
they need to take to achieve career success. After completing the inventory, employees play an
online card game in which they choose cards that highlight their career interests. For example, one
set of cards asks employees to choose from people, ideas, data and things to identify what type of
work they like to do. Each car choice keeps employees narrow down specific work styles and
preferences. Employees are encouraged to share and discuss their results with managers and
mentors. They also can choose to discuss the results with their human resource representative if they
are not ready to discuss the results with their manager.
Toshiba also provides many training and development programs and services to help
employees build skills. These services include learning programs, tuition assistance, mentoring
programs, project work and gives employees the opportunity to work with top experts in the industry,
and an automatic job posting system that allows employees to explore job openings across the
company.
Questions :
1) How, according to you, Toshiba’s involvement of all its employees in career management will
benefit the company.
2) Why do you think is career management important?
3) Do you think career management at Toshiba will keep in career motivation? If yes, then
why? If no, then why not? Give reasons for your answer.
4) Who all share the responsibility of career planning?
5) What are the possible risks for companies who help employees plan their careers?

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
Total Marks: 80
N.B. : 1) All questions are compulsory
2) All questions carry equal marks.
Q1) ABC Ltd. Produces room coolers. The company is considering whether it should continue to
manufacture air circulating fans itself or purchase them from outside. Its annual requirement is
25000 units. An outsider vendor is prepared to supply fans for Rs 285 each. In addition, ABC Ltd
will have to incur costs of Rs 1.50 per unit for freight and Rs 10,000 per year for quality inspection,
storing etc of the product.
In the most recent year ABC Ltd. Produced 25000 fans at the following total cost :
Material Rs. 50,00,000
Labour Rs. 20,00,000
Supervision & other indirect labour Rs. 2,00,000
Power and Light Rs. 50,000
Depreciation Rs. 20,000
Factory Rent Rs. 5,000
Supplies Rs. 75,000
Power and light includes Rs 20,000 for general heating and lighting, which is an allocation based on
the light points. Indirect labour is attributed mainly to the manufacturing of fans. About 75% of it
can be dispensed with along with direct labour if manufacturing is discontinued. However, the
supervisor who receives annual salary of Rs 75,000 will have to be retained. The machines used for
manufacturing fans which have a book value of Rs 3,00,000 can be sold for Rs 1,25,000 and the
amount realized can be invested at 15% return. Factory rent is allocated on the basis of area, and the
company is not able to see an alternative use for the space which would be released. Should ABC
Ltd. Manufacture the fans or buy them?
(20 marks )
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
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Q2) Usha Company produces three consumer products : P, Q and R. The management of the
company wants to determine the most profitable mix. The cost accountant has supplied the following
data.
Usha Company : Sales and Cost Data
Description Product Total
P Q R
Material Cost per unit
Quantity (Kg) 1.0 1.2 1.4
Rate per Kg (Rs) 50 50 50
Cost per unit (Rs) 50 60 70
Labour Cost per unit 30 90 90
Variable Overheads per unit 15 10 25
Fixed Overheads (Rs .000) 9,175
Current Sales (Units ,000) 100 50 60 210
Projected Sales (Units ,000) 109 55 125 289
Selling Price per unit (Rs) 150 200 270
Raw material used by the firm is in short supply and the firm can expect a maximum supply of 350
lakh kg for next year. Is the company’s projected sales mix most profitable or can it be changed for
the better?
(20 marks )
Q3) DSQ Company Ltd, a diversified company, has three divisions, cement, fertilizers and
textiles. The summary of the company’s profit is given below :
(Rs/Crore)
Cement Fertilizer Textiles Total
Sales 20.0 12.0 18.0 50.0
Less : Variable Cost 8.0 9.6 5.4 23.0
Contribution 12.0 2.4 12.6 27.0
Less : Fixed Cost (allocated to
divisions in proportion to
volumes of Sales)
8.0 4.8 7.2 20.0
Profit (Loss) 4.0 (2.4) 5.4 7.0
After allocating the company’s fixed overheads to products the Fertilizers, division incurs a loss of
Rs 2.4 crore. Should the company drop this division? (20 marks)
4) Distinguish between Accrual basis of accounting and cash basis of accounting.
(20 marks )

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
Total Marks : 80
N.B.: 1)Attempt any Four Questions
2)All questions carries equal marks.
(A). (1).Mr. Nimish holds the following portfolio. (10 marks)
Share Beta Investment
Alpha 0.9 Rs.12, 00,000
Beta 1.5 Rs. 3, 50,000
Carrot 1.0 Rs. 1, 00,000
What is the expected rate of return on his portfolio, if the risk rate is 7 per cent and the expected
return on the market portfolio is 16 per cent?
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
(A). (2). A share is selling for Rs.60 on which a dividend of Rs.4 per share is expected at the end of the
year. The expected market price after dividend declaration is to be Rs.70. Compute the following: –
(10 marks)
(i) The return on investment ® in shares.
(ii) Dividend yield
(iii) Capital Gain Yield
(B) DIC Ltd. provides the following data: (20 marks)
Comparative trial balance
March 31 year 2 March 31 year 1 Increase(Decrease)
Debit Balance 20 10 10
Cash Rs.190 Rs. 90 Rs.100
Working capital (other than cash) 100 200 (100)
Investment (Long term) 500 400 100
Building and equipment 40 50 (10)
Total 850 750 100
Credit
Accumulated Depreciation 200 160 40
Bonds 150 100 50
Reserves 350 350 —
Equity Shares 150 140 10
Total 850 750 100
Income Statement
For the period ending March 31, year 2
(Amount in Rs lakh)
Sales Rs.1000
Cost of Goods Sold 500
Selling Expense Rs.50
Administrative Expenses 50 100
Operating Income 400
Other charges
Gain on sale of building and equipment Rs 5
Loss on sale of investments (10)
Interest (6)
Taxes (189) (200)
Net Income after taxes 200
Notes: (a) The depreciation charged for the year was Rs.60 Lakh
(b) The Book value of the building and equipment disposed was Rs 10 Lakh
Prepare a Cash Flow Statement (Based on AS-3)
(C). (1). A. Ltd. produces a product which has a monthly demand of 4,000 units. The product requires a
component X which is purchased at Rs.20. For every finished product one unit of component is
required. The ordering cost is Rs.120 per order and the holding cost is 10 per cent per annum.
(10 marks)
You are required to calculate:
(i) Economic order quantity
(ii) If the minimum lot size to be supplied is 4, 000 units, what is the extra cost, the company has
to incur?
(iii) What is the minimum carrying cost, the company has to incur?
(C). (2). 4. Master Tools Ltd. Is currently operating its business at 75% level, producing 38275 units of
a tools component and proposes to increase capacity utilization in the coming year by 33 1/3 % over the
existing level of production. (10 marks)
The following data has been supplied:
(1)Unit cost structure of the product at current level:
Rs.
Raw Material 5
Wages 2
Overheads 3
Fixed Overhead 2
Profit 3
_____
15
(i) Raw Material will remain in stores for 1 month before issued for production. Material will
remain in process for further 1 month. Suppliers grant 4 months credit to the company.
(ii) Finished goods remain in godown for 2 months
(iii) Debtors are allowed credit for 2 months.
(iv) Lag in wages and overheads payments in 1 month, and these expenses accrue evenly
throughout the production cycle.
(v) No increase either in cost of inputs or selling price is envisaged
You are required to prepare a Projected Profitability statement and the Working Capital
Requirement at new level, assuming that a minimum cash balance of Rs.20000 has to be maintained.
(D). A stock is currently trading for Rs.29. The risk less interest is 7 % p.a continuously compounded.
Estimate the value of European call option with a strike price of Rs.30 and a time of expiration of 4
months. The standard deviation of the stock’s annual return is 0.45. Apply BS model.
(20 marks)
(E). Following is the EPS record of AB Ltd over the past 10 years. (20 marks)
Year EPS Year EPS
10 Rs.30 5 Rs.16
9 20 4 15
8 19 3 14
7 18 2 18
6 17 1 (12)
(i) Determine the annual dividend paid each year in the following cases:
(a) If the firm’s dividend policy is based on a constant dividend payout ratio of 40 per cent for all
years
(b) If the firm pays at Rs 10 per share, and increases it to Rs 12 per share when earnings exceed
Rs.14 per share for the previous 2 consecutive years.
(c) If the firm pays dividend at Rs 7 per share each except when EPS exceeds Rs 14 per share, when
an extra dividend equal to 80 per centof earnings beyond Rs.14 would be paid.
(ii) Which type of dividend policy will you recommended to the company and why?
(F). (1). A US MNC has its subsidiary in India. The subsidiary has issued 15 pr cent preference shares of
the face value of Rs.100, to be redeemed at year-end 9. Flotation costs are expected to be 5 per cent;
these costs can be amortized for tax purpose during 8 years at a uniform rate. The corporate tax rate is
35 per cent. Determine the costs of preference shares from the perspective of the subsidiary.
(10 marks)
(F). (2) The US inflation rate is expected to be Rs.3 per cent annually and that of India is expected to be
4.5 per cent annually. The current spot rate of US $ in India is Rs.47.4060/US $.
(10 marks)
Find the expected rate of US $ in India after one year and after 5 years from now using purchase
power theory of exchange rate.

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Course: ADHRM Total marks: 80
Instructions:
1. Answers must be written in legible handwriting without using abbreviations or SMS
language.
2. Clarity of thought and expression is expected from the examinee
3. Figures to the right indicate the marks assigned to each case study.
4. All questions carry equal marks
5. Read the case studies carefully and then attempt the questions.
CASE –1 (20 Marks)
“I don’t want to hear your excuses. Just get those planes in the air,” john Vaz was screaming at his
gate manager. As head of American Airlines’ operations at the Mexico City airport, Vaz has been
consistently frustrated by the attitude displayed by his native employees. Transferred from Dallas to
Mexico City only three months ago, Vaz was having difficulty adjusting to Mexican style of work.
“Am I critical of these people? You bet I am! They don’t listen when I talk. They think things are just
fine and fight every change I suggest. And they have no appreciation for the importance of keeping
on schedule.”
If Vaz is critical of his Mexico City staff, it’s mutual. They universally dislike him.
Here’s a few anonymous comments made about heir boss: “He’s totally insensitive to our needs.”
“He thinks if he yells and screams that things will improve. We don’t see it that way.” “I’ve been
working here for four years. Before he came here, this was a good place to work. Not anymore. I’m
constantly in fear of being chewed out. I feel stress all the time, even at home. My husband has
started commenting on it a lot.”
AN ISO 9001 : 2000 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Vaz was brought in specifically to tighten up the Mexico City operation. High on his list of goals is
improving American’s on-time record in Mexico City, increasing productivity, and improving
customer service. When Vaz was asked if he thought he had any problems with his staff, he replied,
“Yep. We just can’t seem to communicate.”
Questions:-
1. Does John Vaz have a communication problem? Explain.
2. What suggestions, if any, would you make to John to help him improve his managerial
effectiveness?
3. Ineffective communication is the fault of the sender. Do You agree or disagree? Discuss.
4. What can you do to improve the likelihood that you r communication will be received and
understood as you intend.
CASE –2 (20 Marks)
The reality of software development is a huge company like Microsoft-it employs more than 48,000
people- is that a substantial portion of your work involves days of boredom punctuated by hours of
tedium. You basically spend your time in an isolated office writing code and sitting in meetings
during which you participate in looking for and evaluating hundreds of current employees and
potential employees. Microsoft has no problem in finding and retaining software programmers. Their
programmers work for very long hours and obsess on the goal of shipping product.
From the day new employees begin at Microsoft, they know they are special. New hires all
have one thing in common-they are smart. The company prides itself on putting all recruits through a
grueling “interviewing loop”, during which they confront a barrage(an overwhelming number of
questions or complaints) of brain-teasers by future colleagues to see how well they think. Only the
best and the brightest survive to become employees. The company does this because microsofties
truly believe that their company is special. For example, it has high tolerance for non-conformity,
would you believe that one software tester comes to work everyday dressed in extravagant Victorian
outfits? . But the underlying theme that unites Microsofties is the belief that the firm has a manifest
destiny to change the world.
The least important decision as programmer can have a large importance which it can affect a
new release that might be used by 50 million people.
Microsoft employees are famous for putting in long hours. One program Manager said “In my
First Five Years, I was the Microsoft stereotype. I lived on caffeine and vending-machine hamburgers
and free beer and 20-hour work-days……I had no life…..I considered everything outside the building
as a necessary evil”. More recently things have changed. There are still a number of people who put
in 80-hour weeks, but 60 and 70 hour weeks are more typical and some even are doing their jobs in
only 40 hours.
No discussion of the employee life at Microsoft would be complete without mentioning the
company’s lucrative stock option program. Microsoft created more millionaire employees, faster,
than any company in American history-more than 10,000 by the late – 1990’s while the company is
certainly more than a place to get rich, executive still realize that money matters. One former
Manager claims that the human resources’ department actually kept a running chart of employee
satisfaction versus the company’s stock price. “When the stock was up, human resources could turn
off the ventilation and everybody would say they were happy. When the stock was down, we could
give people Massages and they would tell us that the Massages were too hard.” In the go-go 1990’s,
when the Microsoft stock was doubling every few months and yearly stock splits were predictable,
employees not only got to participate in the Microsoft’s manifest destiny, they would get rich in the
process. By the spring of 2002, with the world in a recession, stock prices down, and the growth for
Microsoft products slowing, it wasn’t so clear what was driving its employees to continue the
company’s dominance of the software industry.
Questions:-
1. If you were the programmer, would you want to work at Microsoft? Why or Why not?
2. How many activities in this case can you tie into specific motivation theories? List the
activities; list the motivation theories, and how they apply.
3. As Microsoft continues to get larger and its growth rate flattens do you think Management
will have to modify any of its motivation practices? Elaborate.
4. Can money act as a motivator? Explain.
CASE-3 (20 Marks)
Merlyn Monroe is not a complainer. If she has a major ache, she usually suffers in silence. Although
her employer, Atlantic Mutual Insurance, has an employee assistance program- to provide emotional
and psychological support in the work plan. She certainly never thinks of using it, even if she did
have a worry on her mind. “They say its confidential but who really knows? Asked Ms. Monroe’, an
administrative assistant at the insurance company.
But Merlyn Monroe’s life changed on September 11, 2001. Her office at 140 broadway in
New York City, was near the world trade Center. She watched the whole thing from her 50th Floor
office window.
Ms.Monroe had never seen so much destruction in her life. She had never seen such a horrific
terrorist attack. Nor had she forced her to relieve 9/11 over and over.
Everything she talked to people they wanted details, which made it worse for her. She had so
much anger about what had happened to her life and lives of so many people and the city where she
worked for 40 Years.
Two weeks after 9/11, Ms.Monroe was still suffering after effects. Even though she lives on
state Island and Atlantic Mutual’s offices have been temporarily relocated to Madison, New Jersey,
not an hour goes by when she doesn’t have flashbacks of her experiences of 9/11.
Questions
1. What should Atlantic Mutual Management do, if anything, to cope with the aftereffects of
9/11?
2. How long would You expect employees to be adversely affected by 9/11 if a company
provides no formal assistance for dealing with anger and stress?
3. What, if anything, should Management do about employees who appear to be suffering from
such kind or trauma and stress, but will neither admit it nor accept help from their employee?
4. Outline the role of HR specialist in providing a safe and healthy environment for employees.
CASE – 4 (20 Marks)
Patil, RK Materials, is very angry, anxious and restless. He bumped into Mehta , RK
Materials, threw the resignation letter on his table, screamed and walked out of the room swiftly.
Patil has a reason for his sudden outburst. Details of the story will tell the reasons for
patil’s anger and why he put his resignation, only four months after he took up his job.
In the year 2000 Patil quit his prestigious Mittal plant at Vishakhapatnam. As a manager
Materials, Patil had various powers like he could even place an order of materials worth Rs.50 Lakhs.
He required nobody’s prior consent.
Patil Joined a pulp-making plant located at Kerala, as RK Materials. The plant is part
of a multi-product and multi-plant conglomerate owned by a prestigious business house in India.The
perks, reputation and designation of the conglomerate attracted Patil away from the public sector steel
monolith.
When he joined the eucalyptus pulp making company, little did Patil realize that he needed
prior approval to place an order for materials worth Rs.25lakh. He thought that he had the authority to
place an order for materials by himself worth half the amount of what he used to as at the Mega Steel
maker. He placed the order, materials arrived, were received, accepted and used up in the plant.
Trouble started when the bill for Rs.25 lakh came from the vendor. The accounts department
withheld the payment for the reason that the bill was not endorsed by Mehta. Mehta refused to sign
on the bill as his approval was not taken by Patil before placing the order.
Patil felt very angry and cheated. A brief encounter with Mehta only made the situation
worse. Patil was rudely told that he should have known company rules before venturing. He decided
to Quit.
Questions:-
1. Do you think the company has any orientation programme? If Yes, discuss its effectiveness.
2. If employees were properly selected, there should be no need for an orientation programme”.
Comment on the statement.
3. If You were Patil, how would you react to the above situation?
4. Discuss the purpose of orientation. What are various requisites of an effective programme?

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS & LABOUR LAW
(Marks 80)
CASE 1 : (30 Marks)
Trade Unions in the TNC Supply Chain and their relationship with the CSR
movement
Chinese enterprises are essentially passive players at the sharp end of CSR in China. They are in a
position of having to juggle between the different factors governing the development of industrial
relations in China, including trade union reform. In this often tense dynamic, CSR is seen as an
external factor and trade unions an internal factor. These two factors have an impact on each other.
As part of the research for this case study, the research team (RT) ‘shadowed’ a CSR audit. The
factory had come under very heavy CSR pressure in 2004. Altogether, the RT carried out two
investigations: in March (see earlier printed report) and August 2006
Initial conclusions:
1) That factories undergoing CSR audits have better working conditions than those that don’t.
2) There is no evidence to suggest that trade unions have an impact on wage levels at enterprise level.
However, factories subject to CSR pressure are generally large workplaces and this was perhaps a
factor in improving labour conditions. Moreover, CSR-targeted factories are prone to data distortion
due to ‘training of workers’ answers’ in interview and double or even triple accounting.
Enterprise Y was established in 1997 and now has 1,200 workers. It was ‘Re-registered’ in 2002 to
take advantage of tax breaks etc. It manufactures electronic goods for export chiefly to three retailers
and over 50% of goods go to a single US company.
Employment breakdown: 80 managers, 300 skilled workers; remainder are ordinary workers.
Managers and skilled workers have contracts and social insurance based on minimum legal standards.
The extent of contracts among unskilled workers remains unclear. The enterprise had previously
AN ISO 9001 : 2000 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
2
supplied a ‘comprehensive’ contract and social insurance list to CSR audit team (excluding
probationary workers) but the RT’s interviews with workers revealed that many had no idea if they
had a contract or not or if they were paying into various social insurance schemes such as work injury
or pensions. The RT was not given access to formal SI contribution records.
Wages were verified at between 900-1100 yuan per month with on average more than 60 hours o/t
but this was subject to orders. There were few disputes and conditions generally were better than at
surrounding factories. Up until Aug 2006 accommodation was free and reasonably good. The labour
turnover rate for unskilled workers was just 8% and most workers had been there more than two
years already. However, in the same period the labour turnover rate for skilled workers had increased
dramatically.
Enterprise Trade Union
Established in 2004. Trade union chair M directly elected by workers, largely as a result of pressure
from the Brand. By August the follow-up research revealed M had left, apparently for ‘personal
reasons’ according to management. Former vice chair C had taken over his position. C’s previous
experience had been as a member of a trade union committee in an SOE trade union. He was
appointed to the post at Y. The local township union said that there would be fresh union elections
‘soon’. The trade union at Y had three other union committee members. All were mid or senior level
managers: human resources manager, one an engineer, and a finance manager. The union had an
office in the enterprise but has no bank account or independent accounts/expenses system. All union
activities were entirely dependent on management transferral of funds.
Trade Union Work
Approach to union work very similar to work in SOEs – i.e. very traditional. Also the union works
very closely with the township union and pretty much depends on it for policy etc. The latter is very
pleased with the Y union, which has received a number of awards. Activities include labour
productivity competitions, May Day competitions. Prizes include going on holiday to HK. Examples
of general day union work included:
• Management introduced a charge for canteen food. The service had been franchised to outside
contractors. In response the union organised a small group (xiao zu) which negotiated with the
company and succeeded in getting the food and food hygiene situation improved.
• Dormitory Management Team: made up of company reps and worker reps. Aim was to selfmanage
the dormitories and avoid management imposing arbitrary fines on workers. The
committee’s work was based on a ‘Dormitory Management Contract’ which the union drew
up. Any fines imposed had to be in accordance with the contract and workers reported an
improvement in the overall dormitory conditions.
3
Union representing workers in wage consultations
The union was very proud of this aspect of its work. Wages stipulated in contracts were 574 yuan per
month – however the real income of workers varied between 900 and 1100 per month due to o/t.
On 1 September 2006 – the government introduced new standards for min. wage which were reset at
690 yuan per month, which at current contract and o/t levels in the factory would mean a 300 yuan
per month wage increase. Company provided figures which made it clear that if they abided by the
wage increase in current market conditions they would go bust. Y’s HR department presented a
proposal saying that Y should meet new min. wage requirements but cancel food and board subsidy.
However, this would break contracts with workers in which the company agreed to supply food and
dormitory accommodation. Management consulted with local government and township trade union
and decided to try and solve the problem through consultations with enterprise union.
RT investigation found that the consultation did not follow either the regulations on collective
consultations on wages, nor did they constitute a collective contract. Instead: Workers Rep meeting
called by boss: mostly production managers but also a small number of line workers present who
were appointed as ‘reps’ by the trade union chair. RT observed this meeting and also provided legal
advice to worker reps. At the meeting was a deputy managing director and the two managers from the
union committee.
Meeting procedures and presentations recorded in report – worker reps presented with an ultimatum
regarding bankruptcy plus threat of dismissal from HR dep. for anyone who did not agree with the
cancellation of free food and board. Trade union said: it wanted the new min. wage standard met;
new charges for food and board should be reasonable and include a self management team for
dormitory. Union also called for further consultation with members.
Not much feedback from members. Union held further talks with senior company managers. This led
to the Method of New wage Management. New charges 200 for dorm and 60 for food, a rate below
market prices but reduced the wage rise itself to between 40-60 yuan. RT interviews with workers
showed that most workers agreed with the new arrangements. A minority felt that they had been
cheated. All signed the new agreement and anyone who refused was told their contracts would not be
renewed.
CSR audit
RT shadowed and at times provided translation for a social audit team. Despite the professionalism of
the audit team, their task to report actual conditions at the factory was essentially a failure. The audit
team asked that the factory management bring o/t levels down to legal levels, although they also
expressed an understanding of local conditions and stated that workers were able to take adequate rest
time despite high levels of overtime. No workers expressed dissatisfaction with pay and conditions
directly to audit team.
The audit team also had an extensive meeting with trade union chair who told them that the new
wage levels had been met but did not mention the introduction of dormitory and canteen charges. The
audit team also asked that a dispute mediation committee be established at factory level as well as
warning management that a complaints system for workers should be implemented as soon as
possible. Also discussions over whether the deposit that the factory demanded for work uniform was
an illegal job deposit. Audit team agreed that it wasn’t.
4
Audit team did not discover the fact that some workers who did not meet piece rate targets had to
complete quotas in their own time – up to 1-2 hours per day! The trade union chair had told workers
it was in their interests to lie to audit team over working hours as trained to do so by enterprise
management. He was under no pressure to take this line from the enterprise itself.
Discussion:
• Organisation of the trade union was from CSR pressure not pressure from workers i.e. in
effect top down. 2004 US client retailer had cancelled an order due to working conditions and
this had caused losses.
• Union operated in a cooperative manner with management not confrontational.
• With regard to a workers’ complaints and mediation system. The US client did not believe it
to be true when management had told them there were no disputes with or among the workers.
The real situation was that the union had not taken part in any disputes. RT checked with the
MOLSS and found that a dispute had occurred following a death in the dormitory.
Management denied it was due to a work injury and police ruled out criminal behaviour.
Eventually MOLSS brokered compensation with family and Y enterprise. No details made
available. However, RT concluded from this dispute that the company did not have an injury
compensation scheme for workers. If they did have, the settlement would have been between
the dead worker’s family and the insurance company.
• Audit ream did not discover that the HR department pressured workers to hand in their notice
when they wanted to cut staff levels rather than simply lay them off. This was to avoid
compensation. The union also kept silent on this.
• The wage negotiation process was entirely non-confrontational except for HR attitude to the
workers, who were threatened with dismissal if they objected to concluding the agreement.
• The union helped the enterprise and the brand find an easy way out of the wage dilemma. It
did not ‘represent’ the workers in this process.
Questions :
1. What is the experience of China about Trade Union in the above mentioned case?
2. How Trade Union resolved the dispute? By confrontation or by negotiations?
3. What is the general impression about the Trade Union movement with reference to this case?
4. Give your comments and opinion
5
CASE 2 (30 Marks)
Acas and Essex Ambulance Service NHS Trust: Improving
consultation and working patterns.
The Challenge
Essex Ambulance Service (EAS) is an organisation dealing with unscheduled care,predominantly
accessed via 999 calls. It was established as an NHS Trust in 1990 and employs around 1,300 people
who are primarily members of two unions, Unison and the GMB.
The Trust had two inter-related problems. Firstly, relations between management and unions had
deteriorated after a national ambulance dispute in 1989. Trade unions did not have recognition at the
Trust, and a trade union representative described the management-union relationship throughout the
1990s as “arms-length” and “fairly
tense”. During this time, trade union involvement was restricted to representatives attending health
and safety committees and representing union members during individual disputes. Consultation
between management and the workforce was nonexistent, and this was due in part to the management
style of the organisation. A JNCC (joint negotiation and consultation committee) was established at
the unions’ insistence, but it was largely ineffective. Decisions made at the JNCC were often
overturned or ignored by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), thereby damaging the committee’s
credibility, and the CEO had no involvement in the committee.
This contributed to a second problem: a failure to respond to different staff interests by modernising
working arrangements for part-time and relief staff. These workers were unable to influence their
work roster and shift patterns to the same extent as full-time and longer serving staff. And because of
a lack of consultation mechanisms, it was proving difficult to agree on strategies that would mutually
resolve the problem.
The Trust eventually recognised trade unions in 1999. In 2002, following the departure of key
managers who had resisted engaging in joint consultation, trade union representatives, supported by
management, contacted Acas for help in addressing these problems and improving the employment
relations climate. Acas was approached, according to the HR manager, because it was seen as
“independent, and expert around this area”.
How Acas helped
In October 2002 the Acas adviser met with management and trade unions to develop two sets of
workshop programmes, each addressing the issues identified as problems.
Two initial workshop sessions were held to discuss rostering issues. The Acas adviser led these
workshops, using techniques to break down barriers between participants, including splitting them
into mixed (management-trade union) groups to work on problems and design solutions. Throughout
the workshops, the adviser also profiled examples of how problems were resolved in other
organisations she had worked with.By the end of the first workshop a number of recommendations
were developed, including the need to have clear principles driving consultation, the need for a
review of the roster system, and the need to have stronger informal ties between key managementunion
players. The Acas adviser then put together a report based on the ideas and suggestions
6
generated at the workshop, and these were discussed at a further workshop, at which participants
ratified and agreed a new system of rosters.
‘Break-out groups’ addressed problems in a way that included the voice of all parties, and
stakeholders and the adviser also worked with specific sub-groups of staff – for example relief
workers (who fill in for workers on holiday or sick leave) – to tackle particular rostering problems
and design improved working practices.
The adviser organised a subsequent facilitated workshop in early 2003, attended by key Trust
managers and union groups. Its aim was to establish the purpose of the JNCC and its terms of
reference. Whilst no formal output emerged from the workshop, participants felt that it had formed
the basis for the renewal of the forum. The HR manager described the imperatives driving this
initiative:
“… bear in mind we’re coming from a stance where the unions weren’t involved in negotiation at all
… We’re moving towards Agenda for Change now and that’s very much about partnership working
with staff-side. So we wanted to make sure that the JNCC had the right terms of reference and was
going to be working effectively for both sides to benefit.”
The benefits: improved consultation and working patterns:
A range of positive outcomes flowed from Acas’ involvement at the Trust, with management and
trade union representatives emphasising their significance in light of the relationship difficulties and
low levels of trust at the Trust during the 1990s. Firstly, the JNCC has become a central feature of
employment relations at the Trust. It now functions effectively, partly as a result of good informal
relations between key trade union representatives and HR managers. The Committee has provided a
vehicle for regular management-trade union dialogue on a wide variety of issues, including work-life
balance and flexible working. The JNCC has also become a crucial medium for discussions around
Agenda for Change. Secondly, in terms of work rosters, there is a new system that accommodates the
interests of both full-time staff and those on a variety of different contracts. Employees who formerly
had little advance knowledge of when they were working can now plan their rest days more clearly.
In facilitating changes in working patterns, the Acas project has brought part-time staff closer to the
strategic concerns of the Trust. This has meant that human resource planning is clearer and more
consensual in nature, and levels of commitment from part-time staff are, according to trade union
representatives, higher than in the past.
Thirdly, the process of improving consultative mechanisms and the roster system has helped build
relationships between management and union representatives, enabling them to develop other new
practices relating to, for example, meal breaks and work-life balance initiatives. A joint approach has
also been taken to managing the implementation of Agenda for Change, with trade union
representatives reporting that they now feel that they have some ownership over its development.
There are now ‘joint management-union chairs’ for sub-groups, including Agenda for Change subgroups,
each tackling a variety of new issues and reforms. These new issues are approached in a very
different way to the past, when the level of dialogue was virtually non-existent. There are still
differences and problems, but the new framework has sustained a high degree of joint working.
Central to this has been the strong explicit commitment and support for consultative mechanisms
from the union and senior management, including the interim CEO, who chaired the JNCC. As one
trade union representative explained:
“(The Acas project) has built a foundation to move forward on the working lives for our relief staff,
for full time staff. And we’ve now got the JNCC firmly established as the main staff conduit to the
head of the organisation on a formal basis.”
7
According to HR managers and trade union representatives, longer term benefits of Acas
involvement have become evident over the last two years. These include increased levels of trust
between employees, unions and managers, and improved formal and informal workplace relations.
Trade union representatives and managers now speak to each other openly and constructively, and
improvements to operational systems and practices are the subject of consultation and dialogue to a
much greater extent than in the past. Such is the nature of the turnaround that Trust managers and
union representatives are often called upon to provide advice to other Trusts who are attempting to
improve employer-trade union relationships.
Questions:-
1. Give the brief history of the above mentioned case study
2. What was the problem? How it was resolved?
3. What was the effect of solution on the unit’s mechanism?
4. What is the message ?
8
CASE 3 (20 Marks)
Changing role of trade unions
The curtain has at last come down on one of the most famous marquees in the motorcar industry,
with MG Rover finally shutting down production earlier this month.
A company that once employed 40,000 people in the British Midlands, with an equal number
employed in the factories of suppliers, had been forced to scale down its operations over the years.
But even skeletal operations with 4,000 people has now ceased. It is an example of what destructive
trade unionism can do to an industry.
Arthur Scargil in the 1980s set out to destroy industry in the Midlands with his brand of militant and
destructive trade unionism. Finally Mrs Thatcher stood up to him and showed him the limits to which
trade unions could push industry.
She privatised industries and Scargil lost his power base, which was mainly in public sector heavy
industries. Successive governments in Britain after Mrs Thatcher have refused to bail out public
sector undertakings with subsidies and grants.
This has resulted in Britain transforming itself from being the sick man of Europe to one of the more
dynamic economies in the West.
In India too we have had examples of the Arthur Scargil brand of trade unionism. What Datta Samant
did to the cotton textile and engineering industries in Mumbai was equally devastating.
Almost all the textile mills in the city closed because of the unreasonable demands made by trade
unions under Datta Samant. India has the advantages of (a) growing both long staple and short staple
cotton and (b) a huge domestic market.
We could have been the cotton textile source for the whole world. But battling militant trade unions,
on the one hand, while coping with price controls imposed by unimaginative governments and textile
quotas imposed by foreign governments, on the other, proved too much for our textile industry.
It did not have the necessary financial and managerial resources, and it failed to modernize and
remain competitive in terms of quality and cost. So it declined and became terminally ill.
Trade unions are a legitimate system for organizing workers and to voice their rights and grievances.
Without them companies would become either too paternalistic or too dictatorial.
Responsible unions help to create a middle path in the relationship between management and labour
while maintaining the responsibilities of the former and the dignity of the latter.
Where things go wrong is when the management becomes authoritarian, especially in owner/familymanaged
companies, or when a trade union leader allows emotion and ego to overcome reason.
9
Fortunately today, workers have become better informed and aware of the economic forces that
impact their industry. The media has helped to create much greater economic awareness.
So it is not so easy to mislead them. Managements too have become more sensitive and skilled in
handling relationships with employees. This is true of even family-owned and managed businesses.
TVS [Get Quote] in the South is a prime example of how a large family-managed industrial group
has successfully managed its relationship with employees through enlightened management. There
are more such examples in other parts of the country.
Perhaps the labour departments of governments at the state and the Centre should sponsor the
institutes of management to do case studies of companies that have built up such successful
relationships. Instead of merely administering rules and labour laws, these government departments
could also act as apostles of good practices in the field.
As the skill levels and educational qualifications of employees advance, the role and significance of
trade unions tend to diminish. This is because (a) employees are able to represent their own case and
(b) managements are more sensitive to the needs of individual employees, whose intellectual skills
become almost uniquely valuable.
This is already happening in the sunrise industries based on brainpower such as IT and
telecommunications. Another phenomenon in these modern industries is that employees have greater
opportunity and tendency to move from one company to another, not only because of better terms of
employment but also because of their yearning to learn new skills.
This appetite for learning is something remarkable, especially in the IT industry. In fact, people in
that industry are more bothered about what they can learn in a company than about how much they
earn.
This phenomenon is facilitated by the fact that there are plenty of employment opportunities in IT
and it is a young industry. That is why one does not notice any union flags in the Silicon Valley of
India/Bangalore’s Electronic City.
Trade unions have declined in their importance even in the UK, the original home of trade unions.
The UK’s Labour Party was formed by socialist leaders of trade unions.
Today, Tony Blair does not have to depend on trade unions as much as his predecessors had to do in
the 1980s and 90s. The Labour Party’s appeal to the public is based on key policy issues such as
spending on the National Health Service and the education system, rather than anything to do with
labour policy.
In the US, trade unions are powerful in negotiations with individual employers, but have no
significant political clout although they generally support the Democratic Party.
The same is the case in Japan. Even in Germany, France, and Italy, the role of trade unions has
become more focused on negotiations with employers rather than on politics.
The privatization or corporatisation of many public services such as electricity and water supply has
accelerated this shift. Hopefully the same shift in the character and role of trade unions will happen in
10
India — even in places like Kerala and Bengal, as employment starts to move to more intellect-based
activities and public sector industries are privatized.
Responsible trade union leaders with a long-term vision will adapt their policies to suit the new
realities.
Correspondingly, there has also been a change in the attitude of management, even in familymanaged
companies. They are now better educated and many of them have been exposed to
international education and international markets.
They realise the dignity of human beings more than their previous generation and therefore are less
prone to treat employees in a scurvy manner. More and more companies are investing in management
training and development.
This has also helped to create much better awareness of the aspirations of workmen, among the
managers.
Yet the last vestiges of negative union practices continue to persist in monopolistic public services
like the state transport undertakings, state electricity boards, etc.
The only way to correct this is to corporatise or privatise these undertakings or open them up to
competition. A prime example of the change that is possible is what has happened in aviation.
Once airline services were opened up to competition, the whole scene changed. Instead of treating
passengers with the indifference typical of a public sector employee, Indian Airlines staff learnt even
to smile while greeting passengers.
In addition, we have created some world-class private carriers in the domestic market who are now
set to take wing on international routes. Even the railways can be privatised.
The rail track in each region can be owned and operated by a company, which then allows competing
companies to run their trains on these tracks. Similarly, there is no reason why urban bus services
cannot be made more efficient by opening them up to competition.
Today they are run as monopolies due to pressure from unionised labour. For example, in Mumbai
the urban bus service is cross-subsidised by BEST Electric Supply services.
Questions:-
1. What do you know about changing role of Trade Union activities?
2. What is the role of responsible Trade Unionism?
3. Is Privatisation a challenge for Union activities?
4. What is the lesson learnt from the IT sector?

MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS
(Any 8)
Q1) Distinguish between Economic Profit versus Accounting Profit?
Q2) Explain the term ‘Market’?
Q3) Regression analysis is often referred to as least squares regressions. Why is this
name appropriate?
Q4) Explain the factors which affecting price elasticity of demand?
Q5) When a manager is using a technically efficient input combination, the firm is also
producing in an economically efficient manner. Evaluate this statement.
Q6) Economists frequently say that the firm plans in the long run and operates in the
short run. Explain.
Q7) Explain why input barriers to entry have probably declined in importance with the
recent expansion of International markets?
Q8) Explain why the manager of profit maximizing monopoly always produces and sells
on the elastic portion of the demand curve. If costs are o what output will the manager
produce? Explain.
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Q9) Evaluate the statement “In simultaneous decisions games all players know the
payoffs from making various decisions, but the players still do not have all the
information they would like to have in order to decide which action to take”.
Q10) Price discrimination sound like socially bad thing. Can you think of any reasons
why Price distribution could be viewed as a socially good thing?

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
& BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
COURSE : ADHRM Total Marks : 80
INSTRUCTIONS :
1) Answers must be written in legible handwriting without using abbreviations or SMS
language.
2) Figures to the right indicate the marks assigned to each case study.
3) Clarity of thought and expression is expected from the examinee.
4) All Questions are compulsory.
5) Read the case studies carefully and then write the answers.
CASE – 1 (20 Marks)
Raj Thapar, Karan Singhania and Aditya Mehta were bucking the trend during the 2001
recession. While their counterparts were aggressively laying off workers, these CEOs were holding
the line against layoffs.
Raj Thapar is CEO at Airbus. His company, along with Boeing, dominate the market for
commercial aircraft. But while Boeing announced layoffs of upto 30,000 workers following the
terror attacks of September 11, 2001, Thapar said he won’t be firing anybody. Said an Airbus
executive, “This is a bet that life will resume. There’s more uncertainty now, but we decided to be
optimistic. This thing will turn around and you can’t risk losing skilled people when the upturn
comes.”
Karan Singhania is CEO at North-Western Mutual, the largest seller of individual life
insurance in the United States. Singhania is no “Mr Nice Guy”. Every year his firm fires the lowest
four percent of its 4,100 employees — those with the poorest performance. But it is very loyal to its
good ones. Singhania is committed to a no-layoff policy. Why? Employee loyalty says Singhania?
He believes employee loyalty helps in customer loyalty. And he may be right since Northwestern
loses only about half as many customers as the industry average. Singhania argues that his Firm’s
higher customer retention rate allows Northwestern to have more money to invest longer, while
spending less to replace defectors. The company can then pass the savings back to customers by
lowering prices on policies.

Our final CEO, Aditya Mehta, heads up Enterprise Rent-a-Car. Mehta proudly says that his
company has never had a layoff. This may be one reason why Enterprise is now America’s largest
rental car company.
In a down economy, these CEOs were running against the tide when the economy began to
slow, most corporate leaders’ first reaction was to cut the size of their workforce. In 2001, alone
companies let more than one million workers go. Why? It immediately cuts operating expenses. For
public companies, it sends a message to stock investors and analysts that management is serious
about maintaining profits and reducing losses. A week after Boeing announced that it was laying off
20 per cent of its workforce, its stock jumped 10 per cent.
Questions :
1) What are the arguments for and against layoffs in hard times?
2) How have the three executives in this case shown leadership?
3) Explain the difference between management and leadership. Discuss why conceptual
leadership skills become more important, and technical skills less important, at higher level
organizational levels.
Page 1 Out of 1
CASE – 2 (20 Marks)
The engineering division of Shah & Co, consists of four departments, with the Supervisor of
each reporting to the division general manager (GM). The four departments range in size from four
employees in the smallest (industrial engineering) to twenty in the largest (sales engineering). The
other two departments (design engineering and process engineering) each have eight employees.
There occurs frequent rivalry among various departments over the allocation of resources.
This problem has worsened by the favouritism that the GM purposely shows towards the industrial
and design engineering units and his reliance on majority-rule decision making (among his four
supervisors and himself) at staff meetings. The Supervisors of the sales and process engineering
complain that this practice often leads to leaders of the industrial and design engineering departments
forming a group with the GM – to make a decision, eventhough they represent a small number of the
total employees. In response, the industrial and design engineering supervisors charge the
supervisors of the sales and process engineering units with empire building, power plays, and a
narrow view of the mission of the division.
Questions :
1) Is the GM’s approach wrong? If yes, then why if no then why not? Give reasons for your
answer.
2) What would you recommend to the G.M.
3) Team leaders and team members need skills to develop effective teams. Is this statement
correct or wrong. If there are any skills needed by the team leaders and team members to
develop effective teams then discuss them.
Page 1 Out of 1
CASE – 3 (20 Marks)
The new general manager (GM) of a Malaysian Carpet company was faced with the challenge of
turning around the firm, which was rapidly going downhill. He had to influence his own head office,
senior executives, workers, bankers, dealers and others to support the change till the Firm turned the
corner. But the workers were in no mood to wait and decided to go on strike demanding higher
wages and bonus. A senior executive, who wanted to cut the new GM to size, was provoking them
surreptitiously (secretly).
One day, as the workers were planning to leave for the day, the GM decided at the spur of the
moment to talk to them. He said, “I understand that you are planning to go on strike and hold
demonstrations. When you will sit outside the factory gate tomorrow, there will be people from the
press who will come and photograph you. Your pictures will appear in the newspapers. They will
ask you questions and blow up the issue. But our bankers will also read our problems. They already
think that ours is a dying company and when you go on a strike, they will reject our proposal for
funds. If that happens, the company will close down. Of course, you will continue to hold
demonstrations, but now no press people will come to take your photographs and write what you say.
I have another job at the head office and so I will lose very little, but I am not sure if all of you can
find another job when the company closes down.
The response of the workers to the GM’s impromptu address was electric, the GM had
established contact with the group. The GM looked directly into the eyes of a worker who was
listening intently and asked him, “Tell me, do you want to go on strike tomorrow?”
The worker avoided his eyes but the GM persisted, “You cannot avoid my question. It is far
too important for the company’s future and yours. Do you want to go on strike? For a while, there
was silence. Then, slowly the worker said, `No’. The GM moved to another person and repeated his
question. Again the answer was no.
The third person, fourth person and soon ripples of a new sentiment were being generated.
Towards the end of the addresses, the crisis had been avoided. The GM quickly followed up with
initiatives to strengthen employee communication and involvement to build on the positive sentiment
that had come about.
The GM followed a different approach with the bankers. He met them regularly and
frequently, each time with some good news about the company. He used his contacts to get certain
purchase orders released, even if the deliveries were required later. Every time there was a big order,
he told the bankers that it was only the tip of the iceberg, and there was more to follow. In the GM’s
words, “No accounts are presented to the bankers unless we put lipstick and mascara and make them
look as pretty and healthy as possible.” Finally, the banks relented and accepted the financial
restructuring package we had proposed. That helped the company turn around in a remarkably short
time.
Page 1 Out of 1
Questions :
1) How did the GM distinguish between the two target groups to make his communication
effective?
2) What is the main advantage of direct face-to-face communication, as against communication
through circulars or memos?
3) What makes technical communication different from general communication ?
4) How important is it to be able to communicate?
Page 1 Out of 1
CASE – 4 (20 Marks)
1) Interviews – How are you?
Vikas — Nice.
2) Interviewer — Tell us something about your background and academic credentials.
Vikas – (tensed and nervous). I … I am a very qualified manager. I am from Mumbai. I
studied at Top institutions of Mumbai. I am very famous. I believe in hard work and honesty.
Currently, I am not working with anyone.
3) Interviewer – What kind of a position are you looking for ?
Vikas – (in a rigid tone) I want the post of a Senior Manager only.
4) Interviewer – Tell us something about your work experience.
Vikas – I have a lot of experience. I have marketing experience as Manager (Sales and
Marketing). Before this job, I worked with K K & Company. I have always proved myself as
an outstanding sales professional.
5) Interviewer – Can you tell us about your responsibilities at your last job ?
Vikas – As I told you, I am a very hard working professional. My last job with K K &
Company as Manager (Sales & Marketing) kept me very busy. My colleagues were very
lazy.
So I had to perform extra responsibilities on their behalf. My main job was to do the
marketing of K. K water purifiers.
6) Interviewer – What are your career objectives?
Vikas – I want to acquire a challenging position in a large companym where I should be able
to
use my specialized qualification, understanding and experience in marketing and sales.
7) Interviewer – What are your strengths ?
Vikas – I have good communication and interpersonal skills. I am good at getting along with
others. I have always achieved company targets. Last year, my company wanted me to sell
2,00,000 water purifiers, I did it.
8) Interviewer – What is your greatest weakness?
Vikas – I think that I do not possess any weakness.
9) Interviewer – Are you a leader or a follower?
Vikas – I am a leader. I have successfully completed several projects as a leader.
10) Interviewer –Why do you want to work with our company?
Vikas – There is no specific reason for this question. Your company pays more than other
companies. As I told you earlier, I am currently jobless, I need money so I have to work.
Page 1 Out of 1
Questions :
1) Read the above conversation carefully if you were Vikas, how would you answer all the
questions asked by the interviewer. Rewrite the answers, making them more appropriate by
changing the language, style, tone, and attitude of the answer.”
2) Describe the significance of job interviews today.

AEREN FOUNDATION’S Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724
Subject : PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT
(Answer Any 8)
Q1) What qualities are required for successful investing?
Q2) What are the major types of real assets? What are the pros and cons of investing in real
asset?
Q3) What is book building?
Q4) What are the key differences between traditional finance and behavioural finance?
Q5) Discuss the following.
a) Demand side policies.
b) Supply side policies.
Q6) What are the differences between technical analysis and fundamental analysis?
Q7) What are the key differences between closed-ended and open ended schemes?
Q8) What should you bear in mind while investing in paintings and antiques?
Q9) Spell out the key steps involved in portfolio management?
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Hospital Management
Case Studies
Case (20
Marks)
The definition of a relevant geographic market has proven to be one of the most daunting components of a hospital merger case.
Nonetheless some guiding principles are clear. The hypothetical monopolist test of the Merger Guidelines should be used to define
geographic markets in hospital merger cases. The types of evidence used in all merger cases such as strategic planning documents of
the merging parties and customer testimony and documents should also be used to delineale relevant geographic markets in hospital
merger cases. The agencies believe that courts have given insufficient weight to payor testimony and documents in particular. The
agencies encourage further research to determine the circumstances in which patients will travel to distant hospitals in response to
price increases.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Define the term ‘Geographic Market’?
Q2. Define the term Merger and explain the guidelines of the Merger?
Q3. Describe the term ‘Payor Testimony’?
Q4. Patients willingness to travel – How far and why? Comment.
Case (20
Marks)
The preservation of the public health is among the most important goals of government. The enactment an enforcement of law,
moreover, is a primary means with which government creates the conditions for people to lead healthier and safer lives. Law creates
a mission for public health authorities, agencies their functions, and specifies the manner in which they may exercise their authority
(Costin, Buris and Lazzanni 199). The law is a tool in public health work which is used to influence norms for healthy behaviour,
identity and respond to health threats, and set & enforce health and safety standards. The most important social debates about public
health take place in legal for a – legislatures, courts and administrative agencies and in the law’s language of rights, duties and
justice. It is not exaggeration to say that “the field of public health …. Could not long exist in the manner in which we know it today
except for this sound legal basis (Corad 1990.4).
Answer the following question.
Q1. Define the term Public health, explain in detail?
Q2. Describe the public health law in detail?
Q3. Which are the five characteristics to help distinguish public health law from the vast literature on law and
medicine?
Q4. Describe public health ethics?
Case (20
Marks)
Physicians have historically been solo or small group practitioners, competing only with other such Practitioners in their particular
product and geographic market. As the market for physician services has evolved and antitrust enforcement has addressed anticompetitive
conduct, competition has emerged along multiple dimensions. IPAS and PHOs compete for physician – members and to
contract with payors. The forms and modes of competition in the market for physician services will inevitably vary overtime as
conditions and preferences change. Competition helps deliver an optimum mix of physician services at the lower cost and highest
quality.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Describe the term ‘IPA’s?
Q2. Explain the IPS efficiencies?
Q3. Define the term ‘PHO’s?
Q4. Competition and the market for physicians services. Comment.
Case (20
Marks)
As per the Medical Council of India notification dated 11th March 2002 makes the following regulations relating to the professional
4/28/2018 Aeren Foundation
2/2
conduct, etiquette and ethics, these regulations may be called the Indian Medical Council Regulations 2002, shall come into force on
the date of their publication in the official Gazette. Notification contains the duties and responsibilities of the physician in general,
duties of physicians to their patients, duties of physician in consultation, and Responsibilities of physicians to each other, and
unethical acts. Each applicant at the time of making an application for registration under the above provisions of the Act, shall be
provided a copy of declaration and shall submit a duly signed declaration as provided. The applicant shall also certify that he/she had
read and agreed to abide by the same.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Duties & Responsibilities of the physician in general explain in detail?
Q2. Explain the duties of Physicians to their patients?
Q3. Explain the duties of Physician in Consultation?
Q4. Describe the responsibilities of physicians to each other?

Business Environment
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Give a block diagram in establishing the design and quality standards of
technology recipient site?
2. Business decision making and the impact of the macro-environment, Discuss?
3. Give the constitution of SEBI Board and explain SEBI functions?
4. Write a note on socio-cultural environment of BusinessWrite a note on sociocultural
environment of Business?
5. Discuss how the environment acts does as a stimulant to business. Analyze why
business often does little for the preservation of physical environment despite
the fact that it is significant for business activity?
6. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of FDI. What is your opinion on the
role of FDI in the Retail Sector? Justify your views with India’s experience in
this sector?
7. Discuss the Third plan (1961-66)?
8. Business decision making and the impact of the macro-environment, Discuss?

Business Communication
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Define Public Speaking & Determine the purpose of topic Selection
2. What is media of mass Communication & Explain the modes of Communication
3. Explain the methods of Oral Communication in Terms of
a) Among Individuals b)Among Group
4. List the different Electronic modes of Communication & Explain the mode of
Communication
5. Explain 7 phases of negotiating tactics
6. What is group discussion? How is it Evaluated? And what is the techniques of GD
7. What are the techniques for writing Successful job application
8. What is media of mass Communication & Explain the modes of Communication

Business Ethics
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Write short note on value education & consumerism
2. Give SWOT analysis in Indian scenario.
3. Explain need for a check on quackery.
4. Give measures to control pollution
5. Discuss unethical practices vis-à-vis cheating.
6. Give benefits of ISO 9000 quality systems & Give importance and
use of ISO 9000 standard.
7. Discuss seven points of mahatma Gandhi &Discuss social justice
according to gandhiji.
8. Give characteristic of quality leadership.

Business Strategy
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Describe four processes SECI through which knowledge is converted from one
form to another.
2. Write down the steps of activating Strategies with special reference to
Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
3. What is the VRIO frame work?
4. What is focus of control in headquarter level control strategy?
5. Give any two examples of Conglomerate Diversification.
6. Discuss how a development in a corporations societal environment can affect
the corporations through its task environment.
7. Explain different types of industrial diversification
8. List advantages & disadvantages of different modes entry.

Corporate Law
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. What are the functions of controller.
2. Distinguish cheque and bill of exchange
3. Discuss power to impose lesser penalty
4. State the miscellaneous provisions as regards charges.
5. How to convert public company in to a private company.
6. How to employ a controller and other officers.
7. What are the liability of members
8. What are the functions of controller.


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HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT

Note: Each question carries 10 marks
Describe the stages of growth of hospitality industry.

Discuss the importance of training in hospitality sector.

3. Elaborate the concept of domestic and international tourism.

4. How do socio-cultural and economic scenarios get affected by tourism?

5. Describe the various departments of a hotel and their important functions.

6. Describe briefly the laws and guidelines, related to recognition of travel agency.

7. How will you successfully grow in the most competitive hospitality industry?

8. Suggest the long term plans and actions.

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
CASE-1 (20 Marks)
Nestle has launched quality street ,lion and after 8 choclates imported from Europe. Qualtty Street is an
assortment of chocolates priced at Rs. 7 5 for 218 gm. After Eight is a popular adult chocolate priced at Rs.25
for 20 gm and Lion is a caramel wafer bar priced at Rs. 20 for a 45 gm bar. (Kit Kat )is priced at Rs. 6 for a 17
gm bar and has a chocolaty taste while Lion has a crunchy taste). The brands have different tastes and will
appeal to different target segments (though the target segment is one which may have already been exposed to
these brands during visits abroad). These brands have been introduced in metros in upmarket stores which sell
brands bears the label “lmported by Nestle India Ltd.” indicating that they may be better than smuggled ones
(which may be stale).
Question :
Suggest suitable media /media vehicles for promoting these brands. Give reasons in support of your answer
What business communication media you will utilize if you have to launch a soap in rural India?
CASE -2 (20 Marks)
The herbal shampoo market is valued at around Rs. 100 crores. Ny/e, Ayur, Dqbur and Biotique are some of the
established brands in the market.
Helene Curtis (JK Group) has introduced a premium herbal shampoo (with variants Shikskai, henna and qmla
and brqhmi and josur) priced between Rs. 80 and Rs. 90 (500 ml) for different types of hair. The proposition is
the benefits offered by lhe variant based on the combination of herbs, benefits offered by the variants range
from extra protection and nourishment to colour, body and bounce. The shampoos have been launched under
the brand name Premium Herbsl Shsmpoos and they target urban housewives with a monthly household
income of Rs.25,000. The brand is distributed through 7 0,000 retail outlets and 120 Raymond shops. The
company has planned only point of purchase (POP) posters initially and may consider the electronic media
later. The shampoo has an annual advertising expenditure of Rs. 10 crores.
Question :
Comment on the marketing mix of JK’s Premium Herbsl Shampoos ?
How can you make their communication more effective ?.
Page 2 of 2
CASE 3 (40 Marks)
Attempt all cases of the following: (10 marks each)
Iran Rafsanjan Co., Rafsanjan City, Iran has taken a marine insurance policy No. VB/84/3629/29 dated
20th December, 2005 from Albroz Insurance Co., Kerman City, Iran for the import of 500 tractor gears
from Apex Products (India) Ltd., Delhi. The exporter shipped the cargo on board vessel — SEEMA on
26th December, 2005 for Bandar Abbas Port of Iran.
As per the letter of credit condition, the exporter was required to fax the shipment details to Albroz
Insurance Company within 24 hours of the shipment. However, the exporter could not fax such details due
to change in telephone (fax) number of the insurance company.
Draft an express telegram to intimate shipment details.
ii) Yours is a multinational company having joint venture with a Chinese company. Plant is to be located at
Surat. The company immediately needs an Executive – Foreign Affairs (male/female) with ability of
“writing and speaking Chinese language.
Draft a recruitment advertisement for publication under classified column of a national daily. Salary-is no
bar for the right candidate. E-mail address -info@krishnafashions.com
iii) The local head office of State Bank of India is located at 11, Parliament Street, New Delhi-110001. The
bank wants to construct 76 flats at Noida for its employees and invite applications for pre-qualification of
contractors. Full details are available on its website – www.sbi.co.in or www.statebankofindia.com/
procurement_news.
Draft a notice for pre-qualification of contractors.
iv) The Joint Admission Board (JAB) of Indian Institutes of Technology in its meeting held on 17th
September, 2005 at Kolkata has taken some decisions with regard to Joint Entrance Examination (JEE)
2006, i.e., to appear in JEE, one must secure at least 60% marks (55% for SC/ST and PD) in 10+2
examination; a candidate can have only two attempts with effect from JEE-2006; and a candidate who
joins any of the IITs through JEE-2006 will not be permitted to appear in JEE in future.* It was also
decided that candidates, who have passed their qualifying examination in 2005 or earlier, will be allowed
to appear in JEE-2006 as the last chance, witji no consideration of marks or attempts at JEE subject to age
requirements. On behalf of the JAB, draft a suitable press release to be issued by organising chairman
highlighting these decisions.

BUSINESS ETHICS

CASE -1 (20 Marks)
Joan, an employee of Great American Market, was warned about her excessive absenteeism several
times, both verbally and in writing. The written warning included notice that “further violations will
result in disciplinary actions,” including suspension or discharge.
A short time after the written warning was issued, Joan called work to say she was not going to be in
because her babysitter had called in sick and she had to stay home and care for her young child. Joan’s
supervisor, Sylvia, told her that she had already exceeded the allowed number of absences and warned
that if she did not report to work, she could be suspended. When Joan did not report for her shift,
Sylvia suspended her for fifteen days.
In a subsequent hearing, Joan argued that it was not her fault that the babysitter had canceled, and
protested that she had no other choice but to stay home. Sylvia pointed out that Joan had not made a
good faith effort to find an alternate babysitter, nor had she tried to swap shifts with a co-worker.
Furthermore, Sylvia said that the lack of a babysitter was not a justifiable excuse for being absent.
Questions:
Was the suspension fair?
Did Joan act responsibly?
Should she be fired?
CASE-2 (20 Marks)
You own a cement company, and deal with most the local contractors for cement, sand, etc. You have
a reputation of high quality products, and for good customer service with your customers. Your
foreman has just run the standard quality control tests you have performed regularly on your products.
When the test results are ready, you discover that the new batch of product is 9% less durable than
your usual material. It is still well above all industry standards and meets all building codes and
requirements for the purposes for which it is intended, but it is, nevertheless, not up to your usual
standards. Throwing it away would cost your company many thousands of dollars.
You decide to sell the cement anyway.
Questions:
Should you tell your customers?
Should you discount the price?
Should you tell your employees, so they will be knowledgeable with the customers?
Would you use this cement on foundations for your own house?
Page 2 of 3
CASE-3 (20 Marks)
Fred, a 17-year employee with Sam’s Sauna, was fired for poor job performance and poor attendance,
after accruing five disciplinary penalties within a 12-month period under the company’s progressive
disciplinary policy. A week later, Fred told his former supervisor that he had a substance abuse
problem.
Although there was no employee assistance program in place and the company had not been aware of
Fred’s condition, their personnel director assisted Fred in obtaining treatment by allowing him to
continue receiving insurance benefits and approved his unemployment insurance claim.
Fred subsequently requested reinstatement, maintaining that he had been rehabilitated since his
discharge and was fully capable of being a productive employee. He pointed to a letter written by his
treatment counselor, which said that his prognosis for leading a “clean, sober lifestyle” was a big
incentive for him. Fred pleaded for another chance, arguing that his past problems resulted from drug
addiction and that Sam’s Saunas should have recognized and provided treatment for the problem.
Sam’s Saunas countered that Fred should have notified his supervisor of his drug problem, and that
everything possible had been done to help him receive treatment. Moreover, the company stressed that
the employee had been fired for poor performance and absenteeism. Use of the progressive discipline
policy had been necessary because the employee had committed a string of offenses over the course of
a year, including careless workmanship, distracting others, wasting time, and disregarding safety rules.
Questions:
Should Fred be reinstated?
Was the company fair to Fred in helping him receive treatment?
Did the personnel director behave ethically toward Fred?
Did he act ethically for his company?
Would it be fair to other employees to reinstate Fred?
CASE-4 (20 Marks)
In January of last year, the S.S. Vulgass, an oil tanker of the Big Dirty Oil Company ran around in the
area just north of Vancouver, spilling millions of gallons of crude into the waters and onto the beaches
of British Columbia and southern Alaska. The damage to the beaches and wildlife and consequently to
the tourist industry, the ecology and the quality of life of the local residents is incalculable, but in any
case will require many millions of dollars for even the most minimal clean-up.
The ship struck a small atoll, well-marked on the navigational maps, but it was a dark night and the
boat was well off course. On further investigation, it was discovered that the Captain of the Vulgass,
Mr. Slosh, had been drinking heavily. Leaving the navigation of the ship to his first mate, Mr. Mudd,
he retired to his cabin, to “sleep it off.” Mr. Mudd had never taken charge of the ship before, and it is
now clear that he misread the maps, misjudged the waters, maintained a speed that was inappropriate
and the accident occurred. Subsequent inquiries showed that Captain Slosh had been arrested on two
drunk driving convictions within months of the accident. The Vulgass itself, a double-hulled tanker,
was long due for renovation and, it was suggested, would not have cracked up if the hull had been
trebly reinforced, as some current tankers were.
Page 2 of 3
R. U. Rich, the Chief Executive Officer of Big Dirty Oil declared the accident a “tragedy” and offered
two million dollars to aid in the clean up. The Premier of British Columbia was outraged.
Environmental groups began a consumer campaign against Big Dirty Oil, urging customers to cut up
and send in their Big Dirty Oil credit cards in protest. In a meeting to the shareholders just last month,
CEO Rich proudly announced the largest quarterly profit in the history of the Big Dirty Oil Company.
He dismissed the protests as “the outpourings of Greenies and other fanatics” and assured the
shareholders that his obligation was, and would always be, to assure the highest profits possible in the
turmoil of today’s market.
Questions:
The question is, who is responsible?
Against whom should criminal charges be leveled?
What should be done, if anything, to punish the corporation itself?
What about the CEO?

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

SUBJECT: PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
CASE STUDY : 1
Manpower planning is important aspect. Macro issues concerning factors like national population trends,
educational plans, economic growth rate, overall supply and demand for various categories of manpower will
certainly have an impact on the manpower plans of the enterprise.
These factors impinge on the enterprises plans the manpower planner needs to be aware of their impact. One
of the assumptions made in a less developed country like India, with surplus labour, is that there are large
number of trained manpower available for any specific skill requirement. It is generally not so.
Define the term “Manpower Planning”?
Discuss “Manpower Planning makes for different purposes at different level”?
Explain some other pay-offs from Manpower Planning to the enterprise?
Objectives of Manpower Planning. Explain in detail?
CASE STUDY : 2
The process of selection involves three stages – Recruitment, Selection and Placement. Recruitment refers to
making the vacancies known to potential applicants and thereby generating applications for position. This is
generally done through advertisement in mass media, employment exchange, private employment agencies,
deputation, word of mouth and campus recruitment.
Once these applications are generated, the actual selection begins. The number of methods can be used to
select. These may include application form, selection tests, interviews, business games, physical
examination. Finally the employee’s are placed in the appropriate positions.
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Define the term “Word of Mouth”.
Define the objective and importance of advertisement in the process of Recruitment?
Define the term selection in brief.
Explain the methods of selection?
CASE STUDY : 3
Open and two way communication ensures survival of the organization. It is means to make members work
together. Formal communication can be downward and upward. Despite its significance communication
can suffer from distortions both intended as well as unconscious. Some of the reasons for distortions are
tendency to evaluate pre-existing attitudes, sterotypes, values and perceptions. Feedback can help improve
the quality of communication. Feedback however should be prompt both positive and negative, focus an
action and behavior instead of individual.
Distinguish between one way versus two way communication.
Define the tem formal and informal organizational communication?
Explain the most common channels available for downward communication in an organization?
What do you mean by communication filters?
CASE STUDY : 4
The quality of work life (QWL) research programme, which has been in progress for sometimes now, has
tried to understand human behavior in the work situation in order to enhance productivity job satisfaction
and employee involvement. QWL takes a holistic view of the employee at the work place. The focus has
shifted from time to time. QWL related activities are several but revolve around work restructuring, job
design, participative problem solving, reward systems and work environment.
What do you understand by the concept of QWL?
Identify its major activities and concerns?
Discuss the relevance of QSL in the Indian context?
‘Flexible working time arrangement can be an answer to the multifarious roles of the Indian worker’,
Evaluate.

SUBJECT: PRINCIPLE & PRACTICE OF MANAGEMENT
Marks: 80
CASE STUDY : 1
International Case : Carrefour — Which Way to Go?
Wal-Mart’s biggest global competitor is the big French retailer Carretour, a firm that has hypermarkets, big
stores offering a variety of goods. It has made large investments around the globe in Latin America and China.
But not all is well as competitors taking market share its home market, for instance. There has been even
speculation of a takeover by Wal-Mart or Tesco, an English chain. Mr. Barnard has been ousted after heading
the company for 12 years; he was replaced by Jose Luis Durant who is of German-Spanish descent. Although
the global expansion is cited by some as success, it may be even a big mistake. It withdrew from Japan and
sold 29 hypermarkets in Mexico. Carrefour also had problems competing with Tesco in Slovakia and the
Czech Republic. In Germany, the company faced tough competition from Aldi and Lidle, two successful
discounters. On the other hand, it bought stores in Poland, Italy, Turkey, and opened new stores in China,
South Korea, and Columbia. Carrefour has become more careful in selecting markets. But. the company is
eager to enter the Indian market, but found out in late 2006 that Wal-Mart will do so as well.
In France, where Carrefour is well established, the company made the big mistake in its pricing policy. It
probably started with the 1999 merger with Promodes, the French discount chain. Carrefour confused the
French clientele by losing its low-cost image; whether the image can be changed remains to be seen. Mr.
Durant, the new CEO since 2005, embarked on the new strategy by offering 15 percent new products in its
hypermarkets and 10 percent in its supermarkets. Moreover, he wants to employ more staff, extend the
operating hours in certain hypermarkets, cutting prices, trying small stores, and pushing down decision
making. Mr. Durant aims to stay only in countries where Carrefour is among the top retailers.
Questions:
How should Mr. Durant assess the opportunities in various countries around the world?
Should Carrefour adopt Wal-Mart’s strategy of “low prices everyday”? What would be the advantage or
disadvantage of such a strategy?
How could Carrefour differentiate itself from Wal-Mart?
4. Identify cultures in selected countries that need to be considered in order to be successful?
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CASE STUDY : 2
International Case : Reengineering the Business Process at Procter & Gamble
Procter & Gamble (P&G), a multinational corporation known for products such as diapers, shampoo, soap, and
toothpaste, was committed to improving value to the customer. Its products were sold through various
channels, such as grocery retailers, wholesalers, mass merchandisers, and club stores. The flow of goods in the
retail grocery channel was from the factory’s warehouse to the distributors’ warehouses before going to the
grocery stores where customers selected the merchandise from the shelves.
The improvement-driven company was not satisfied with its performance and developed a variety of programs
to improve its service and the efficiency of its operation. One such program was electronic data interchange,
which provided daily information from the retail stores to P&G. The installation of the system resulted in
better service, reduced inventory levels, and labor-cost savings. Another approach, the continuous
replenishment program, provided additional benefits for P&G as well as for its retailer customers. Eventually,
the entire ordering system was redesigned, with the result of dramatic performance improvements. The
reengineering efforts also required restructuring of the organization. P&G had been known for its brand
management for more than 50 years. But in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the brand management approach
pioneered by the company in the 1930s required rethinking and restructuring. In a drive to improve efficiency
and coordination, several brands were combined with authority and responsibility given to category managers.
Such a manager would determine overall pricing and product policies. Moreover, the category managers had
the authority to withdraw weak brands, thus avoiding conflict between similar brands. They were also held
responsible for the profit of the product category they were managing. The switch to category management
required not only new skills but also a new attitude.
Questions:
The reengineering efforts of P&G focused on the business process system. Do you think other processes,
such as the human system, or other managerial policies need to be considered in a process redesign?
What do you think was the reaction of the brand managers, who may have worked under the old system for
many years, when the category management structure was installed?
As a consultant, would you have recommended a top-down or a bottom-up approach, or both, to process
redesign and organizational change?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.
CASE STUDY : 3
International Case : The Restructuring of Daimler-Benz
In a 1996 address to stockholders and friends of Daimler-Benz, CEO Jurgen Schrempp reviewed the position
of the diversified company. He started by saying “1995 was a dramatic year in the history of Daimler-Benz.” It
was also a year that the board of management made a major break with the past.
Daimler-Benz, with more than 300,000 employees worldwide, consisted of four major groups: The first, by far
the biggest and most successful group, was Mercedes-Benz with about 200,000 employees. It is best known
for its passenger cars and commercial vehicles. The second was the AEG Daimler-Benz industries in the
business of rail systems, microelectronics, heavy diesel engines, energy systems technology, and automation.
The third was the Aerospace Group in the business of aircraft (the company has a more than one-third interest
in the Airbus consortium), space systems, defense and civil systems, and propulsion systems. Finally, there
was the Inter Services Group consisting of systemshaus, financial services, insurance brokerage, trading,
marketing services, mobile communications services, and real
estate management.
Daimler-Benz went through various development phases. From 1985 to 1990, it diversified into aerospace and
electrical engineering. The aim was to become an integrated high-tech group. This diversification was further
consolidated in the next phase that extended from 1990 to 1995. Under the leadership of Schrempp, the core
business was redefined and the strategy refocused.
A 1995-96 portfolio review showed the need for refocusing on what the company could do best. Top
management reevaluated its strategies and its core businesses based on economic criteria and the strategic fit
of the various activities. It became clear that the company’s strengths were in car manufacturing, the truck
business, and the railroad sector. Mercedes Benz, for example, had a strong competitive position with its cars
and trucks in Europe, North America, and Latin America. Vans were also relatively strong in Europe, and
buses had a good competitive position in Latin America. Based on this analysis, the strategies for potential
growth were through globalization and the development of new product segments.
In 1996, top management reassessed the company’s position and its 1995 unsatisfactory results from its
operations. It was discovered that the company was exposed to currency fluctuations that affected profitability.
The company’s image was also blurred because of the ventures into many different kinds of industries. The
management board decided to cut its losses and chart a new direction for the company, with greater emphasis
on profitability. The organization structure was tightened and certain businesses were divested. In fact, policy
decision from an earlier period were reversed. The unprofitable AEG Group and the Dutch aircraft
manufacturer Fokker did not receive financial support. Since both the Dutch government and Daimler-Benz
withdrew support, Fokker filed for bankruptcy. Although these and other drastic decisions helped reduce the
1995 financial losses, the company’s goal was not to emphasize maximizing short-term profitability but to
work toward medium- and long-term profitability.
A number of other managerial decisions were made to achieve the ambitious goals of reducing costs and
improving profitability. Employees close to the operations were empowered to make decisions necessary to
carry out their tasks. The organization structure was simplified and decentralized so that organizational units
could respond faster to environmental changes. Moreover, the new organization structure was designed to
promote an entrepreneurial spirit. Control was exercised through a goal-driven, performance-based reward
system. At the same time, the new structure was designed to promote cooperation. In 1997, the board of
management restructured and integrated the Mercedes-Benz Group into Daimler-Benz. Consequently,
Mercedes-Benz’s chief, Helmut Werner, who had been given credit for a successful model policy, resigned
from the company.
Questions:
What is your assessment of Daimler-Benz’s operations in many different fields?
Should the various groups operate autonomously? What kinds of activities should be centralized?
Daimler-Benz is best known for its Mercedes-Benz cars. Why do you think Daimler bought AEG in the first
place and why did it venture into the Aerospace and Inter Services businesses?
Given the apparent mistakes in acquiring non-automotive businesses, what should Jurgen Schrempp do
now?
CASE STUDY : 4
International Case : Global Car Industry
How the Lexus Was Born-and Continued Its Success in the United States, but will Lexus Succeed in Japan?
One of the best examples of global competition is in the car industry. As the Japanese gained market share in
America, U.S. car makers required the Japanese to self-impose quotas on cars exported to the United States.
This encouraged Japanese firms not only to establish their plants in the United States but also to build bigger
and more luxurious cars to compete against the higher-priced U.S. cars- and the expensive European cars such
as the Mercedes and the BMW.
One such Japanese car is the Lexus, by Toyota. This car is aimed at customers who would like to buy a
Mercedes or BMW but cannot afford either. With a sticker price of $35,000, the Lexus is substantially less
expensive than comparable European imports. In 1983, Toyota set out to develop the best car in the worldmeasured
against the Mercedes and the BMW. The aim was to produce a quiet, comfortable, and safe car that
could travel at 150 miles per hour and still avoid the gas guzzler tax imposed on cars getting less than 22.5
miles per gallon. This seemed to be an idea of conflicting goals: cars being fast seemed irreconcilable with
cars being at the same time fuel-efficient. To meet these conflicting goals, each subsystem of the car had to be
carefully scrutinized, improved whenever possible, and integrated with the total design. The first version of the
32-valve V-8 engine did not meet the fuel economy requirement. The engineers applied a problem-solving
technique called “thoroughgoing countermeasures at the source.” This means an attempt to improve every
component until the design objectives are achieved. Not only the engine but also the transmission and other
parts underwent close scrutiny to make the car meet U.S. fuel requirements.
Toyota’s approach to achieving quality is different from that of German car manufacturers. The latter use
relatively labor-intensive production processes. In contrast, Toyota’s advanced manufacturing technology aims
at high quality through automation requiring only a fraction of the work force used by German car makers.
Indeed, this strategy, if successful, may be the secret weapon to gain market share in the luxury car market.
Questions:
Prepare a profile of the potential buyer of the Lexus.
What should Mercedes and BMW do to counteract the Japanese threat in the United States and Europe?
Why has the Lexus model been very successful in the U.S. but has not been marketed in Japan?
(Suggestion: Review the frequency of repair records of luxury cars. Also talk to Lexus dealers or Lexus
owners).
Do you think Lexus will succeed in Japan? Why or why not

SUB : Architectural Management
Attempt all questions:
By collecting the information from the relevant and authenticated sources, make a report
on the
following:
a) Sustainable development
b) Conservation
c) Schemes for slum area improvement
d) Traffic control systems in India in comparison with foreign country.
e) Road transport and Rail transport schemes for city transport and compare them.
f) Parking problems
You are entrusted with evaluating a building as a “Complete System”. How would you
do this effectively. You may hold interviews of builders/owners of shops and office
premises and other customers regarding achievements and problems.
Carry out a critical study of the Architectural pattern of
a) 19th Century
b) 20th Century
c) Early 21st Century
Based on your study, project your opinions and suggestions for further development.
You will agree that all about urban planning and landscape is equally true for rural
design and landscape. However, the scale is different, cost of the land is less, size of
the plot is bigger and with the closeness of nature, achievement is comparatively easy.
What is important is the approach.
Keeping in mind that every village to be developed into a mini town with aesthetic
landscape, what would be your approach in order to achieve the desired level as stated
above.
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Case Study of a House
The brief
One hall/dining, one bedroom, toilet, kitchenette, verandah, economical structural system,
minimum furniture. Total area around 60 sq. m.
The design
“The virtues of geometry” is the theme of this design. Since it is a guest house, the user is
not going to stay for more than two to three days. Thus there will be no specific suggestion
about the shape of the rooms. To achieve economy, the virtue of geometry of a circle is
utilized. The periphery is less for the same area of a circle than a square or rectangular
shaped structure. Thus the length of the wall is reduced to achieve economy. This also
makes the 23 cm load bearing structure more stable, like a well. An open verandah with
built-in seating and kitchenette and with rectangular shaped toilet is added opposite to each
other. A common RCC slab joining these volumes do not allot chajjas for the windows placed
at the junction points. To ensure further economy, the 45 sloping AC sheet roofing allows
storage space for kitchen and conceals the overhead water storage tank over the toilet. The
two skylights, one for dressing in the bedroom and one over the folding dining table allows
adequate light for the central dark portion. Thus, the total composition becomes a unique
combination of cylindrical, cube and triangular shapes. The major furniture is of built-in type
which minimizes the cost, and needs less maintenance. Owners of this guest house wanted
more weightage to be given for economy and maintenance, which I have succeeded in
getting.
The Outcome
Virtues of geometry with structural logic can create good designs. Aesthetical and
economical considerations give permanent quality to the structure, making it an architectural
object and not just a building.
Issues to be Addressed :
Study all details shown in the plan, the axonometric view and orientation, and comment
on the
total planning.
Find out the total plinth area by preparing working drawings.
State various measures proposed to achieve economy in cost.
Give a thought to solar system for heating water, landscaping treatments, and plan’s
usefulness
for farm house.

SUBJECT : INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
COURSE : ADMTM Total Marks : 80
Section A : Marks 3 each
Q.1
What is ABC analysis?
Give four examples of MRP?
What is meant by lead time?
Define standardization?
What are the various inventory models?
(f) What are the functions of inventory?
(g) Explain briefly the various types of inventories?
(h) Define traffic management?
(i) What is the need for feedback inventory information system?
(j) Give two factors considered for choosing equipments for material handling?
Section B Marks 10 each attempt any 5
Comptek computers wants to reduce a large stock of PCs it is discontinuing. It has offered a
university book store a quantity discount pricing schedule as follows:
(please see the attachment)
Quantity Price (Rs.)
1-49 14,000
50-89 11,000
>90 9000
The annual carrying cost for the bookstore for a PC is Rs. 190, the ordering cost is Rs. 2,500
and annual demand for this particular model is estimated to be 200 units. The bookstore wants
AN ISO 9001 : 2000 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
to determine if it should take advantage of this discount or order the basic EOQ size.
Explain the following terms:
Lead time
Re-order point
Stock out cost
Set-up cost.
What is the purpose of safety stock? How will the use of safety stock affect the EOQ? How
will the safety stock affect the total annual carrying cost of the material?
Describe the relation between Material requirement planning and Master productions schedule.
What are the advantages and limitations of MRP?
Q5) What are the objectives of stores management? How do you decide about the location and
layout of an effective store in an organization?
Q6) What is the purpose of JIT? Why are flexible resources essential for JIT? Wow are suppliers
affected by JIT?

SUBJECT : MANUFACTURING PLANNING AND CONTROL
COURSE : ADMTM Total Marks : 80
Time : 3 Hours
N.B. : 1. All Questions are compulsory
2. Illustrate your answers with suitable sketches wherever possible.
3. All question carry equal marks.
What are the typical tasks performed by the MPC system and how do these task affect the
company operation. What is the cope of ERP implementation and how are the various modules of
the software organized.
What are the communication linkages between demand management, other MPC modules and
customers? And what the fundamental activities in sales and operation planning and what
techniques can be uses explain in brief.
Write the short note on four of the following:
I) Master production Schedule
II) Function of Manufacturing planning and control
III)Computer integrated manufacturing
IV)Breadth of purchasing in MPC.
Compare CPM and PERT
b) With the help of block diagram explain hierarchy of capacity planning decision.
c) Describe the function vendor development and vendor management.
Q3) a) State the seven wastes as being the targets of continuous improvement in Just in Time.
b) There are five jobs of which is to be processes through three machines A, B, and, C in order
ABC Processing time in hour are
Job A B C
1 3 4 7
2 8 5 9
AN ISO 9001 : 2000 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
3 7 1 5
4 5 2 6
5 4 3 10
Determine the optimum sequence for the five jobs and the minimum elapsed time.
c) Compare the bill of materials and cookbook recipe.
d) Explain the practical steps involved in solving PERT problems.
Explain Role of demand management in manufacturing, planning and control with suitable
example?
b) State advantages, limitation and Application of Linear programming. What basic concepts and
module are used for shop floor and vendor scheduling and control.
c) Describe the function vendor development and vendor management

SUBJECT : PURCHASING & MATERIALS MANAGEMENT
COURSE : ADMTM Total Marks : 80
N.B. : 1) All Questions are compulsory
Illustrate your answers with suitable sketches wherever possible.
Figure to the right indicate full marks.
Define and discuss the significance of the materials management concept. [06 Marks]
What is the role of Materials Management in improving materials productivity?
Explain briefly. [06 Marks]
Explain the various materials codification methods. How Standardization reduces cost in the
Materials Management? [08 Marks]
Q2) a) Explain the concept of choice and rationalization of materials [08 Marks]
b) What is the value analysis? What are the different types of values? Describe the importance
of value analysis in an industrial enterprise. [08 Marks]
c) Discuss the computer based inventory management system with diagram and
explain in details. [04 Marks]
Q3) a) What are the activities of purchase research? In which areas can purchase
research is conducted? Explain purchase library concept. [08 Marks]
b) What is negotiation? Enumerate and discuss various tactics that may be used by
buyer while negotiating price with a supplier. [08 Marks]
c) Explain the term vender development and vender rating in details. Also explain
the benefit of vendor rating [06 Marks]
Q4) a) List and explain in brief the factors influencing make or buy decisions [08 Marks]
b) The Sahu Pump Corporation uses 60,000 valves per year and the usage is fairly constant at
5000 valves per month. Each valve costs the company Rs. 1.50. The carrying cost for the
company has been estimated at 15 % of the average inventory investment. The cost to place
an order and process the delivery is Rs. 30
i) Calculate economic order quantity
ii) What is the stock turnover rate ignoring safety stock if EOQ is ordered
frequently? [06 Marks]
AN ISO 9001 : 2000 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
What is variety reduction? Explain the areas of variety reduction [08 Marks

SUBJECT : DESIGNING & MANAGING THE SUPPLY CHAIN
COURSE : ADMTM Total Marks : 80
Time : 3 Hours
N.B. : 1) All Questions are compulsory
2) Illustrate your answers with suitable sketches wherever possible.
3) Figure to the right indicate full marks.
Q1) Solve any four of the following
a) Explain the push/pull view of supply chain.
b) Explain, what is the competitive strategy of supply chain.
c) Discuss the goal of Supply Chain.
d) Describe the major obstacle that must be overcome to successfully manage a supply chain.
Q2) a) Identify the major drivers of supply chain performance and discuss the role of each driver in
creating strategic fit between the supply chain strategy and the competitive strategy.
b) Evaluate the strengths and weakness of different modes of transportation
Q3) Attempt any three of the following
a) List the various view of supply chain and discuss one of them.
b) Describe how the company achieves strategic fit between its supply chain strategy and
competitive strategy.
c) Discuss the impact of replenishment policies on supply chain on safety inventory.
d) Discuss the role of distribution in the supply chain.
Q4) Write the short note on any five of the following.
a) Role of transportation in supply chain
b) Role of sourcing in supply chain.
c) Safety inventory management in Supply chain
d) Coordination in supply chain.
e) Role of Information technology in Supply chain.
f) E-Business and supply chain management

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
CASE-1 (16 Marks)
Bloomsday Outfitters produces T-shirts for road races. They need to acquire some new stamping
machines to produce 30,000 good T-shirts per month. Their plant operates 200 hours per month, but
the new machines will be used for T-shirts only 60 percent of the time and the output usually includes
5 percent that are “seconds” and unusable. The stamping operation takes 1 minute per T-shirt, and the
stamping machines are expected to have 90 percent efficiency considering adjustments, changeover of
patterns, and unavoidable downtime. How many stamping machines are required?
CASE-2 (16 Marks)
In the table given below the Distribution Manager is expected to service these DCs as per the demands
placed. If the actual sales after completing week one is as follows, what would be the quantities that
would need amendment as far as Distribution Manager is concerned to service for week two and
onwards?
After week one the actual sales to Forecasted sales for week one ratio is as under: Mumbai did 80 % of
forecast , Lucknow did 75 % of forecast Kolkata did 60 % of week one forecast Chennai did 125 % of
forecast and Delhi did 150 % of week one forecast
Note : Kolkata will receive transit stocks in week 2 .
CASE-3 (16 Marks)
After working for 30 years, Ramjee Somjee Dutt opted for VRS and started a courier company and did
very well in the first four years. He was now looking for expansion of his business and decided to
venture into Road transportation business between Chennai and Mumbai and Mumbai and Delhi as he
felt that he could do well on this line. However before taking a final decision he hires your
Management Consultant firm formed by yourself. He has requested you to work out the Price to quote
his clients for these two routes considering the costs involved. He expects to earn a minimum profit of
Rs 1000 per day per truck after meeting all expenses. Your analysis of market conditions tell you the
following:
Vehicle cost Rs 7 lacs Depreciation 15 % Maintenance costs per day Rs 150 Drivers monthly Salary
Rs 5000 : Attendants monthly salary Rs 3000 . Misc expenses Rs 200 per day. Driver allowance is Rs
125 per day and attendant gets Rs 75. Diesel cost per liter is Rs 25 and the vehicle gives an average
mileage of 4 km to a liter. The Financial institutions offer loans at 10 % interest pa, which Ramjee has
been negotiating. It has been observed that on an average the vehicle covers 400 km per day. The
distance between Mumbai to Delhi is 1500 km and Mumbai to Chennai is 1350 km. The driver gets
rest day in Mumbai only for one day after they return from any trip.
CASE-4 (16 Marks)
A company is operating in two unrelated businesses. The first one is making common salt, which is
sold in one-kilogram consumer packs. The second business is making readymade garments. The owner
of the businesses has decided to implement Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) in one of the two
businesses, which is likely to give him greater benefit. Assuming that the current turnover and profits
of both the units are comparable, compare the relative benefits and limitations of Materials
Requirement Planning (MRP) for these two businesses.
CASE-5 (16 Marks)
A Manufacturer of motorcycles buys spark plugs at Rs.15 each. Now he wishes to manufacture the
plugs in his own factory. The estimated cost for the manufacture of spark plugs is around
Rs.50,000=00 and the variable cost comes to Rs.5 per spark plug. The Production Manager advises the
Manufacturer that the factory should go for manufacturing instead of procuring them from the open
market.
List out reasons for the decision of the Production Manager backed up by the necessary data

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Attempt all questions
Give a detailed description on “Detailed Project Report”. Indicate the Pros and Cons of it also.
(10 Marks)
What is Project Management Information System? Why is a Project Management Information
System considered to be of immense importance in a project? In designing a Project Management
Information System what parameters are to be spelt out clearly in line with the objectives of the
Project management Information System? (20 Marks)
3. Technology and processes play crucial role in certain projects. What the key issues are in regards
to choice of technology, equipment and processes at the stage of formulation of Detailed Project
Report?
(10 Marks)
4. Given the activity mean and Standard Deviation, Find the probability that the project will take
more than 10 weeks to complete. (20 Marks)
Activity
Mean Standard Deviation
1 – 2 5 1
2 – 3 4 1
1 – 3 8 1
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5. For the following network data ,
(20 Marks)
(a) Identify the Critical Path and its duration
(b) Calculate the total network slack time.
Job
(Activity)
Network
Initial Node
Network
Final Node
Estimated Time(days)
A 1 2 2
B 1 3 3
C 1 4 3
D 2 5 3
E 2 9 3
F 3 5 1
G 3 6 2
H 3 7 3
I 4 7 5
J 4 8 3
K 5 6 3
L 6 9 4
M 7 9 4
N 8 9 3
O 9 10 2


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ACCOUNTING
Total Marks: 80
N.B. : 1) All questions are compulsory
Q1) ABC Ltd. Produces room coolers. The company is considering whether it should continue to
manufacture air circulating fans itself or purchase them from outside. Its annual requirement is
25000 units. An outsider vendor is prepared to supply fans for Rs 285 each. In addition, ABC Ltd
will have to incur costs of Rs 1.50 per unit for freight and Rs 10,000 per year for quality inspection,
storing etc of the product.
{25 Marks }
In the most recent year ABC Ltd. Produced 25000 fans at the following total cost :
Material Rs. 50,00,000
Labour Rs. 20,00,000
Supervision & other indirect labour Rs. 2,00,000
Power and Light Rs. 50,000
Depreciation Rs. 20,000
Factory Rent Rs. 5,000
Supplies Rs. 75,000
Power and light includes Rs 20,000 for general heating and lighting, which is an allocation based on
the light points. Indirect labour is attributed mainly to the manufacturing of fans. About 75% of it
can be dispensed with along with direct labour if manufacturing is discontinued. However, the
supervisor who receives annual salary of Rs 75,000 will have to be retained. The machines used for
manufacturing fans which have a book value of Rs 3,00,000 can be sold for Rs 1,25,000 and the
amount realized can be invested at 15% return. Factory rent is allocated on the basis of area, and the
company is not able to see an alternative use for the space which would be released. Should ABC
Ltd. Manufacture the fans or buy them?
AN ISO 9001 : 2000 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Page 1 Out of 1
Q2) Usha Company produces three consumer products : P, Q and R. The management of the
company wants to determine the most profitable mix. The cost accountant has supplied the following
data. {30 Marks }
Usha Company : Sales and Cost Data
Description Product Total
P Q R
Material Cost per unit
Quantity (Kg) 1.0 1.2 1.4
Rate per Kg (Rs) 50 50 50
Cost per unit (Rs) 50 60 70
Labour Cost per unit 30 90 90
Variable Overheads per unit 15 10 25
Fixed Overheads (Rs .000) 9,175
Current Sales (Units ,000) 100 50 60 210
Projected Sales (Units ,000) 109 55 125 289
Selling Price per unit (Rs) 150 200 270
Raw material used by the firm is in short supply and the firm can expect a maximum supply of 350
lakh kg for next year. Is the company’s projected sales mix most profitable or can it be changed for
the better?
Q3) DSQ Company Ltd, a diversified company, has three divisions, cement, fertilizers and
textiles. The summary of the company’s profit is given below : {25 Marks }
(Rs/Crore)
Cement Fertilizer Textiles Total
Sales 20.0 12.0 18.0 50.0
Less : Variable Cost 8.0 9.6 5.4 23.0
Contribution 12.0 2.4 12.6 27.0
Less : Fixed Cost (allocated to
divisions in proportion to
volumes of Sales)
8.0 4.8 7.2 20.0
Profit (Loss) 4.0 (2.4) 5.4 7.0
After allocating the company’s fixed overheads to products the Fertilizers, division incurs a loss of
Rs 2.4 crore. Should the company drop this division?

Corporate Finance
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Explain in detail about Corporate Firm
2. Write a note on Short term solvency & Long-Term Solvency Measures
3. Explain Definition & Example of a Bond & Explain How to Value Bonds
4. Write a note on Growth Opportunities & Give one suitable example
5. You purchase a bond with an invoice price of $1,140. The bond has a coupon rate of 7.2 percent, and there are five months to the next semiannual coupon date. What is the clean price of the bond?
6. Explain in Detail about Monte Carlo Simulation
7. Calculating Future Values Compute the future value of $1,000 compounded annually for
a) 10 years at 5 percent
b) 10 years at 7 percent
c) 20 years at 5 percent
d) Why is the interest earned in part(C) not twice the amount earned in part(A)
8. Explain in Detail about Different types of Efficiency

Corporate Law
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. What are the functions of controller.
2. Distinguish cheque and bill of exchange
3. Discuss power to impose lesser penalty
4. State the miscellaneous provisions as regards charges.
5. How to convert public company in to a private company.
6. How to employ a controller and other officers.
7. What are the liability of members
8. How to determine the value of assets

Cost & Management Accountancy
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Discuss the different methods of calculating depreciation.
2. Bring out the difference between FIFO and LIFO method.
3. What are the components of the Standard Costs ?
4. Differentiate between the Direct Labour Costs and Indirect Labour costs.
5. Explain the methods of preparing the Cash Flow Statements.
6. Discuss the various Accounting concepts & What are the various Accounting Principles ?
7. What do you mean by depreciation & Explain the requirement of depreciation.
8. Explain the causes of differences between the cash book and pass book.

Finance Institution
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks (10 Marks)
1. What is the implication for cross-border trades if it can be shown that interest rate parity is maintained consistently across different markets and different currencies ?
2. What forms of protection and regulation are imposed by regulators of CBs to ensure their safety and soundness ?
3. How has the composition of the assets of U.S. life insurance companies changed over time ?
4. Describe the difference between a defined benefit pension fund and a defined contribution pension fund.
5. Why is the length of time selected for repricing assets and liabilities important when using the repricing model ?
6. Contrast the use of financial futures options with the use of options on cash instruments to construct interest rate hedges.
7. What is a mortgage-backed bond ? Why do financial institutions issue MBBs ?
8. What is the difference between loan participations and loan assignments ?

Financial Accountancy
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks (10 Marks)
1. What are the foreign currency transaction and translation exposures ? Describe the accounting treatment for these exposures.
2. How is MODVAT credit availed shown in financial statements ?
3. Distinguish between funds flow and cash flow statement.
4. Study journalisation process of a manufacturing company. Show the process with the help of a flow diagram.
5. Discuss the salient features of Accounting Standard 6 (AS-6) on Depreciation Accounting.
6. Collect financial statements of ten companies in a fast moving consumer goods industry and critically analyse their depreciation policy.
7. What is deferred tax liability ? How is it different from current tax liability ?
8. Discuss the accounting treatment of government grants relating to depreciation fixed assets.

International Financial Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Explain the possible reasons for growth in international business
2. What risks confront dealers in the foreign Exchange Market? How can they cope with those Risks?
3. Why do companies go in for interest rate swaps? Give The advantages of Interest rate swaps.
4. What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of GDRs
5. What do you understand by the term,’ Inter-national Cash Management’ ? Briefly elucidate its objectives.
6. What are the advantages and Disadvantages of joint ventures
7. Differentiate between Transaction and economic exposure?
8. Discuss the market imperfections for derivatives that characterize the Indian Markets.

Investments
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks (10 Marks)
1. What is the relationship between securitization and the role of Financial Intermediaries in the economy? What happens to financial intermediaries as securitization progresses?
2. Balanced funds, life-cycle funds, and asset allocation funds all invest in both the stock and bond markets? What are the differences among these types of funds?
3. Using historical risk premiums over the 1980-2008 periods as your guide, what would be your estimate of the expected annual HPR on the sensex portfolio if the current risk-free interest rate is 6%?
4. If prices are as likely to increase as decrease, why do investors earn positive returns from the market on average?
5. The monthly rate of return on T-bill is 1%. The market went up this month by 1.5%. In addition, Amb Chases, Ins., which has an equity beta of 2, surprisingly just won a lawsuit that awards it Rs.1 million immediately.
a. If the original value of Amb Chaser equity were Rs. 100 million, what would you guess was the rate of return of its stock this month?
b. What is your answer to (a) if the market had expected Amb Chaser to win Rs. 2 million?
6. Why would you expect securitization to take place only in highly developed capital market?
7. Why do bond prices go down when interest rates go up? Don’t lenders like high interest rates?
8. Which of the following factors reflect pure market risk for a given corporation?
a. Increased short-term interest rates.
b. Fire in the corporate warehouse.

Take Over & Merger
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. What are some reasons why a merger can increase & decrease value?
2. Define target run-up. What are some possible reasons for run-up?
3. List four methods of valuation, and briefly set forth the advantages and Limitations of each
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of joint ventures?
5. What were the significant tax changes involving MLPs?
6. Explain the difference between flip-in and flip-over poison pills.
7. What are the three primary forms of corporate restructuring and divestitures?
8. Discuss the effect of the following variables on merger activity:
a) The growth rate of GDP
b) Interest rate risk premiums.


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Advertising
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Explain indirect role of advertising.
2. Write a short note on contribution of advertising.
3. Describe about media research & advertising decisions.
4. Explain about the Indian private sector & Public sector advertising.
5. Write about interdependence of institutional & product advertising.
6. Which four steps are involved in the task method?
7. Differences between industrial & consumer advertising.
8. Facility factors & Obstructive features of reinforcement of message.

Business Ethics
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Write short note on value education & consumerism
2. Give SWOT analysis in Indian scenario.
3. Explain need for a check on quackery.
4. Give measures to control pollution
5. Discuss unethical practices vis-à-vis cheating.
6. Give benefits of ISO 9000 quality systems & Give importance and use of ISO 9000 standard.
7. Discuss seven points of mahatma Gandhi & Discuss social justice according to gandhiji.
8. Give characteristic of quality leadership.

Consumer Behavior
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Define Perception in context to consumer behaviour? How does perception affect consumer behavior? Discuss three marketing situations where perception influences buying behaviour.
2. What is meant by consumer perception? Explain the factors which affect consumer perception?
3. What is the significance of relationship marketing in the present marketing environment?
4. Write a note on persuasive communication
5. Explain the characteristics of Organizational buyers? State the factors affecting the same? Please explain the individual consumer buying behavior?
6. Discuss McGuire’s comprehensive scheme of psychological motives.
7. Distinguish between rational and emotional buying motives with the help of examples?
8. Why is the scope of consumer behavior significantly increasing?

Finance Management
Page 1 Out of 1
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks
1. Briefly define the terms proprietorship, partnership, and
corporation.
2. Why do we add back non cash items to net profit while calculating
cash flow from operating activities
3. “To avoid the problem of shortage and surplus of funds, what is
required in Financial management? Name the concept and explain
four points of importance.
4. Explain the impact of interest rate on long term and short term
bonds?
5. What is Merger ? Is it harmful or beneficial? Explain n Justify
6. Suppose Govt. pay coupon on its bond quarterly; calculate the
intrinsic value of bond under following circumstances: 10 Year
bond with 10% coupon rate is selling at Rs. 1050 face value of
bond is Rs. 1000. Required rate of return is 12%.
7. What are Strike Price and Option Price?
8. Define the Diversifiable Risk and Market Risk and Causes of Risk.

Human Resource Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Explain Job Description and Job Specification.
2. Explain the modern methods of performance evaluation?
3. What are the factors affecting Job Design?
4. What do you understand by Career Development Program?
5. Explain the model of strategic HRM? What are the strategic challenges HRM facing?
6. What do you understand by employee benefits?
7. Write the various methods of training?
8. Explain the traditional methods of performance evaluation?

International Business
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. List out agencies/funds noticed by government of India for the purpose of deemed export benefits.
2. What is the problem of International Liquidity? In what manner this problem has been solved by IMF?
3. What are the different dimensions of economic environment? What are the steps taken by government to improve FDI?
4. What are the benefits to customer/ vendors derived from IT projects by BPCL?
5. What are duty payables of soft bonded IT unit (S-BIT)
6. Short note on free trade & warehousing zones (FTWZ)
7. Explain exports of goods services in foreign exchange management act-1999.
8. What do you understand by fundamental disequilibrium in the balance of
payments? What remedies do you suggest to correct it?

Marketing Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Give the Classification of Products and state Product Line Decisions?
2. What are various ways to classify the service market?
3. Define marketing channel. And explain various types of marketing channels?
4. What are problems and constraints in Rural Marketing?
5. What is market segmentation and Basis of Market Segmentation?
6. How marketing Research and Distribution Management is done in Rural Markets?
7. State the Market Segmentation process and criteria for effective market Segmentation?
8. What is Matrix Organization and what are advantages and disadvantages?

Operations Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. What is continuous improvement (CI)? What are the major tools for this philosophy?
2. What is the logic of Taguchi methods?
3. Describe briefly the steps to develop a forecasting system.
4. Regression and correlation are both termed “causal” methods of forecasting. Explain how they are similar in this respect and also how they are different.
5. Define the terms “Qualitative Methods”, “Trend Analysis Method (Time Series Method), and “Causal Forecast”. Describe the uses of them.
6. What do you see as the main problem with qualitative (judgmental) forecasts? Are they ever better than “objective” methods?
7. Describe total quality management (TQM).
8. Explain the process of collaborative planning? How is available to promise involved?

Principle & Practice of Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Explain disadvantages of functional organization.
2. Describe characteristics of an organization.
3. Factors affecting span of control.
4. Distinguish between delegation & decentralization.
5. How many types of critical standard in management control?
6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of democratic style?
7. Write short note on Staffing as function of management & Managerial skills
8. What is planning? & explain its element.


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INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT
MARKS :100
1. Write short note on : { 10 Mark }
a) Programmed instruction
b) Computer-assisted instruction
2.Explain the Ranking and Job grading methods of job evaluation. {10 Mark }
3.Define Accident. What you can do to prevent the causes of industrial
accidents?{10 Mark }
4.Define job enrichment. Discuss core dimensions of job enrichment. {10 Mark }
5.Explain price elasticity of demand and determinants of price elasticity of
demand. { 10 Mark }
6. What is Delhi Method? What are the uses of this method in demand forecasting?
{10 Mark }
7. What is law of diminishing marginal utility? { 10 Mark }
8.Discuss different types of Monopoly. How pricing and output decisions are taken
in the monopoly market in the short run? { 10 Mark }
9. Define break even analysis and outline its uses and applications. { 10 Mark }
10. What are the different methods of measuring national income? Which of these
are followed in India? { 10 Mark }
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL

ADVERTISING MANAGEMENT
2 | P a g e
Case No : 1
VENKY’S OF VENKATESHWARA HATCHERIES
Venkateshwara Hatcheries which went public recently is one of the most modern plants in poultry business
in Asia. They have 60 p.c. market share of chicken marketed in the country. Dr. B.V. Rao of Venkateshwara
Hatcheries expired in 1996. His daughter Anuradha Desai is now the Chairperson and M.D. of VHL. In the
beginning they had an Executive Director Gulam Harjanwalla who professionalized chicken marketing.
Sajid Peerbhoy’s Speer ad agency was chosen. The brief given to Speer was “to market raw chicken in the
form of a full bird. Further, to market legs. To market legs and breast. To market curried pieces. And halfbird.”
The company also planned to market ready-to-fly pre-spiced chicken and to operate a chain of fast-food
outlets serving chicken fast food on the lines of McDonald’s.
Speer did some marketing research by focus group studies in Mumbai and then in Pune. The qualitative
reseaci1 (QR) findings were followed by quantitative research.
The following summarises the findings.
Occasions to use chicken:
(a) On special occasions
(b) On Sundays
(c) As a special treat
(d) Cook it for guests
(e) First non-veg food to which vegetay1ans graduated.
(f) Each mother cherishes her own special recipe for a chicken dish. She prides herself on it.
The ideal chicken was: Freshly chicken.
The convenient option was: Frozen chicken.
The following are the demerits of the frozen chicken:
(a) It does not taste good.
(b) It does not cook fast.
(c) It requires a lot of water to cook.
The Inconveniences in getting fresh chicken were:
(a) It is more and more difficult to get it near-by.
(b) The search consumes time.
(c) It involves transportation cost.
3 | P a g e
On deep probing, the consumer psychology while buying fresh chicken was one of guilt and disgust. The
birds look so cute, as they are young. Just a minute ago, they were alive. It is so awful. Those poor
creatures! Imagine them alive one minute, and then being eaten the next. It is so difficult to get used to this
process.
Advertising Strategy
It is not necessary to remind about live chicken. It is not necessary to see and think about raw chicken,
dressed or otherwise. The communication strategy should be to treat chicken as a vegetable. They are not to
be shown alive or in their ugly raw dressed form. The client was led step-by-step and was supportive.
Long-run Objective
Though chicken has high standing as a special food, we have to make it an almost twice or thrice a week
food item.
Positioning
It was necessary to overcome the negative barrier to frozen food. In the market, fresh chicken was in fact
frozen chicken vulnerable to bacterial contamination. The answer was a fact frozen chicken product.
Venky’s chickens were chilled by a special process: blast freezing. The position taken was that of
technological superiority. Venky’s unique freezing process makes it taste better and cook faster and melt
quickly.
Differentiation
It was a special breed of chicken, that was extra delicious to eat. It scores over ordinary frozen chicken and
even the freshly killed chicken. Brand Name
In spite of the Agency’s reservations, the Venky’s was chosen as brand name, since it was the name of the
M.D.’s son. The Agency had considered fifty other optional brand names. Marketing research showed
Venky’s connoted a South Indian image and was associated with vegetarian food. There were also
connections with Lord Venkateshwara.
Headlines
These worked hard to ward off negatives:
‘Chicken so fresh, it simply melts in your mouth. Reason: Superior blast freezing process.”
“Chicken so fresh, it’s only minutes old.”
4 | P a g e
Promotion of Special Parts
The special parts were promoted as:
“The part you want are the parts you get.”
Execution
A simple mnemonic was used. Chicken was shown in a graphic from; one that did not turn off the house
wife, and yet looked modern.
The colour scheme used was of yellow and red colours, being happy and bright food colours. These colours
are appetising too.
For quick identification, a common symbol was used on all hoardings. ad material and at POP.
Success of the Launch
The launch created tremendous demand but the distribution was weak. There was the problem of spurious
brands.
The company strengthened the distribution network later. However consumer supplies were diverted to
institutional buyers leading to non-availability and spurious brands passing off as Venky’s.
The Agency advised premium pricing and quality policy. Instead, the company lowered the price. So many
persons dealt with the Agency. Each questioned and disagreed with the thinking of earlier persons. Gulam,
their E.D. left Venky’s. The number of out left were increased dramatically.
New Ad Agency
New agency was selected. It brought chicken again to a commodity position A good chicken that makes
tasty chicken dishes). Emphasis on blast freezing was dropped. Emphasis on blast freezing was dropped.
Raw chicken again appeared in the ads, contrary to research findings. Brand or product differentiation
strategy was dropped. Instead, emphasis was on different recipes.
Present Thinking
Venky’s is moving closer and closer to a commodity than a brand. It is fine as long as there is no
competition. The company perhaps believes that no one has the backing or volume of production to be a
threat to them. It is satisfied with a marginal price premium. Being a chicken monopoly, it can afford not to
have a marketing cutting edge. The following is their present ad copy:
5 | P a g e
Questions (A)
(a) Comment on the advertising strategy adopted previously and currently.
(b) Comment on branding of food products, and their promotion.
(c) Can you think of a different creative strategy for a product like chicken?
Lip-sticks with permitted colours can also damage the lips since the stainers are tetra-bromo-fluorosine.
When rubbed against the palm, darkness of the stain will indicate the quantity of stainer present.
Darkening of lip colour also depends upon the bio-chemistry of individual’s lips.
Questions (B)
(a) The complete product knowledge is given in the above write-up. What do you think should be the copy
platform for these products? Indicate the theme, the appeal and the buying motives.
(b) Indicate a suitable media mix for advertising these products. Give your reasoning.
Case No : 2
ALEMBIC CHEMICAL WORKS LTD.
DIRECT MAILINGS OF ALCEPHIN: THE LEGEND
AMONG ANTIBIOTICS
The pharmaceutical companies have to do direct marketing by necessity as they cannot advertise ethical
products in layman’s media for him, but are required to promote only to the medical profession. They
produce fine visual aids and product literature which could either be sent as direct mailings to the medical
profession or can be delivered to them through medical representatives.
The Living Legends
What does one say about Lata Mangeshkar? That she has dominated the Indian film music scene for almost
four decades and promises to do so for atleast another decade? That she became a legend in her own life
time? That here is a musical genius which comes about just once in many centuries? One could say all
these things and yet be merely repeating what has been said a million times over. And yet there is so much
more to one is capturing one more vital as poet which one did not realize had existed in her. Such is the
quality of her singing.
6 | P a g e
Very few of those who see her at the pinnacle of her success realise the amount of effort, hard work end
deprivation that have gone into building the facade which is so enviable. Born In Induce on September 28,
1929. Late Mangeshkar is the eldest in family of four sister, and a brother, all of whom have made a name in
the field of music. Daughter of the noted Marathi stage actor-singer Master Dinnanath Mangeshkar, Lata
revealed her musical genius at the tender age of five. Her first guru wee her own father and she avidly
followed his musical stage plays.
Late’s mother Mai Mangeshkar ha, one vivid memory of Lata as a child. It would seen that the young Late,
one day, was singing a song from one of her father’s. plays when she bumped against something. All rushed
toward the unconscious child and tried to revive her. When she came to, however, Lata continued with the
singing of the song as if nothing had happened. This dedication to music led to her debut on stage.
However, her father’s productive shadow was not to last for long. On April 24, 1942 Master Dinanath
passed away reportedly telling her “Except for the tanpura in the corner and these notebooks filled with
classical music and songs and God’s blessings. I have nothing elseto give you. “The family’spenury
compelled Lata to sign a contract with MasterVinayak’s Huna Pictures as an actress-singer. In the same
year,1942, she made her debut as a playback singer with Vasant Joglekar’s Kia Hasool in Marathi under the
baton of shripad Nevrekar .But taking up a career as a playback singer was still impossible. She continued
with her acting career, acting in Pahili Mangeshgar (Marathi 42) Chimna Sansar (Marathi43) More Bal
(Marathi 43) Gajadhan (Marathi 44) Badi Mao (Hindi 45) and Mandir (Hindi 48) With Mandir Lata seemed
to have reached a dead end. Mandir was Master Vinayak’s last film, after which he passed away. She was
no great shakes as an actress and her career in playback singing had not really taken off. Two Years earlier
she had made her debut in Hindi playback singing with Vasant Joglekar’s Aap Ki Sewa Afein under the
baton of composor Dutta Dawjekar but nothing much had happened. However, stars served more
benevolent. Ghulam Haider, who was then acoring the music for Majboor and who had seen and heard lata
in the early. Forties, signed her up to sing a song for the film. Within a week of singing this song. Lata
became the talk of the music world and was signed up by three other musical giants. Khemchand Prakash
for Mahal.
The most important thing is to make the mundane promotion outstanding by creative ideas. Promotion of
S.S. Oberoi came out with a set of 10 four-page folders for Alcephin based on the theme ‘The Living
Legends.’ The folders are extremely well-executed – well-designed and printed. The graphics and
typography and illustrations are appealing. The idea is outstanding. Ten living legends are chosen and
include names like Satyajit Ray (since then deceased), Mother Teresa, Baba Ainte, Lata Mangeshkar, Sunil
Gavaskar, R.K. Laxman, Abdul Kalain and Shivram Karanth. Each folder deals exclusively with one
legend. The selection covers a wide cross-section of interests.
Each folder is well-researched. It brings out the circumstances that inspired the magic in each of them. It
becomes a collector’s series. The centre-spread has the manufacturer’s plug. A short write-up on the
7 | P a g e
characteristics of Alcephin and the line ‘The Legend Among Antibiotics.’ It is not intrusive at all. Yet it is
effective.
Questions
(a) Which other businesses/products can be suitable candidates for direct marketing? What promotional
techniques can be employed?
(b) Please do some research of your own on direct mailings of pharmaceutical companies. What are your
reactions?
(c) Put on your thinking cap. Identify a there for a campaign of one general tonic.
CASE : 3 : IS SUPER BOWL ADVERTISING SUPER EFFECTIVE ?
About 140 million Americans and 700 million total global viewers tune in to Super Bowl Sunday, making
the event one of the largest occasions for home entertainment. Advertising time during the Super Bowl is
limited and priced at a premium. The fight for the prime spots starts months in advance of the actual
airtime. In 1993, the cost for a 30 – second time slot was a high $850,000, but by 1997 the cost had shot to
$1.2 million for the same short time frame. In 1998, a 30-second spot during the Super Bowl cost $1.3
million. In 2000, a 30-second spot during the Super bowl cost companies a record average of $2.2 million.
Dot.com companies that have since failed or are struggling to keep their heads above water purchased forty
percent of the Super Bowl ad slots in 2000. For the 2001 Super Bowl XXXVI, the average rate for an
advertising spot was approximately 2.1 million.
In 2002, during Super Bowl XXXVI, Fox Network offered 60 commercial spots for a total of 30
minutes of advertising time. The average selling price for each 30-second spot was just under $2 million, at
$ 1.9 million each. Companies who paid for commercial time during Super Bowl XXXVI included
Anheuser- Busch, who purchased ten 30 – second spots, Pepsi Co, who featured one 90-second commercial
starring Britney Spears, E-trade, M & M/Mars, AT & T Wireless, Levi Strauss, Yahoo, Visa and fast food
chains Quizno’s Taco Bell, and Subway are among others.
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Although Fox did end up selling all of the available ad spots, the network did not sell the final ad
until the Thursday before the game. There are several reasons for the selling delay and for the reduced rates
in 2002. First, marketers were facing the “worst advertising recession in recent memory.” This caused
companies to carefully monitor how they spent their advertising budgets and many decided that the money
could be better applied elsewhere. Many companies chose to advertise during other prime time events that
were more affordable. The average rate for a 30-second spot during the early evening news in 2002 was
$45,900. Even events such as the Golden Globes (estimated price $45,000 per 30-second spot), the
Grammies (estimated price $57,000 per 30-second spot), and the Academy Awards (estimated price $1.6
million per 30-second spot) offer companies ad time at lower rates. However, these events do not draw as
many viewers as the Super Bowl. Secondly, the NFL, for the first time, sponsored a pre-game show on the
Friday night before the Super Bowl. Some companies, such as AOL Time Warner, Phillip Morris, Miller
Brewing Co., and Motorola chose to avoid paying “television’s highest commercial prices” and bought ad
time for lower rates during the pre-game show. A final reason for lower rates and less marketer interest in
Super Bowl ad time was competition from the 2002 Olympic Winter Games. The games began just five
days after the Super Bowl and offered 17 days of events during which advertisers could buy commercial
time. The average selling rate for a 30-second prime time spot during the Olympics was only $600,000, a
bargain compared to the Super Bowl.
Is Super Bowl advertising worth the cost? For many advertisers who bought time slots in previous
games the answer was a resounding no. Nissan, Porsche, Fila and MCI passed on the chance to advertise
during the game. According to marketing consultant Jack Trout, the increasing rates made buying Super
Bowl ad time difficult to justify. Nissan marketing Chief Brad Bradshaw stated that although the company
had intended to advertise during the game, it came to the conclusion that the resources could be better used
to sell its vehicles in other ways.
In addition to the cost factor, many question what effect advertising actually has on the audience.
The purpose of an advertisement is to increase customer awareness for a particular brand. For Super Bowl
ads, however, the brand name often becomes secondary to the commercial itself in terms of viewer
attention. Super Bowl ads have become events in and of themselves, with each firm trying to put out the
next earth-shattering commercial that will stir talk about the commercial itself. Ever since Apple
computer’s classic “1984” ad, firms have been trying to top previous years’ ads. Ad agencies and clients
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often seem to shoot for ads that are extraordinary for the sake or creativity, rather than their intended
purpose, with many attention-getting promotions not translating into product purchases. It is questionable
whether brand name is retained, and so despite having an incredible commercial, many advertisers’ ad
dollars possibly goes into just providing new fodder for water cooler conversation for the week instead of
forming a lasting brand image in the minds of consumers. Without new research into the effectiveness of
Super Bowl advertising and its effect on consumers, many advertisers may be better off avoiding buying
Super Bowl ad time and abandoning the world’s biggest television audience.
Some advertisers like Purina Cat Chow have taken a slightly different approach by purchasing
airtime on the show directly following the Super Bowl. They obtained airtime at one-sixth of the cost
during the game and they believe that they retain approximately 40 percent of the audience. Which
advertiser got the biggest bang for the bucks: M & M/Mars that advertised during Super Bowl 2002, or
Purina Cat Chow that advertised after the game? Without systematic marketing research aimed at
measuring Super Bowl advertising effectiveness, questions such as these beg answers. It remains to be
established that Super Bowl advertising is super effective?
Questions:
1. What kind of research design would you recommend for determining the effectiveness of M &
M/Mars advertising during the Super Bowl?
2. If the research design involves a survey of households, which survey method would you
recommend and why?
3. What kind of measures and scales will you employ in your survey?
4. Can the observation method be used to determine the effectiveness of M & M/Mars advertising
during the Super Bowl? If so, which observation method would you recommend and why?
5. Which syndicated services discussed in the book can provide useful information ?
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CASE NO : 4 : NIKE SPRINTS AHEAD OF THE COMPETITION,
YET HAS A LONG WAY TO RUN
Nike, Inc.(www.nike.com), located in Beaverton, Oregon, is the number one U.S. athletic footwear
company and one of the most recognized American brands among foreign consumers. This high degree of
recognition is one of the main reasons Nike has been so successful. For the 2001 fiscal year ended May 31,
2001, the company continued to soar, with sales of over $9.5 billion.
Perhaps such success could be attributed to its concept – based advertising campaigns. The company
uses a process that is often called “image transfer”. Nike ads traditionally did not specifically place a
product – or mention the brand name. A mood or atmosphere was created and then the brand is associated
with that mood. “We don’t set out to make ads. The ultimate goal is to make a connection,” states Dan
Weiden, executive of one of Nike’s ad agencies. One ad featured the Beatles and clips of Nike athletes,
Michael Jordan and John McEnroe, juxtaposed with pictures of regular folks also engaged in sports. It was
used to infer that real athletes prefer Nike and that perhaps if the general audience buys the brand they will
play better too. Nike’s unpredictable image-based ads have ranged from shocking, such as its portrayal of
real blood and guts in a “Search and Destroy” campaign usesd during the 1996 Olympic games, to
humorous, such as the first ad used to launch Michael Jordan’s Jordan brand wear. The latter advertising
made the tongue – in – cheek suggestion that Jordan himself had a hand in production by slipping away
from a Bulls’ game at half time to run over to his company and then return in time for the game’s second
half.
In 1998, Nike shifted to a new phase in its marketing strategy. Nike emphasized more of its product
innovation skills than the jockey, edgy attitude that it displayed in previous years. “We recognize that our
ads need to tell consumers that we’re about product innovation and not just athletes and exposure. We need
to prove to consumers that we’re not just slapping a swoosh (the company trademark) on stuff to make a
buck,” said Chris Zimmerman, director of Nike’s U.S. advertising. With the launch of the “I can”
campaign, Nike showed less of the celebrity athletes that previously adorned its marketing output and
showed more product usage than in the previous “Just Do It” campaign. Competitors Reebok and Adidas
recently featured more product-focused ads and were met with a great deal of success. Despite this
rearranged focus, Nike did not back away from innovative marketing.
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Nike continues to excel in the advertising arena. Nike was named one of 2001’s best in advertising
by Time magazine for its ad featuring expert dribblers doing trick moves. Time is quoted as saying the ad
conveyed a message that “Sport is music. Sport is dance. Sport is art.” Nike states that this ad was their
most popular ad in 20 years. Another popular ad from 2001 was known as the “Take Me Out to the
Ballgame” ad. This particular ad featured professional athletes from varying sports singing one line of the
song. “Take Me Out to the Ballgame” in their native language.
As the company looks ahead to 2010, at the heart of Nike’s future strategy is the international arena,
which could prove to be the most difficult element for Nike to undertake. There seemed to be a pretty
strong recognition that by 2010, Nike would be larger outside of the U.S. than inside. As of 2003,
international sales comprised one-third of Nike’s business. Nike would like to expand into the soccer and
international sports arena, but to do so, it would have to refocus its marketing and distribution in order to reestablish
itself as an authentic, technically superior sports shoe.
In February 2001, Nike unveiled its latest technological revolution, the Nike Shox, to United
Kingdom consumers. This shoe was in development for 16 years, and Nike hoped it would revolutionize
the sports shoe market in much the same way that NikeAir did when it was launched in the UK in the 1980s.
One reporter in London states that his pair of Nike Shox makes him feel like he is “walking on cloud nine
with a spring in (his) step.” The shoes are reported to provide support, comfort, shock absorbency, and style
all at the same time. The Nike Shox line of athletic shoes is shaping up to be very popular in both the U.S.
and the U.K.
Most recently, Nike bought out many of its worldwide distribution centers in order to achieve greater
control of its operations. In the future, Nike would like to build up its presence in the key markets of China,
Germany, Mexico, and Japan. Nike will focus its advertising on sports, and will feature sports that are of a
particular interest in specific regions. Nike realizes that while it is ahead of competition, it still has a long,
long way to run.
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Questions:
1. Should Nike switch from a focus on celebrities to a focus on its products in its advertising?
Discuss the role of marketing research in helping Nike management make this decision. What
kind of research should be undertaken /
2. How would you describe the buying behavior of consumers with respect to athletic footwear?
3. What is the management decision problem facing Nike as it attempts to retain its leadership
position?
4. Define the marketing research problem facing Nike, given the management decision problem
you have identified.
5. Develop two suitable research questions and formulate two hypotheses for each.
6. How can the Internet be used to help Nike in conducting marketing research, and in marketing
its products?

BUSINESS ETHICS
Page 2 of 3
CASE -1 (20 Marks)
Joan, an employee of Great American Market, was warned about her excessive absenteeism several
times, both verbally and in writing. The written warning included notice that “further violations will
result in disciplinary actions,” including suspension or discharge.
A short time after the written warning was issued, Joan called work to say she was not going to be in
because her babysitter had called in sick and she had to stay home and care for her young child. Joan’s
supervisor, Sylvia, told her that she had already exceeded the allowed number of absences and warned
that if she did not report to work, she could be suspended. When Joan did not report for her shift,
Sylvia suspended her for fifteen days.
In a subsequent hearing, Joan argued that it was not her fault that the babysitter had canceled, and
protested that she had no other choice but to stay home. Sylvia pointed out that Joan had not made a
good faith effort to find an alternate babysitter, nor had she tried to swap shifts with a co-worker.
Furthermore, Sylvia said that the lack of a babysitter was not a justifiable excuse for being absent.
Questions:
1. Was the suspension fair?
2. Did Joan act responsibly?
3. Should she be fired?
CASE-2 (20 Marks)
You own a cement company, and deal with most the local contractors for cement, sand, etc. You have
a reputation of high quality products, and for good customer service with your customers. Your
foreman has just run the standard quality control tests you have performed regularly on your products.
When the test results are ready, you discover that the new batch of product is 9% less durable than
your usual material. It is still well above all industry standards and meets all building codes and
requirements for the purposes for which it is intended, but it is, nevertheless, not up to your usual
standards. Throwing it away would cost your company many thousands of dollars.
You decide to sell the cement anyway.
Questions:
1) Should you tell your customers?
2) Should you discount the price?
3) Should you tell your employees, so they will be knowledgeable with the customers?
4) Would you use this cement on foundations for your own house?
Page 2 of 3
CASE-3 (20 Marks)
Fred, a 17-year employee with Sam’s Sauna, was fired for poor job performance and poor attendance,
after accruing five disciplinary penalties within a 12-month period under the company’s progressive
disciplinary policy. A week later, Fred told his former supervisor that he had a substance abuse
problem.
Although there was no employee assistance program in place and the company had not been aware of
Fred’s condition, their personnel director assisted Fred in obtaining treatment by allowing him to
continue receiving insurance benefits and approved his unemployment insurance claim.
Fred subsequently requested reinstatement, maintaining that he had been rehabilitated since his
discharge and was fully capable of being a productive employee. He pointed to a letter written by his
treatment counselor, which said that his prognosis for leading a “clean, sober lifestyle” was a big
incentive for him. Fred pleaded for another chance, arguing that his past problems resulted from drug
addiction and that Sam’s Saunas should have recognized and provided treatment for the problem.
Sam’s Saunas countered that Fred should have notified his supervisor of his drug problem, and that
everything possible had been done to help him receive treatment. Moreover, the company stressed that
the employee had been fired for poor performance and absenteeism. Use of the progressive discipline
policy had been necessary because the employee had committed a string of offenses over the course of
a year, including careless workmanship, distracting others, wasting time, and disregarding safety rules.
Questions:
1) Should Fred be reinstated?
2) Was the company fair to Fred in helping him receive treatment?
3) Did the personnel director behave ethically toward Fred?
4) Did he act ethically for his company?
5) Would it be fair to other employees to reinstate Fred?
CASE-4 (20 Marks)
In January of last year, the S.S. Vulgass, an oil tanker of the Big Dirty Oil Company ran around in the
area just north of Vancouver, spilling millions of gallons of crude into the waters and onto the beaches
of British Columbia and southern Alaska. The damage to the beaches and wildlife and consequently to
the tourist industry, the ecology and the quality of life of the local residents is incalculable, but in any
case will require many millions of dollars for even the most minimal clean-up.
The ship struck a small atoll, well-marked on the navigational maps, but it was a dark night and the
boat was well off course. On further investigation, it was discovered that the Captain of the Vulgass,
Mr. Slosh, had been drinking heavily. Leaving the navigation of the ship to his first mate, Mr. Mudd,
he retired to his cabin, to “sleep it off.” Mr. Mudd had never taken charge of the ship before, and it is
now clear that he misread the maps, misjudged the waters, maintained a speed that was inappropriate
and the accident occurred. Subsequent inquiries showed that Captain Slosh had been arrested on two
drunk driving convictions within months of the accident. The Vulgass itself, a double-hulled tanker,
was long due for renovation and, it was suggested, would not have cracked up if the hull had been
trebly reinforced, as some current tankers were.
Page 2 of 3
R. U. Rich, the Chief Executive Officer of Big Dirty Oil declared the accident a “tragedy” and offered
two million dollars to aid in the clean up. The Premier of British Columbia was outraged.
Environmental groups began a consumer campaign against Big Dirty Oil, urging customers to cut up
and send in their Big Dirty Oil credit cards in protest. In a meeting to the shareholders just last month,
CEO Rich proudly announced the largest quarterly profit in the history of the Big Dirty Oil Company.
He dismissed the protests as “the outpourings of Greenies and other fanatics” and assured the
shareholders that his obligation was, and would always be, to assure the highest profits possible in the
turmoil of today’s market.
Questions:
1) The question is, who is responsible?
2) Against whom should criminal charges be leveled?
3) What should be done, if anything, to punish the corporation itself?
4) What about the CEO?

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
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CASE 1 (20 Marks)
Sports marketing strategy: A consumer behavior case analysis in China. Marketing research that
targets consumers’ influences and financial implications is a worthwhile sports marketing effort. To
implement effective marketing strategies in a specific country, it is pertinent to understand consumer
behavior in that country. In this paper, 11 major findings related to the unique behavior, attitudes, and
buying patterns of Chinese sports consumers are highlighted. From the results of questionnaires
administered to 2,155 mainland Chinese consumers in 10 selected cities, different economic, social,
and personal factors in the China’s environment are determined. The marketing implications of the
Chinese culture and lifestyle are also discussed.
With a quarter of the world’s population and a fast-growing economy, China is rapidly turning into
one of the busiest market centers in the world. Sports marketing has the potential to emerge not only
as an effective vehicle in imitating the development of the Chinese economy, it also affects the
Chinese culture and lifestyle.
Since sports marketing in China has not been analyzed or researched, it is appropriate to study the
consumer as well as general financial implications. A look at American success in sports marketing
will be helpful. However, implementing such strategies in China creates special considerations
because of the existence of cultural and economic differences between the two countries. This study
attempts to identify the proper marketing strategies in China through an analysis of Chinese
consumers’ behavior, attitudes, and buying patterns.
METHODOLOGY
The methodology used in this study consisted of exploratory research of interviewing managers of
retail outlets, secondary research of literature review, and primary research of a total of 4,000
questionnaires distributed in 10 selected cities (Beijing, Chendu, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Qindao,
Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Xian, and Xiamen) in China. Questionnaires were administered to a
judgmental quota sample and assigned to one of four age groups with equal males and females. The
rate of response was 53.9%; 2,155 questionnaires were returned.
The analysis of the data include editing, coding, analyzing coded observations, and interpreting
results for solutions to the research problems. Tabulations and measures of central tendency were
used to describe the distribution of characteristics in the subject population. Crosstabulation and chi
square statistics were also used to show relationships between consumer segments.
SURVEY FINDINGS
Eleven major factors affecting consumer purchasing emerged from the questionnaire data analysis: 1.
purchasing reasons; 2. purchasing experience evaluation; 3. income level relative to the expense
level; 4. type of sporting goods purchased; 5. product factors affecting purchasing; 6. people
influencing consumer purchasing; 7. sources of information about where and how to purchase;8.
influence of advertisements; 9. brands consumers prefer; 10. where goods purchased; and 11. time
spent in sports.
Purchasing Reasons: The major reason why people purchased sports products was “for exercise.”
Purchasing Experience Evaluation: Approximately half of the respondents indicated that their
purchasing experience was “positive.”
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Income Level Relative to the Expenses Level: The Chinese consumers’ income levels range from less
than $173 U.S. per year to over $863 U.S. a year. The middle income level accounted for 72% of the
respondents.
However, most respondents indicated they spent “less than $40 U.S. per year” on the purchase of
sporting goods.
Type of Sporting Goods Purchased: “Shoes” were the No. 1 favorite type of sporting goods for
Chinese consumers. Females tended to purchase apparel; males were more likely to purchase all type
of sporting goods.
Product Factors Affecting Purchasing: “Quality,” “style,” and “price” were the three most important
factors influencing purchasing decisions. People Influencing Consumer.
Purchasing: “Boy-and-girlfriend” had the most important influence in the decision process. “Parents”
had the least important influence.
Sources of Information About Where and How to Purchase: The major information channel for
Chinese consumers was their “going to a shopping mall” experience.
Influence of Advertisements: Of those responding to the survey, more than half said they either
“occasionally” or “rarely” believe advertisements.
Brands Consumers Prefer: Adidas, Asics, Nike, and Reebok were identified by the Chinese
consumers.
Where Goods Purchased: Most of those surveyed purchased their sporting goods from either “a
sporting goods store” or “a department store.”
Time Spent in Sports Activities: Almost 90% of the Chinese consumers spent “less than 5 hours a
week” participating in sports activities. However, three meaningful findings emerged: 1) those who
participated “less than 5 hours per week” in sports activities spent more money purchasing sports
products than those who participated “over 5 hours” per week in sports activities; 2) those in the
income level of “$402 to $863 U.S.” spent more time participating in sports activities; 3) young
adults and “unmarried” persons spent more time per week participating in activities than those who
were “married” or elderly.
DISCUSSION ON CONSUMER INFLUENCES
The following discussion focuses on economic, social, and personal influences. These three
categories have unique Chinese environmental and cultural meanings and thus need to be considered
when engaging in marketing in China.
Economic Factors: Unlike the past, when most income was spent on basic necessities such as food
and clothing, the current Chinese consumer spends more money on entertainment and durable goods.
However, the general tendency of the Chinese consumer to have stronger purchasing power and the
fact that their buying decisions reflect creative purchasing beyond bare necessities are not reflected in
sports marketing. It could be concluded that not all Chinese consumers are willing to spend a certain
percent of their income on sports products. This phenomenon can be explained either by consumers’
lack of sufficient income or too high a price for sports products. On the other hand, however, a great
potential exits for marketers who appeal to the Chinese consumers with creative strategies. Those
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who know desires and needs in specific areas, while being sensitive to economic restraints, may
capture a slumbering Chinese market.
Social and Culture Factors: With the implementation of an “open-door policy” in China, the lifestyle
of the Chinese people changes constantly. Several social and cultural trends may stimulate marketers
to be optimistic about Chinese consumers.
 The most important trend is growing fitness consciousness. No matter the gender, age,
occupation, and education of those surveyed, all tend to tie their purchase of sports products
with exercise and entertainment.
 A second trend the survey revealed is a movement toward use of sports products for casual
reasons. Chinese consumers are embracing a more casual and health-conscious lifestyle.
 There is a growing consumer preference for international products. The Chinese people,
especially the younger generation, are very fond of wearing and using brand name sporting
goods from around the world. Owning high grade sporting goods seems to be a symbol of
wealth and a new fashion for those young consumers.
The social and culture trends just discussed will lead to different pricing, promotional, and
distributional strategies. Since marketing principles are applicable throughout the international arena,
what has proved successful in the American market could basically be transferred and applied to the
China market.
However, to implement a successful marketing strategy in China, several environmental differences
must be taken into account:
1) “Shopping on Sundays” is a hobby for Chinese consumers. Marketers should create an
attractive shopping environment in a prestigious shopping center.
2) Chinese consumers believe what they see rather than what they hear. They know that some
imitation products exist in the market, and dishonesty in advertising is publicized. Marketers
should increase their image by eliminating imitation products and dishonesty advertising.
3) Although consumers’ attitudes toward the international sports products are positive, devotion
or loyalty to brands is subject to rapid change. Marketers should have a strategy to keep
consumers’ loyalty.
4) Non athletes have greater purchasing power than most athletes or sportspersons. Nonathletes
buy sporting goods either to impress others or simply because their friends have those items.
Marketers should consider how to design sports product with attractive sports features.
5) The type of sporting goods desired by the older and younger generations is widely dissimilar.
And a large gap exists between the desire to purchase and the ability to purchase sporting
goods. It causes problems of bringing the right products to the right person and establishing
an appropriate price policy.
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6) The purchasing decision of Chinese consumers is heavily influenced by social values and the
social environment. Marketers should establish an educational program to either match or
lead a social value.
Personal Factors: Because of recent social changes, Chinese consumers have learned much from
other cultures. They are more independent and more knowledgeable about commerce and business.
There are at least three particular changes which may create opportunities for marketers:
1) The nuclear family has become the baic economic unit, and it has more power to make
purchasing decisions. With the implementation of the “one child per family” policy in China,
the nuclear family, consisting of parents with one child, has replaced the traditional clan
family which consisted of two or more generations living as one family.
2) Chinese wives are viewed as decision makers for goods purchased in families. Since wives
control family finances, it is important to target wives.
3) Individuals who live in the urban locations have stronger purchasing power. The Chinese
government predicts that by the end of 1995, people in large urban areas will increase to
30% of the population. This modernization movement will undoubtedly create business
opportunities.
Questions
Discuss the various factor which influences consumer behavior in china?
What should be the target market and what can be the marketing strategy?
CASE – 2 (20 Marks)
Consumer behavior: yesterday, today, and tomorrow
THE ECONOMIC PARADIGM
The 1940s view of the consumer in the marketplace was rooted in economic theory. Most scholars of
economics probably still hold to the theory of Economic Man. In this paradigm, purchasing decisions
are the result of largely “rational” and conscious economic calculations. The individual buyer seeks to
spend his income on those goods that will deliver the most utility (satisfaction) according to his tastes
and relative prices. This is a normative rather than a descriptive model of behavior, because logical
norms are provided for buyers who want to be “rational.”
The model suggests useful behavioral hypotheses, such as: (a) the lower the price of the product, the
higher the sales; (b) the lower the price of substitute products, the lower their sales; (c) the lower the
price of complementary products, the higher their sales, provided they are not “inferior” goods; and
(d) the higher the promotional expenditures the higher the sales. In striving to meet these hypotheses,
consumers are not only assumed to be aware of all available alternatives in the marketplace; they are
also assumed to be able to rationally rank order the available alternatives by preferences. This is the
case of perfect information in the marketplace and unlimited ability of tile consumer.
In applying these assumptions to actual consumption, several problems became apparent. First of all,
consumers do not have perfect information in the marketplace. Second, they do not all have the same
information about the existing alternatives or attributes of known alternatives. instead, each consumer
has fragmented knowledge of his or her own set of known alternatives; as a result, consumers can not
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always rank a set of alternatives available to them. In addition, preferences often violate utility
theory, because different people prefer different styles, have different tastes, and hence make choices
built on preferences rather than objective information such as price.
Problems arise with applying economic theories to gifts. Increasing the price of goods may actually
make them more desirable, defying basic economic theory. Hence, inverted demand curves reflect
products where increasing prices stimulate increasing sales. Perfume is a perfect example of this type
of good. Most perfume or cologne is bought as a gift, and the connotations of bringing home a $2
bottle of cologne or a $50 bottle for a loved one are implicit. A relationship may not last upon receipt
of the cheaper good. Hence the economic model ignores the fundamental question of how product
and brand preferences are formed.
THE IRRATIONAL CONSUMER
After becoming aware that goods have “hidden meaning,” scholars of consumer behavior in the
1950s took to the notion of the consumer as an irrational, impulsive decision maker. Consumers were
seen as passive, open, and vulnerable to external influences. This position was an obvious reaction to
the “economic man” and also represented a time when business schools were developing. Earlier,
faculty trained in economics were the first to be hired, but in the 1950s psychologists were added to
the payroll. Their insights from Freud to Maslow, from personality to motivation theory, seemed ever
so relevant to our study of the consumer.
The two major psychological theories underlying this era were the Pavlovian learning model and the
Freudian psychoanalytic model. The Pavlovian model is based on four central concepts-those of
drive, cue, response, and reinforcement. Drive or motives can be primary, such as hunger and sex, or
secondary, such as fear. A drive is very general and impels a particular response only in relation to a
particular configuration of cues. The Pavlovian model emphasizes the desirability of repetition in
advertising. Repetition fights the tendency for learned responses to weaken in the absence of practice
and provides reinforcement.
The model also provides guidelines for copy strategy. To be effective as a cue, an advertisement must
arouse strong drives in the person. For candy bars, it may be hunger; for safety belts, fear; for hair
tonics, sex; for automobiles, status.
In the Freudian psychoanalytic model, the guilt or shame man feels toward his sexual urges causes
him to repress them from his consciousness. Through rationalization and sublimation, these urges are
denied or become transmuted into socially approved expressions. These urges are never eliminated or
under perfect control and they emerge in dreams, in slips of the tongue, or in neurotic or obsessive
behavior.
Because of these urges, the consumer’s motivations for behavior are not obvious or deeply
understood. As a result, Freudian psychology gave consumer behavior the tool of in-depth
interviewing to get at the motives and symbols behind a purchase. If a consumer is asked why lie
purchased an expensive foreign sports car, he may reply that he likes its maneuverability and its
looks. At a deeper level he may have purchased the car to impress others, or to feel young again. At a
still deeper level, lie may be purchasing the sports car to achieve substitute gratification for
unsatisfied sexual strivings.
Other Freudian consumer research findings included men wanting their cigars to be odoriferous to
prove they were masculine, and women being very serious when baking cakes because unconsciously
they were going through the symbolic act of birth. These theories were certainly more interesting
reading than the graphs and curves of economics.
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One major study of this era (Haire 1950) found that when a shopping list included instant coffee
rather than drip grind, the owner of the list was perceived to be a very different person. The owner of
the list with instant coffee was lazy, a poor planner, a spendthrift, and a bad wife. Meanwhile, the
owner of the list with drip coffee was perceived to be thrifty and a good wife. Fortunately a
replication of this study was done in 1970 and housewives were no longer judged by their coffee
(Wilkie 1986). However, Haire’s study provided good insight to the fact that products have meaning
and significance that go far beyond the physical attributes of the products themselves. Furthermore,
these hidden values were thought to be a major influence on consumer decisions. To tap into the
consumers’ hidden motives for purchase, more indirect methods of data gathering were necessary.
Toward the end of the 1950s an empirical article started to throw doubt on the heavy reliance on
psychological perspectives. A study by Evans (1959) sought to determine the personality
characteristics of Ford versus Chevrolet owners. In the 1950s these were the major automobile
manufacturers. Wider choice and Japanese imports did not exist. If the differences between the cars
were not major, the train of thought was that the personality of the owner must be significantly
different and motivate the consumer to buy one brand or the other. A carefully controlled survey of
personality characteristics of 1,600 owners of Fords and Chevrolets showed no major significant
differences in personality characteristics of the car owners. The importance of this line of behavioral
research to consumer products was questioned. By this time, in the early and mid-1960s, business
schools were producing their own scholars and faculty. Researchers were trained by business schools
rather than only economics and psychology departments. Researchers of consumer behavior gained
from this marriage of economics and psychology and began to develop their own theories of the
consumer.
THE PROBLEM SOLVER
In the 1960s John Kennedy became president of the United States and gave the consumer elevated
status. In his message to Congress on March 15, 1962, he put forth the Consumer Bill of Rights
(1963) as a social contract between business and society. Government was tile ultimate guarantor of
these rights, which included the right to safety, the right to be informed, the right to choose, and the
right to be heard (redress). The government took Kennedy seriously and began an activist role
The marketplace was becoming more diversified. The concept of market segmentation became even
more important. Goods that the consumer ted were now being produced, rather than just the goods
the manufacturer wanted to make. Choice prevailed for the consumer, and the consumer was
recognized by the highest official in the country. Consumers had the right to he informed and
protected.
The government poured millions of dollars into departments whose goal was to make sure the
consumer had access to information. The Federal Trade Commission flourished. Labels were put on
products listing all ingredients. Advertising was regulated and measured; if it was misleading, then
corrective advertising was necessary. Information was in great supply to the consumer. Ralph Nader,
with his book Unsafe At Any Speed, emerged as the hero of the 1970s, taking on corporate giants in
the name of the little man. Consumerism was everywhere.
As a result of this environment, consumer behavior researchers started to see the consumer as a
“cognitive man.” The irrational psychotic purchaser of the 1950s and early 1960s was left behind.
The consumer was now a problem solver. He or she was receptive to products or services that
consciously met his or her needs. Consumers were thought to actively search for information about
8 | P a g e
the products and services they bought. Consumer Reports was born. Consumers were seen as striving
to make the best decisions possible given their limitations.
However, consumer researchers told us that even though consumers are given information, they often
fail to use it to make decisions. In an initial experiment (Jacoby, Speller, and Kohn 1974) and a
follow-up (Scammon 1975), consumers were given objective product information concerning several
brands available in the marketplace. The results of the first study showed that consumers felt better
about their brand selections with more information, but actually made poorer choices. The study by
Scammon corrected for weaknesses in the original study but still found that recall of product
attributes decreased with increasing information. Consumers were still limited by the extent of their
knowledge about the marketplace and their capacity to store information about the marketplace in
short-term memory. Miller’s (1956) rule of seven plus or minus two) pieces of information as
cognitive capacity held for the consumer.
The information in the marketplace was not organized for the ease of the consumer. Unit pricing was
fine, but comparing prices across brands and sizes for products was quite a challenge. Only when unit
prices were posted on one sheet in a simple linear manner by decreasing prices across all sizes and
brands did the consumers shift in their decision making toward lower-priced brands. You can imagine
the national brand manufacturer’s enthusiasm toward presentation of this information at point of
purchase.
The overriding conclusion of consumer research in the 1970s was that people can only attend to
limited information at one point in time. The consumers’ existing skills, habits, reflexes, values, and
goals shape the way they search and use information to make their decisions. The 1970s told us that
consumers’ skills were limited, but at the same time the number of choices available to the consumer
kept increasing. More and more choices became available in the 1980s.
THE COGNITIVE MISER
Today’s consumer uses decision-making skills originally developed in the 1970s, but the 1980s
consumer went farther than just recognizing man’s cognitive limitations. Researchers have labelled
the low-involvement decision maker (or cognitive miser) as unable or unwilling to engage in
extensive decision-making activities in many cases and settle instead for “satisfactory” decisions
(Olshavsky and Granbois 1979). There is too much choice and not enough discretionary time to
engage in extended cognitive effort for purchases. Instead the consumer develops rules of thumb or
heuristics to simplify purchase behavior. An in-store study showed that consumers go through almost
no brand price comparison behavior (Hoyer 1984). Rules such as “buy the cheapest,” “buy name
brands,” or “buy what my friend bought” give the consumer a satisfactory choice in the marketplace
that supplants an optimal choice. This is a very adaptive and rational course for the consumer to have
taken in the 1980s, given the cluttered choice environment with little time for decision making and
virtually no support in information handling. The cost of thinking was recognized as a limiting factor
in processing choices.
The 1980s brought a focus on business and conservatism, and many came to feel that governmental
regulation was more of a hindrance than a help. This was expressed in the election of Ronald Reagan.
As quickly as Kennedy had made the consumer important, Reagan made him unimportant. With
strokes of a pen, the FTC experienced a sharp reduction in its budget and influence. Whole
departments set up by the government to service the consumer were abandoned. Consumer programs
developed for the 1970s folded.
9 | P a g e
The 1980s were for business. This focus was a result of several factors. First, the “baby boomer
bulge” had a greater number of people for a smaller number of jobs. In the early 1970s a college
graduate decided what job to take, or perhaps a trip to Europe, then work. In the early 1980s the
concern was for getting any job at all. The economy was slow and competition was stiff. Business
looked to the MBA to turn companies around. The student was serious and conservative due to the
competitive environment. Business and engineering were in; the humanities were out. The
marketplace became more competitive, more diversified. Deregulation prevailed.
Too many goods cluttered too many store shelves for the consumer. For example, the average number
of products in supermarkets soared from 13,000 in 1981 to 21,000 in 1987. There are said to he 400
different brands of beer available to the American beer drinker. A new car purchaser might have 300
different types of cars and light trucks, domestic and imported, to choose from.
Along with the “over choice” and market diversity of the 1980s came decreased leisure time for the
consumer, not more leisure time as predicted in the 1940s. The number of free hours a person
possesses decreased from four to one since the 1970s. The reason for this is that the average time
spent at work has increased seven to eight hours a week since 1978 (Stern 1987). More than 50
percent of all women are working, so household duties are done after 6 p.m. or on weekends. Single
working mothers have virtually no free time and can’t take care of all they want to do. This scenario
has led to a demand for convenience products and convenience shopping. Home catalogs, home TV
shopping, home computer shopping, and home shopping parties are part of this easier access to goods
that will prevail in the 1990s. The efficiency of in-home shopping, especially through direct
marketing, is exemplified by the fact that American Express sold 7 percent of all the luggage bought
in the U.S. by sending mailings to affluent cardholders whose charge records showed they spent
heavily on travel-related merchandise.
This the cognitive miser of the 1980s is a product of decreased time for shopping decisions and
increased choice in the marketplace. It is an adaptive strategy to suit the decision-making
environment.
THE COLLECTIVE BUYER OF THE 1990s
The focus on individual decision processes for personal purchase of products and services will be
replaced by a more collective decision-making style during the 1990s. This will be caused by the
changing cultural patterns of North America combined with the decrease in purchasing power of the
individual consumer. The culture of North America is changing due to: (1) the rapid increase in the
percent of elderly people who are neither healthy nor wealthy; (2) the aging of the baby boomers,
causing a shift in values and needs; and (3) increased immigration from Asian cultures with high
birth rates to offset the North American decline in population. All three categories of this cultural
shift will have to rely on joint decisions for purchase of goods and services, since goods and services
will be shifting to a collective consumption style rather than individual consumption in the North
American marketplace.
Individuals will combine households in an increasing rate to make life more affordable. The evidence
that this joint living may be a trend for the future is exemplified by the fact that 6.2 percent of all
employed people are working two jobs, mainly to meet living expenses. When the economy turns
down these extra jobs will not be available, and people will have to decrease their standard of living
to meet day-to-day expenses. More unmarried people will share apartments, more single-parent
families will couple up, and more children will live at home longer. Thus, more people will be
sharing consumer goods just due to living arrangements. Also, through the changing face of North
American consumers, the marketplace will continue to change and supply more and more services for
10 | P a g e
these groups. The changing face of the consumer will alter the marketplace and the mode of decision
making.
Much has been written about the marketing opportunities for the senior segment. Right now
approximately 7.3 percent of the population is over 65. By the year 2000, this group will increase by
20 percent, making it the fastest-growing segment of our population. This is one reason why
marketers focus on the elderly. However, this group is not all that wealthy or all that healthy. It is
estimated that 80 percent of people over 65 have chronic health problems, and 16 percent have severe
physical problems. One in five Americans over the age of 85 resides in a nursing home.
The Baby Boomers
A full one-third of the population is bulging at middle age. In the year 2000 they will be 36 to 54
years old and at the middle of peak earnings. They are important to our view of consumer behavior
because they will head 44 percent of all households and still account for a majority of purchasing
power. Due to the conflicting structure of the population versus the corporate culture, there will be
less moving around among this group, and they will be more stable in their jobs. Hence, their values
and attitudes will change dramatically to reflect this stability. The collective decision-making style
will be based on their stable environment.
Questions
Discuss as to how the consumer behavior has evolved post 1950?
CASE – 3 (20 Marks)
Consumer behaviour: Men still major decision-makers
In India, men continue to dominate.
Even today, only 16 per cent of Indian professionals are women. Therefore, consumer decisionmaking
in all areas — ranging from what cars to buy to what clothes manufacturers to patronize — is
dictated by men when it comes to the most upscale market segment in India.
‘Horizon 2003’, a study by BBC World, BBC’s 24-hour international news and information channel,
using the latest census as a base, gives some startling insights into the attitudes and activities of
India’s leading consumers and decision makers.
The research, conducted by market research agency NFO-MBL across six top metros and profiling
380,000 people, will greatly help media planners, agencies and advertisers to understand this
particular horizon professional.
Life insurance was found to be the biggest financial investment for most Indians, followed by the
stock markets.
Washing machines were the most desirable consumer durable products, followed by cars and desktop
computers.
Forty-two per cent of the respondents owned a mobile phone, of which 52 per cent had a Nokia, and
42 per cent of these subscribed to AirTel cellular service.
11 | P a g e
For example, more than half of the people surveyed (56 per cent) felt that it was all right to give or
take bribes to get their work done. A slightly smaller number (40 per cent) thought it perfectly
acceptable ‘to make money through underhand means/deals.’
Who decides
Self Spouse Joint Family Elders Children
Buying a house 25% 5.8% 20.8% 30.1% 14% 0.4%
Child’s marriage 7.7% 5.9% 21.8% 18.7% 11.5% 4%
Own marriage 20.4% 2.5% 6.2% 22.4% 29.7% 0.9%
Child’s education 15.1% 6.6% 34% 12.5% 5.6% 4.6%
Taking a loan 31.4% 5% 24.3% 18.1% 9.2% 0.6%
Fixing monthly budget 24.2% 10.3% 33.3% 18.5% 11.2% 0.6%
Buying entertainment durables, like TVs 21.4% 8.2% 33.4% 26.7% 7.4% 1.6%
Buying durables like washing machines 19.3% 10.7% 33.3% 26.2% 8.2% 1%
Deciding on holiday destinations 20.6% 6.1% 28.4% 31.8% 4.5% 5.6%
“It is very difficult to survey this group by using traditional methods,” says Jeremy Nye, BBC
World’s head of research, in the study. “However, it is important to know the tastes of these
professionals who will be shaping India’s destiny.”
Adds Dezma De Melo, research manager, BBC World: “All the individuals in this class are rather
alike. They have similar opinions, attitudes and beliefs.”
The study showed the emergence of certain definite trends in the area of just who decides what. For
example, the person in question seemed to play a major role in deciding the monthly budget or
whether to take a loan, but when it came to deciding whom he should marry, it was still the older
people in the family who played a key role.
Both, the husband and the wife jointly decided on issues like the marriage of progeny. In a majority
of cases, the whole family got together to decide what kind of house to buy where to go for a holiday.
Alcohol consumption habits indicated that 25 per cent drank alcohol, of which 72 per cent were beer
drinkers. Most executives drank at bars and pubs, while self-employed professionals drank at friends’
homes. Businessmen preferred parties to have a drink or two at.
The research has an entire section focusing on travellers as a separate target audience. This is the first
time that anyone has studied consumer behaviour in this area in such depth.
The study tries to understand the travelling habits — such as the mode of transport, kind of holidays,
choice of place and media consumption while travelling — which will be different from normal
household viewership.
The survey sets forth several interesting findings in this area. Sixty per cent people take a holiday in
India, while 5 per cent take a holiday abroad. Eighteen per cent travel on business within India, while
8 per cent travel on business abroad at least once in a year.
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As for international holidays taken in the last one year, people from Mumbai (30 per cent), Bangalore
(35 per cent) and Hyderabad (26 per cent) preferred travelling to the United States, while 35 per cent
from Kolkata and 41 per cent from Chennai travelled to Singapore.
A quarter of the respondents from Delhi went to Nepal for a holiday.
Among domestic business travellers, Jet Airways (60 per cent) is the preferred airline, followed by
India Airlines (53 per cent) and Sahara Airlines (20 per cent). For domestic leisure travel, Jet
Airways and Indian Airlines enjoy an equal share.
Among international leisure destinations, Singapore is the favourite with 23 per cent respondents,
followed by 22 per cent opting to visit the US. International business travellers prefer the US (24 per
cent) followed by Singapore (23 per cent) and the United Kingdom (13 per cent).
Interestingly, people in the six metros surveyed seemed to show entirely different tastes in watching
television. The average number of channels watched was five and an average of 100 minutes of
television is watched a day, with 30 minutes devoted to news.
News and Sports are the most preferred programme genres, followed by general entertainment.
However, 29 per cent of the respondents in Delhi preferred News channels, while only 14 per cent of
those surveyed in Bangalore preferred News. Bangaloreans prefer watching Sports with a high of 34
per cent.
“We look forward to Horizon 2003 being a tool for advertisers and planners to get a better
understanding of this upscale, influential audience. We have been able to offer better solutions on the
channel to advertisers based on the learning of this upmarket audience,” Seema Mohapatra, head of
advertising sales for BBC World, says.
The survey also found that 95 per cent of the professionals were proud to be Indians, while 75 per
cent believed risks are worth taking.
Questions
Q1) With reference to case above ,define the terms below,and justify how they influence
consumer behaviour?
Cultural and Cross-Cultural Influences
Subculture and Social Class
Reference Groups and Family
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CASE-4 (20 Marks)
After its successful launch of local classifieds, Admanya, India’s leading consumer internet portal
today announced the launch of a free classifieds matrimony service for its users .Based on user
suggestions and requests, Admanya realized the needs of people in India who are extremely busy yet
believe in the traditional way of matchmaking. With its network across 500 cities in India, this new
functionality of Admanya will also help people from smaller cities in their search for life partners.
Ranjana, a 26 year old software professional from Bangalore says, “Admanya has always been
coming up with surprises. With our busy and hectic schedule this is indeed a welcome surprise for us,
seeking a simple platform for matrimonial alliances.”
Mr. Jaydeep Bhattacharjee, the founder and CEO of Admanya says, “People in India have always
been rooted in tradition and religious beliefs. They believe in arranged marriages
rather then romanticized tying of partners. So, we are indeed honoured to extend this free service to
our members to make their search for a life partner fast and easy. With no elaborate profiles required
posting a matrimonial ad in Admanya will be simple and hassle-free.”
Admanya is not only an online classifieds service that caters to the growing requirements of
communities all over the world but is also a place for product reviews, consumer feedbacks and an
emerging social community. You can find a job, recruit people, sell your car or buy one, rent your
house and do much more through Admanya classifieds.
Questions
Matrimonial classified has moved from newspaper to online service, how has the consumer behavior
changed, what are the factors which had influenced it?


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ISBM EMBA EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ISBM EMBA EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

CONTACT:
DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com
Information Technology
TOTAL : 80 MARKS
10 MARKS EACH
Note: Attempt any 8
1. What are the characteristics of a technologically enabled organization?
2. How does an Organization acquire & disseminal knowledge?
3. Why do you suppose inquiry – only applications were developed instead of fully on lines
system?
4. What kind of technology is least flexible? Most flexible?
5. How does strategic planning differ between a firm that offers services & one that
manufacturers a product? Is there a difference in the impact of technology on strategy in
any two types of firms?
6. What kind of business activities do you think are most amenable to common systems in
different countries?
7. What kind of programs do you think are likely to make the most use of floating – point
instructions?
8. Distinguish between computer hardware & software which most concerns a manager?
9. What kind of software does a server for a local area network need to have?
10. What is OLAP? How does it contribute to the organization?

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
Page 2 of 2
SUBJECT :
Total Marks : 80
CASE-1 (20 Marks)
Nestle has launched quality street ,lion and after 8 choclates imported from Europe. Qualtty Street is an
assortment of chocolates priced at Rs. 7 5 for 218 gm. After Eight is a popular adult chocolate priced at Rs.25
for 20 gm and Lion is a caramel wafer bar priced at Rs. 20 for a 45 gm bar. (Kit Kat )is priced at Rs. 6 for a 17
gm bar and has a chocolaty taste while Lion has a crunchy taste). The brands have different tastes and will
appeal to different target segments (though the target segment is one which may have already been exposed to
these brands during visits abroad). These brands have been introduced in metros in upmarket stores which sell
brands bears the label “lmported by Nestle India Ltd.” indicating that they may be better than smuggled ones
(which may be stale).
Question :
1 Suggest suitable media /media vehicles for promoting these brands. Give reasons in support of your answer
2 What business communication media you will utilize if you have to launch a soap in rural India?
CASE -2 (20 Marks)
The herbal shampoo market is valued at around Rs. 100 crores. Ny/e, Ayur, Dqbur and Biotique are some of the
established brands in the market.
Helene Curtis (JK Group) has introduced a premium herbal shampoo (with variants Shikskai, henna and qmla
and brqhmi and josur) priced between Rs. 80 and Rs. 90 (500 ml) for different types of hair. The proposition is
the benefits offered by lhe variant based on the combination of herbs, benefits offered by the variants range
from extra protection and nourishment to colour, body and bounce. The shampoos have been launched under
the brand name Premium Herbsl Shsmpoos and they target urban housewives with a monthly household
income of Rs.25,000. The brand is distributed through 7 0,000 retail outlets and 120 Raymond shops. The
company has planned only point of purchase (POP) posters initially and may consider the electronic media
later. The shampoo has an annual advertising expenditure of Rs. 10 crores.
Question :
1 Comment on the marketing mix of JK’s Premium Herbsl Shampoos ?
2 How can you make their communication more effective ?.
Page 2 of 2
CASE 3 (40 Marks)
Attempt all cases of the following: (10 marks each)
(i) Iran Rafsanjan Co., Rafsanjan City, Iran has taken a marine insurance policy No. VB/84/3629/29 dated
20th December, 2005 from Albroz Insurance Co., Kerman City, Iran for the import of 500 tractor gears
from Apex Products (India) Ltd., Delhi. The exporter shipped the cargo on board vessel — SEEMA on
26th December, 2005 for Bandar Abbas Port of Iran.
As per the letter of credit condition, the exporter was required to fax the shipment details to Albroz
Insurance Company within 24 hours of the shipment. However, the exporter could not fax such details due
to change in telephone (fax) number of the insurance company.
Draft an express telegram to intimate shipment details.
ii) Yours is a multinational company having joint venture with a Chinese company. Plant is to be located at
Surat. The company immediately needs an Executive – Foreign Affairs (male/female) with ability of
“writing and speaking Chinese language.
Draft a recruitment advertisement for publication under classified column of a national daily. Salary-is no
bar for the right candidate. E-mail address -info@krishnafashions.com
iii) The local head office of State Bank of India is located at 11, Parliament Street, New Delhi-110001. The
bank wants to construct 76 flats at Noida for its employees and invite applications for pre-qualification of
contractors. Full details are available on its website – www.sbi.co.in or www.statebankofindia.com/
procurement_news.
Draft a notice for pre-qualification of contractors.
iv) The Joint Admission Board (JAB) of Indian Institutes of Technology in its meeting held on 17th
September, 2005 at Kolkata has taken some decisions with regard to Joint Entrance Examination (JEE)
2006, i.e., to appear in JEE, one must secure at least 60% marks (55% for SC/ST and PD) in 10+2
examination; a candidate can have only two attempts with effect from JEE-2006; and a candidate who
joins any of the IITs through JEE-2006 will not be permitted to appear in JEE in future.* It was also
decided that candidates, who have passed their qualifying examination in 2005 or earlier, will be allowed
to appear in JEE-2006 as the last chance, witji no consideration of marks or attempts at JEE subject to age
requirements. On behalf of the JAB, draft a suitable press release to be issued by organising chairman
highlighting these decisions.

BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
CASE 1
Q1) Imagine that you are in-charge of a major chemical plant, manufacturing points. At present, the
general awareness about the mandatory requirements for chemical industry is very low. Even if the
compliance record is maintained, it is not disclosed to all employees. (25 marks)
In a recent seminar of the company, many experts from industry associations like Confederation of
Indian Industries (CII), conducted the seminar. The dangers of non-compliance of ISO 14001 EMS
certification and Trade Sanctions, which are likely to increase, were discussed. Even the senior
managers were involved and a lot of serious discussions took place.
After a span of one month, the In-charge (i.e. you!) received a call from the top management, who
want you to find out more about the ISO Certification. The management, wants to help you, with the
help of other employees to list the critical aspects that have potential environmental impact.
You may be feeling that you have only some vague ideas about air pollution in paint industry
and water pollution, due to paint manufacture. You may also recall the newspaper clipping on
internationalization of paint manufacturing practices, which states the following points:
i) What are the activities that are critical to the company’s environmental management
certification?
ii) List the activities which have potential environmental impacts in a pint industry.
iii) List the legal requirements.
iv) Is there a trade related issue involved in this case
v) Explain, how your company can prepare itself towards certification.
CASE 2 :
Q2) XYZ company is an equal opportunity employer. XYZ Co has always upheld the
spirits of freedom, human welfare, fair practices and fair treatment to all employees. It has the image
of a socially responsible company in India. XYZ Co., has never involved itself in any study deals,
even if it could bring good profits. (15 Marks)
Also, XYZ Co. is a major IT solution provider. XYZ has immense potential for providing
consultancy services in the African nations and South East Asian countries. A request was received
from an African country, stating that they have an assignment for two years. The following
conditions are to be fulfilled.
a) Employees should not bring families with them during the assignment.
b) Women managers should not accompany the team.
c) The country and the collaborating company are not responsible if any accident or any other
untoward incidents take place.
Please answer the following questions :
i) Should XYZ Co take up the assignment?
ii) How can XYZ Co maintain business viability and growth without compromising on basic rights
and values enshrined? In the mission statement of the company?
iii) What alterations may be sought in the agreement and why?
CASE 3
Q3) On the night of December 23, 1983 a dangerous chemical reation occurred in the Union
Carbide factory in Bhopal, when a large amount of water got into the MIC i.e. Methyl Isocyanate
storage tank. When the leak was detected by workers at 11.30 pm, their eyes began to tear and burn.
The rest is history. About 40 tons of MIC poured out of the tank for nearly 2 hours and escaped into
air, spreading within 8 km down wind, About 4000 people were killed in sleep or as they fled in
terror, hundreds of thousands were injured or effected the victims who were almost entirely the
poorest members of the population. The poisonous gas, caused death and left the survivors with
lingering disability and diseases.
The Bhopal disaster was a result of the combination of legal, technological, organizational and
human errors. The long term effects were made worse by the absence of systems to care for and
compensate the victims. Also, the safety standards and maintenance procedure at the Union Carbide
plant had been deteriorating and ignored for months.
Questions :
i) From Bhopal Tragedy, what an industrial manager learns? What safety procedures are to be
followed. Study the case deeply and state what were the defects of MIL unit. In view of this case,
prepare a disaster management plan, which could cover be useful to a chemical company. (10 Marks)
Q 4)
i) List the methods of waste management in the order of preference. (5 Marks)
ii) What are the advantages of solid waste incernaton? (5 Marks)
iii) Define hazardous waste (5 Marks)
iv) List the legal provisions in the Environment Protection Act pertaining to hazardous waste
(5 Marks)
Q 5)
i) Discuss the role of CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) in the pollution control activities in
India. (2 Marks)
ii) Mention the salient points of the 3 Acts : (2 Marks)
 The Air (prevention and control of pollution) Act 1981
 The Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act 1974
 The Environment (Protection) Act 1986
iii) Explain the very elements of EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) – different types of
Impact Assessments – the benefits of EIA – The EIA process, key points to remember while
conducting an effective EIA. (2 Marks)
iv) Compare and contrast “polluter pays principle” with “beneficiary pays principle”. (2 Marks)
v) What are the tenets of Risk management – explain the steps involved through a chart. (2Marks)

BUSINESS ETHICS
Page 2 of 3
CASE -1 (20 Marks)
Joan, an employee of Great American Market, was warned about her excessive absenteeism several
times, both verbally and in writing. The written warning included notice that “further violations will
result in disciplinary actions,” including suspension or discharge.
A short time after the written warning was issued, Joan called work to say she was not going to be in
because her babysitter had called in sick and she had to stay home and care for her young child. Joan’s
supervisor, Sylvia, told her that she had already exceeded the allowed number of absences and warned
that if she did not report to work, she could be suspended. When Joan did not report for her shift,
Sylvia suspended her for fifteen days.
In a subsequent hearing, Joan argued that it was not her fault that the babysitter had canceled, and
protested that she had no other choice but to stay home. Sylvia pointed out that Joan had not made a
good faith effort to find an alternate babysitter, nor had she tried to swap shifts with a co-worker.
Furthermore, Sylvia said that the lack of a babysitter was not a justifiable excuse for being absent.
Questions:
1. Was the suspension fair?
2. Did Joan act responsibly?
3. Should she be fired?
CASE-2 (20 Marks)
You own a cement company, and deal with most the local contractors for cement, sand, etc. You have
a reputation of high quality products, and for good customer service with your customers. Your
foreman has just run the standard quality control tests you have performed regularly on your products.
When the test results are ready, you discover that the new batch of product is 9% less durable than
your usual material. It is still well above all industry standards and meets all building codes and
requirements for the purposes for which it is intended, but it is, nevertheless, not up to your usual
standards. Throwing it away would cost your company many thousands of dollars.
You decide to sell the cement anyway.
Questions:
1) Should you tell your customers?
2) Should you discount the price?
3) Should you tell your employees, so they will be knowledgeable with the customers?
4) Would you use this cement on foundations for your own house?
Page 2 of 3
CASE-3 (20 Marks)
Fred, a 17-year employee with Sam’s Sauna, was fired for poor job performance and poor attendance,
after accruing five disciplinary penalties within a 12-month period under the company’s progressive
disciplinary policy. A week later, Fred told his former supervisor that he had a substance abuse
problem.
Although there was no employee assistance program in place and the company had not been aware of
Fred’s condition, their personnel director assisted Fred in obtaining treatment by allowing him to
continue receiving insurance benefits and approved his unemployment insurance claim.
Fred subsequently requested reinstatement, maintaining that he had been rehabilitated since his
discharge and was fully capable of being a productive employee. He pointed to a letter written by his
treatment counselor, which said that his prognosis for leading a “clean, sober lifestyle” was a big
incentive for him. Fred pleaded for another chance, arguing that his past problems resulted from drug
addiction and that Sam’s Saunas should have recognized and provided treatment for the problem.
Sam’s Saunas countered that Fred should have notified his supervisor of his drug problem, and that
everything possible had been done to help him receive treatment. Moreover, the company stressed that
the employee had been fired for poor performance and absenteeism. Use of the progressive discipline
policy had been necessary because the employee had committed a string of offenses over the course of
a year, including careless workmanship, distracting others, wasting time, and disregarding safety rules.
Questions:
1) Should Fred be reinstated?
2) Was the company fair to Fred in helping him receive treatment?
3) Did the personnel director behave ethically toward Fred?
4) Did he act ethically for his company?
5) Would it be fair to other employees to reinstate Fred?
CASE-4 (20 Marks)
In January of last year, the S.S. Vulgass, an oil tanker of the Big Dirty Oil Company ran around in the
area just north of Vancouver, spilling millions of gallons of crude into the waters and onto the beaches
of British Columbia and southern Alaska. The damage to the beaches and wildlife and consequently to
the tourist industry, the ecology and the quality of life of the local residents is incalculable, but in any
case will require many millions of dollars for even the most minimal clean-up.
The ship struck a small atoll, well-marked on the navigational maps, but it was a dark night and the
boat was well off course. On further investigation, it was discovered that the Captain of the Vulgass,
Mr. Slosh, had been drinking heavily. Leaving the navigation of the ship to his first mate, Mr. Mudd,
he retired to his cabin, to “sleep it off.” Mr. Mudd had never taken charge of the ship before, and it is
now clear that he misread the maps, misjudged the waters, maintained a speed that was inappropriate
and the accident occurred. Subsequent inquiries showed that Captain Slosh had been arrested on two
drunk driving convictions within months of the accident. The Vulgass itself, a double-hulled tanker,
was long due for renovation and, it was suggested, would not have cracked up if the hull had been
trebly reinforced, as some current tankers were.
Page 2 of 3
R. U. Rich, the Chief Executive Officer of Big Dirty Oil declared the accident a “tragedy” and offered
two million dollars to aid in the clean up. The Premier of British Columbia was outraged.
Environmental groups began a consumer campaign against Big Dirty Oil, urging customers to cut up
and send in their Big Dirty Oil credit cards in protest. In a meeting to the shareholders just last month,
CEO Rich proudly announced the largest quarterly profit in the history of the Big Dirty Oil Company.
He dismissed the protests as “the outpourings of Greenies and other fanatics” and assured the
shareholders that his obligation was, and would always be, to assure the highest profits possible in the
turmoil of today’s market.
Questions:
1) The question is, who is responsible?
2) Against whom should criminal charges be leveled?
3) What should be done, if anything, to punish the corporation itself?
4) What about the CEO?

NAME :
(NAME TO APPEAR ON THE CERTIFICATE)
REF NO :
COURSE :
SUBJECT:
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
MBA 2nd semester
CORPORATE LAW
N.B.: 1 Attempt any Twelve Questions
2) Last two Questions are compulsory
Q.1. In the following statements only one is correct statement. Explain Briefly?
(5 Marks)
i) An invitation to negotiate is a good offer.
ii) A quasi-contract is not a contract at all.
iii) An agreement to agree is a valid contract.
Q.2. A ship-owner agreed to carry to cargo of sugar belonging to A from Constanza to Busrah. He knew
that there was a sugar market in Busrah and that A was a sugar merchant, but did not know that he
intended to sell the cargo, immediately on its arrival. Owning to Shipment’s default, the voyage was
delayed and sugar fetched a lower price than it would have done had it arrived on time. A claimed
compensation for the full loss suffered by him because of the delay. Give your decision. Explain
Briefly? (5 Marks)
Q.3. The proprietors of a medical preparation called the “Carbolic Smoke Ball” published in several
newspapers the following advertisement:-
“£ 1000 reward will be paid by the Carbolic Smoke Ball Co. to any person who contracts the
increasing epidemic influenza after having used the Smoke Ball three times daily for two weeks
according to printed directions supplied with each ball. £ 1000 is deposited with the Alliance Bank
showing our sincerity in the matter.
On the faith in this advertisement, the plaintiff bought a Smoke Ball and used it as directed. She was
attacked by influenza. She sued the company for the reward. Will she succeed? Explain Briefly
(5 Marks)
Q.4. Fazal consigned four cases of Chinese crackers at Kanpur to be carried to Allahabad on the 30th May,
1987. He intended to sell them at the Shabarat festival of 5th June 1987. The railway discovered that
the consignment could not be sent by passenger train and asked Fazal either to remove them or
authorize their dispatch by goods train. He took no action and the goods arrived at Allahabad a
month after they were booked.
Fazal filed a suit against Railways for damages due to late delivery of the goods which deprived him
of the special profits at the festival sale. Decide & explain briefly ?
(5 Marks)
Q.5. ‘Lifeoy’ Soap company advertised that it would give a reward of Rs. 2000 who contracted skin
disease after using the ‘Lifeoy’ soap of the company for a certain period according to the printed
directions. Mrs. Jacob purchased the advertised ‘Lifeboy’ and contracted skin disease inspite of
using this soap according to the printed instructions. She claimed reward of Rs. 2000. The claim is
resisted by the company on the ground that offer was not made to her and that in any case she had
not communicated her acceptance of the offer. Decide whether Mrs. Jacob can claim the reward or
not. Give reasons. Explain briefly? (5 Marks)
Q.6. In each set of statements, only one is correct. State the correct statements & Explain briefly?
a) i) A bailee has a general lien on the goods bailed.
ii) The ownership of goods pawned passes to the pawnee.
iii) A gratuitous bailment can be terminated by the bailor even
before the stated time.
b) i) A substituted agent is as good an agent of the agent as a subagent.
ii) An ostensible agency is as effective as an express agency.
iii) A principal can always revoke an agent’s authority. (5 Marks)
Q.7. A, an unpaid seller, sends goods to B by railway. B becomes insolvent
And A sends a telegram to Railway authorities not to deliver the goods to B. B. goes to the Parcel
office of Railway Yard and by presenting R. R. (Railway Receipt) takes delivery of the goods and
starts putting them in the cart. Meanwhile the Station Master comes running with the telegram in
hand and takes possession of the goods from B. Discuss the rights of A and B to the goods in
possession of Railway authorities. (5 Marks)
Q.8. X needs Rs. 10,000 but cannot raise this amount because his credit is not good enough. Y whose
credit is good accommodates. X by giving him a pronote made out in favour of X, though Y owes
no money to X. X endorses the pronote to Z for value received. Z who is holder in due course the
pronote to Z for value received. Z who is holder in due course demands payment from Y. Can
refuse and plead the arrangement between him and X Explain briefly?
(5 Marks)
Q.9. Will C has the right of further negotiation in the following cases: (B signs the endorsements)
Explain briefly? (5 Marks)
i) ‘Pay C for my use’
ii) ‘Pay C’)
iv) ‘Pay C or order for the account of B’
Q.10. A promissory note was made without mentioning any time for payment. The holder added the
words’ on demand on the face of the instrument. State whether it amounted to material alteration
and explain the effect of such alteration. Explain briefly? (5
Marks)
Q.11. State whether the following instruments are valid promissory notes:
i) I promise to pay Rs. 5000 to B on the dearth of ‘B’s uncle provided that D in his will gives
me a legacy sufficient for the promise of payment of the said sum.
ii) I hereby acknowledge that I owe X Rs. 5,000 on account of rent due and I agree that the said
sum will be paid be me in regular installments.
iii) I acknowledge myself indebted to B in Rs. 5000 to be paid on demand for value received.
(5 Marks)
Q.12. A Payee holder of a bill of exchange. He endorses it in blank and delivers it to B. B endorses in full
to C or order. C without endorsement transfers the bill to D. State giving reasons whether D as
bearer of the bill of exchange is entitled to recover the payment from A or B or C. Explain briefly?
(5 Marks)
Q.13. Write a short note on the Doctrine of Indoor Management? Explain briefly?
(5 Marks)
Q.14. The shareholders at an annual general meeting passed a resolution for the payment of dividend at a
rate higher than that recommended by the Board of Directors. Examine the validity of the resolution.
Explain briefly? (5
Marks)
Q.15. In a prospectus issued by a company the Managing Director stated that the company had paid
dividend every year during 1921 – 27, which was a fact. However, the company had sustained losses
during the relevant period and had paid dividends out of secret reserves accumulated in the past.
Examine the consequences of the observation made by the Managing Director. Explain briefly?
(5 Marks)
Q.16. A buys from B 400 shares in a company on the faith of a share certificate issued by the company. A
tender to the company a transfer deed duly executed together with B’s share certificate. The
company discovers that the certificate in the name of B has been fraudulently obtained and refuses to
register the transfer. Advise A. Explain briefly? (5 Marks)
Q.17. A insured his house against fire. Later while insure, A killed his wife, severely injured his only son,
set fire to the house and died in the fire. The son survived and sued the insurer for the fire loss,
advice the insurer. Explain briefly? (5 Marks)
Q.18. a) Satrang Singh admitted his only infant son in a private nursing home. As a result of strong dose of
medicine administered by the nursing attendant, the child has become mentally retarded. Satrang
Singh wants to make a complaint to the District Forum under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986
seeking relief by way of compensation on the ground that there was deficiency in service by the
nursing home. Does his complaint give rise to a consumer dispute? Who is the consumer in the
instant case? Explain briefly?
b) Smart booked a motor vehicle through one of the dealers. He was informed subsequently that the
procedure for purchasing the motor vehicle had changed and was called upon to make further
payment to continue the booking before delivery. On being aggrieved, Smart filed a complaint with
the State Commission under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. Will he succeed? Explain briefly?
c) Brittle and Company, a small-scale industry, sought nursing and financing facilities from its bankers
by means of grant of further advances and adequate margin money in anticipation of good demand
for its products. In failing to obtain this and having become sick, it proceeds against its bankers
under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, Will it succeed? Explain briefly?
(5 Marks)
Q.20. X who was working as a truck driver had taken a general insurance policy to cover the risk of
injuries for a period from 1.11.1998 to 30.11.1999. He renewed the policy for a further period of one
year on 10.11.1999. On the same day, he met with an accident and suffered multiple injuries
including fractures. X submitted the claim along with documents to the insurance company. The
insurance company repudiated the claim on the ground that the premium for the renewed policy was
received in the office only at 2.30 p.m. on 10.11.1999, while the accident had taken place at 10.00
a.m. on that day and hence there was no policy at the time of accident. Will X succeed if he files a
complaint against the insurance company for this claim? Explain briefly?
(5 Marks)
Q.19 Avinash booked his goods with Superfast Freight Carriers at Delhi for being carried to Ferozabad.
The goods receipt note mentioned that all the disputes would be subject to jurisdiction of the
Mumbai Court. Avinash lodged a complaint for certain deficiency in service against the transporter
in the District Forum at Delhi. Superfast Carriers contested that District Forum at Delhi had no
jurisdiction to entertain the complaint as the head office of the transporter was at Mumbai and the
jurisdiction has been clearly stated in the goods receipt not. Is the contention of the transporter
tenable? Explain briefly? (5 Marks)
Q.20. With reference to the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, decide the following giving
reasons in support of your answer.
i) Sukh Dukh Ltd. dispatched certain consignments of goods by road through Fastrack Roadways Ltd.
The goods were unloaded and stored in a godown enroute on the suggestion of consignee. A fire
broke out in the neighbouring godown spread to the godown and goods were destroyed. The
Fastrack Roadways Ltd. claimed that there was neither negligence nor deficiency in service on their
part and goods were being carried at “Owner risk” and since no special premium was paid, they were
not responsible for the loss caused by fire. Whether Fastrack Roadways Ltd. is liable to pay
damages to consignor?
ii) Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) formulated a scheme called ‘salary saving scheme’ under which
employees of an organisation could buy an insurance policy. Premium due on each policy was
collected by the employer from the salary of the employees nor did it issue any premium notice.
When the widow of the deceased employee made a claim to LIC on the death of her husband, the
LIC repudiated the claim on the ground that four installments of premium had not been paid. The
widow was approached the consumer forum for redressal. Is the LIC liable for deficiency in service?
Explain?
iii) Raman booked a ticket from Delhi to New York by Lufthansa Airlines. The airport authorities in
New Delhi did not find any fault in his visa and other documents. However, at Frankfurt airport
authorities instituted proceedings of verification because of which Raman missed his flight to New
York. After necessary verification, Raman was able to reach New York by the next flight. The
airline authorities’ tendered apology to Raman for the inconvenience caused to him and also paid as
goodwill gesture a sum of Rs. 5,000. Raman intends to institute proceedings under the Consumer
Protection Act, 1986 against Lufthansa Airlines for deficiency in service. Will he succeed?
(10 Marks )
Q.21. With reference to the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, decide the following giving
reasons in support of your answer.
i) Sohn sent all relevant documents in an envelope regarding consignment of goods to a buyer in the
USA through Fast Service Couriers. The documents did not reach the buyer as a consequence of
which the buyer could not take delivery of the goods. By the time the duplicate copies of the
document had been received by the buyer, the season of the goods was over. He claimed that he had
suffered a loss of US $ 5,000 as a result of the negligence of the courier. The State Commission
ordered the payment to be made by the Fast Service Couriers, but the National Commission in appeal
reversed the order and ordered payment of US $ 100 only as per the receipt issued by the Fast
Service Courier to the consignor at the time of the dispatch of the latter. Advise Sohan.
ii) Mahesh purchased a machine from Astute Ltd. to operate it himself for earning his liverhood. He
took the assistance of a person to assist him in operating the machine. The machine developed fault
during the warranty period. He filed a claim in the consumer forum against the company for
deficiency in service. Astute Ltd. alleged that Mahesh did not operate the machine himself but had
appointed a person exclusively to operate the machine. Will Mahesh succeed?
iii) Pillai purchased a car by taking a loan from Kerala cooperative Bank Ltd. and gave post-dated
cheques to the bank not only in respect of repayment of loan instalments but also of premium of
insurance policy for two succeeding years. On the expiry of the policy. Pillai’s car met with an
accident. Will Pillai succeed in getting a claim against the
Bank ? (10 Marks)


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Essential of Management
Case Studies
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The Super Steels Ltd. specializes in making steel molded furniture. The MD Mr Sukhdev Singh, formed the company in 1980s with
a working capital of Rs. 5 lakhs and 10 people and started with commercial pieces of furniture. Gradually, the business grew an work
force was also expanded. Their man recruits and diploma holders in technical traders as assembling, etc. and workers. The staff
works in teams of six people to assemble inspect and approve a piece of furniture and teams were assigned for different products.
The whole of the production area was partitioned for separate teams. The teams consist of team leader, two experienced workers and
rest workers either fresh or on rotation. Teams are further organized in groups and each group has leaders of team as quality team.
They take charge of production, output and quality of all teams as one group, discuss and improve upon themselves. All the groups
are answerable to the production manager. Around twelve months ago, Mr Singh in consultation with his old friend decided to
diversify into home furniture and developed a massive restructuring. He decided to call an industry expert to advice on the process,
who after study, recommended a flow-line production process for all their products. Mr Singh accepted a plan and arranged for
starting out the commercial operations. To avoid a loss of production the new manufacturing layout was introduced during the
summer closing down of their factory. The workers while going on leave were informed that some changes would take place and
they should be ready for it. Under the flow-line process, the manufacturing of furniture piece has to be broken into 6 element to be
given to a worker, who sits in line alongside a track. The finished piece of furniture is then to be carried out to the inspection
department and then to the quality department. After approval it is to be sent to stores. The track contains ten team of six workers per
track. Once the workers returned this new process was explained to them. They were provided basic training on new systems and
were given targets for individual performance. After two months, Mr Singh realized that the absenteeism at factory increased by 20
per cent and five of their workers left the job. Since the introduction of new system though the output level rose. It is still below their
estimated level. The amount of time spends by their Production and Operation manager on dealing with production and workers’
problems rose considerably. Not only that due to inadequacy and lack of knowledge among workers their wastage rose to almost 20
per cent.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the major problems faced by the organization.
Q2. How could the changes in the organization have been made more successful? Debate.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Home Depot was the biggest retailer of home improvement products in the US in the early 2000s. The company was also well
known for its entrepreneurial and laissez-faire culture, a culture fostered by co-founders Bernie Marcus and Arthur Blank, who led
the company from 1978 to 2000. In late 2000 however, the board appointed Robert Nardelli, a GE veteran, as CEO. Nardelli was
given the task of solving the problems that the company ran into in the late 1990s. Many cultural changes took place at Home Depot
under the leadership of Nardelli. Nardelli. He was responsible for changing Home Depot’s culture from an entrepreneurial and
informal one, to one that focused on processes. He also introduced a fair amount of centralization and managed to link the various
departments and regions of the company together.
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Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the evolution of a major retail organization from a startup-like culture to a mature industry leader
Q2. Analyze the effects of change in leadership on culture, especially when a company moves from the hands of its
founders to those of an outsider
Q3. Discuss the issues surrounding cultural transformation and the challenges faced by company outsiders in adapting
to culture and helping change it.
Q4. Explain the importance of cultural evolution for organizations and to understand that cultural evolution must occur
simultaneously with growth
Case (20
Marks)
Mr. Iyer was highly qualified, gold medalist and a most experienced scholar. He was appointed as Director General of an
international institute. There were three main branches, namely Education, Administration and Accounts at the HQs. He was very
diligent and from the day he joined, he worked overtime and made others too to sit overtime, after normal office hours. Mr. Iyer
acted as if he knew every activities of the institute and never trusted anybody. Whatever the branches head did, he again worked
himself and started finding faults in their works. The officers and staff soon started feeling uncomfortable and Mr. Iyr could not meet
the targets given by the management of the school. Though the staff obeyed him and worked overtime but the output of the Institute
miserably decreased. The management of the school gave him 2 months to improve the situation, but he failed. Ultimately the
services of a highly qualified, gold medalist CEO had to be terminated by the management of the school.
Answer the following question.
Q1. What were the reasons of the failure of newly appointed D.G?
Q2. Had you been there in his position how you should have proceeded from the very beginning.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
On July 28, 2009, a man walked up to the counter of a branch of KeyBank in Seattle, pushed a black bag across the counter, and
ordered the teller to hand over money. Jim Nicholson (Nicholson), the 30-year-old bank teller who had worked for the bank for more
than two years, stood up to the man and demanded to see the weapon. On July 30, 2009, an employee of KeyBank found himself
fired from his job two days after he had prevented an attempted robbery at the bank by confronting the would-be-robber and
overpowering him.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Jim Nicholson was able to prevent the robbery and save the people in the bank from potential harm. Do you think
the end justified the means in this case – did Nicholson do the right thing in confronting the would-be bank robber?
Q2. Did KeyBank do the right thing in firing Jim Nicholson? Would a warning or suspension have been better
disciplinary action?
Business Communication
Case Studies
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Shoppers ‘Delight’s large retail store, had above-average quality and competitive prices. It advertised its retail promotions in local
newspapers. Its TV advertising was mainly aimed at building store image and did not address retail promotions. The management
knew it well that they had to advertise their retail promotions more, but they did not feel comfortable with the effectiveness of
persent efforts and wanted to better understand the impact of their present promotions. To better understand the effectiveness of the
present efforts, a study of advertising exposure, interpretation, and purchases was undertaken. Researchers conducted 50 in-depth
interviews with customers of the store’s target market to determine the appropriate product mix, price, ad copy and media, In
addition, the store,s image and that of its two competitors were measured. Based on the research findings, different product lines that
would appeal to the target customer were selected. The retail promotion was run for a full week .Full-page advertisements were
released each day in the two local Hindi newspapers, and also in one English newapaper that devotes six pages to the coverage of the
state. Each evening, a sample of 100 target market customers were interviewed by telephone as follows:1 .Target customers were
asked if they had read the newspaper that day .This was done to determine their exposure to advertisement.2.After a general
description of the product lines, the respondents were asked to recall any related retail advertisements they had seen or read.3.if the
respondents were able to recall, they were asked to describe the ad, the promoted products, sale prices, and the name of the
sponsoring store.4.If the respondents were accurate in their ad interpretation ,they were asked to express their intentions to
purchase.5.Respondents were also asked for suggestions to be incorporated in future promotions targeted at this consumer segment
.Immediately after the close of promotion,500target market customers were surveyed to determine what percentage of the target
market actually purchased the promoted products. It also determined which sources of information influenced them in their decision
to purchase and the amount of their purchase. Results of the study showed that ad exposure was 75% and ad awareness level was
68% and was considered as high. Only 43% respondents exposed to and aware of the ad copay could accurately recall important
details, such as the name of the store promoting the retail sale. Just 43% correct interpretation was considered as low. Of those who
could accurately interpret the ad copay ,32% said they intended to respond by purchasing the advertised products and 68 per cent sad
they had no intention to buy. This yields an overall intention to buy of 7%.The largest area of lost opportunity was due to those who
did not accurately interpret the ad copay. The post-promotion survey indicated that only 4.2% of the target market customers made
purchases of the promoted products during the promotion period. In terms of how these buyers learned of the promotion,46%
mentioned newspaper A(Hindi) ,27% newspaper B (Hindi),8% newspaper c( English), and 15% learned about sale through word-ofmouth
communication. The retail promotion was judged as successful in many ways, besides yielding sales worth
Rs.900,000.However ,management was concerned about not achieving a higher level of ad comprehension, missing a significant
sales opportunity. It was believed that a better ad would have at least 75% correct comprehension among those aware of the ads. This
in turn would almost double sales without any additional cost.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case
Q2. How do you think survey helps to determine the preferences and other needs of consumers?
Q3. Prepare a survey questionnaire of any company of your choice?
Q4. Surveys are suitable of certain types of products and brands. Comment.
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CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
It is not enough to be an outstanding business expert only back at home. As a member of the European Union, Hungary is in great
need of business and communication professionals who are able to understand the challenges and key issues of international
economic relations in order to exploit any opportunities that may arise. If you are seeking to do that, you need secure knowledge of
economic and business matters, a fluent command of a second language for professional purposes and thorough practical and work
experience. The International Business Economics program of MET offers exactly that. Our graduate students, with professional
level ability in at least two foreign languages, leave school as well-trained business experts with the potential to achieve success and
immediate results in the international business scene. THE PROGRAM IS DESIGNED FOR INDIVIDUALS WHO are well
informed with a keen interest in the world of international business, politics and the media, who look to find their future career in an
international environment and who are open to exposure to foreign cultures. Future students should also be able to use two foreign
languages for most personal needs with a desire to improve their existing language skills so that they become an important asset both
in their future career and for their companies.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Why the knowledge of at least two foreign languages is necessary for international business? Discuss.
Q2. Give an overview of the case.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Ability to swap content out quickly —Prior to rolling out the SnapComms solution, the insurance company were limited to what
they could put on staff screensavers. This was due to the fact that pushing out screensaver content to staff computers was only done
once per quarter, so the ability to change what was displayed was time consuming for the desktop team. With the SnapComms
Screensaver Messages solution, the Communications team have complete control of when screensavers are displayed, how many are
displayed at once, and they now have the additional benefit of being able to target specific screensavers to different parts of the
business. The assigned message administrators can deploy a screensaver whenever they need to, without engaging the Desktop
Support team to push it out manually, making the whole process a lot more efficient. SnapComms has addressed the issues that were
impacting staff communications at the insurance company. Important communications now get the cut through they need in order to
keep staff informed of potential issues at their location in real time. The Communications team now has the ability to run targeted
internal communications campaigns without having to rely on the desktop support team. And the Compliance manager has the
ability disseminate compliance communications across the business, with an eye to the future of being able to quiz staff on policies
and track results in real time.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case
Q2. “SnapComms does more than just reduce email overload” Comment.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
When you do business internationally, you may assume that all businesspeople have the same basic understandings. Although you
will find a common appreciation for making profits and reducing costs, you may run across business approaches that surprise you.
Diverse cultures have different business values and practices. A little effort at gaining some cultural literacy can help you deal
successfully with people around the globe. It’s important that you demonstrate that you are a global citizen so international customers
are willing to do business with you. It’s not realistic to set a goal of gaining a deep understanding of all the cultures you may deal
with in the course of growing your international marketing. Instead, aim for a core competency. According to an article in “Profit”
magazine, you can look at six areas of knowledge you need: Familiarize yourself with cultural attitudes about dealing with strangers,
language barriers, how groups respond to sales pitches as either favors or cut-and-dried presentations, local channels you must use
for brand awareness, the technical proficiency and capacity of the country or region and how the culture views the importance of
doing things on time or relaxing about meeting times and deadline dates. You must understand how a culture views business dealings
so you know what style to use when approaching businesspeople in that culture. Some cultures look at a transaction as a favor
among friends, while others embrace the more American style of a straightforward discussion about making money. Still others may
allow business discussions only in certain settings and frown on them at other times. Look into this aspect of the culture before you
make any business proposals. You can evaluate your business transactions with a culture different from your own in light of that
culture’s contextual clues. This helps you avoid gaffes and create business communications that have a positive impact. The country’s
history and assumptions about Americans can affect how your message is received. Be sensitive to hot-button issues and avoid any
phrases or words that could suggest you look down on the culture or that you consider the person you’re dealing with to be a secondclass
citizen in his own culture. This kind of cultural literacy is of utmost importance when you communicate so you can avoid
unintentional negative cultural messages when conducting business. Using internationally accepted word choices and phrases
ensures your business dealings won’t be misunderstood. Some American phrases do not translate well. For example, “We shall see”
means “No” in China. Other phrases such as, “Flying by the seat of our pants” or “Ballpark figure” may not have any meaning at all
in other cultures. Scrutinize your written communications for figurative language that may not translate. In addition, cut your verbal
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communications to the basics. It’s important for a company doing global business to remember that the language at its home office
may not be universal.
Answer the following question.
Q1. How can you increase business by increasing awareness of cultures? Discuss.
Q2. Why International Business Communication is important? Debate.

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INDIAN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND
ADMINISTRATION
AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Name : AMBARISH M Marks : 80
Course : Masters in Business Administration (MBA 4 Sem)
Subject : Human Resource Management
Case Studies
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
A manufacturing company was importing raw material for production. The company was incurring huge losses due to delay in
import clearance of raw material as Custom had introduced a new system of clearance of imported cargo through EDI. Mr. Rajan,
who was an old employee of the company, was the in charge of clearance team. He was very diligent, honest and an asset to the
company. But somehow, he was reluctant to switch over to the electronics clearance system of customs. He firmly believed in
custom clearances of stores through hard copies of Bill of entry. He was due for promotion. But his later performance was denying
him the promotion. Company wanted to help him.
Answer the following question.
Q1. What may be the reason for adopting the same old procedure by Mr. Rajan.
Q2. Debate as a HR Manager, how will you help Rajan so he does not loose promotion?
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
This small organization was struggling to retain valuable employees as larger companies were luring people away with larger
salaries. However, the people who left the company were often asking to return as their salary was larger in the new firm but their
take-home pay was less as a result of higher benefit costs. As such, we implemented our Statements and met with employees
individually to review the Statements. The reaction to the Wage & Benefit Statements was overwhelmingly positive as most
employees didn’t fully understand the value of the “hidden benefits” provided by the company such as health insurance, life
insurance, matching 401(k) payments, etc.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case.
Q2. Discuss why the take-home salary was less in larger new Give an overview of the case companies.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
In a pharmacy company manufacturing and marketing drugs and medicines, the research staff has developed a number of new
products and formulations which are effective. But at the same time it has to meet severe competition from stalwarts with foreign
collaboration. Mr. Shah, the Vice President Marketing, has a very successful Pharmacy Marketing background. He has been with the
company for the past 4 years. Mr. Shah had made ambitious plans for capturing a sizeable share of the market in Gujarat. The
company being medium sized, Mr. Shah had kept his marketing department and the marketing team lean and trim. The field sales
staff was given aggressive targets and was virtually pushed to reach the respective targets. The field staff worked to their best
abilities to complete their respective targets. Mr. Shah had himself been working almost 11-12 hours a day. There was no formal
appraisal and reward system in the company. During last 5 years more than 60 Medical Representatives and Area Supervisors had
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left the company due to unsatisfactory increments and promotions. Those who left the company were star workers. But Mr. Shah did
not care for this high turnover. He was over confident that he would be able to hire fresher’s and also select Candidates who were not
happy with their remuneration in their respective companies. Mr. Shah had never communicated to the field sales staff about their
performance or reasons for not recognizing their outstanding performance in a few cases. There was on the whole great
dissatisfaction and good performers were leaving the company.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Enumerate the steps you will take to correct the situation?
Q2. In the event of your suggesting a Performance Appraisal System, what type of appraisal system would be suitable
and why.
Q3. Discuss, if the appraisal system should also include merit, rewards and promotions.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
In 2007, Rolls Royce decided to close down one of its manufacturing units in Merseyside, UK. This led to a large-scale retrenchment
of its workforce. The decision was massively resented by the largest trade union body of the UK, Unite. They felt that Rolls Royce
was unjustly retrenching its highly skilled and loyal workforce. It doubted the company’s real intention behind the proposed closure.
The company totally nullified the allegations made by Union. It claimed that to circumvent the rising overhead expenses, it had been
forced by circumstances to take such a measure. This resulted in industrial disputes and mass agitations by the workers.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the factors that instigated the retrenchment of the skilled workforce of Rolls Royce.
Q2. Analyze the role of HR policies in shaping the image of a company.


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Case No : 1
VENKY’S OF VENKATESHWARA HATCHERIES
Venkateshwara Hatcheries which went public recently is one of the most modern plants in poultry business
in Asia. They have 60 p.c. market share of chicken marketed in the country. Dr. B.V. Rao of Venkateshwara
Hatcheries expired in 1996. His daughter Anuradha Desai is now the Chairperson and M.D. of VHL. In the
beginning they had an Executive Director Gulam Harjanwalla who professionalized chicken marketing.
Sajid Peerbhoy’s Speer ad agency was chosen. The brief given to Speer was “to market raw chicken in the
form of a full bird. Further, to market legs. To market legs and breast. To market curried pieces. And halfbird.”
The company also planned to market ready-to-fly pre-spiced chicken and to operate a chain of fast-food
outlets serving chicken fast food on the lines of McDonald’s.
Speer did some marketing research by focus group studies in Mumbai and then in Pune. The qualitative
reseaci1 (QR) findings were followed by quantitative research.
The following summarises the findings.
Occasions to use chicken:
(a) On special occasions
(b) On Sundays
(c) As a special treat
(d) Cook it for guests
(e) First non-veg food to which vegetay1ans graduated.
(f) Each mother cherishes her own special recipe for a chicken dish. She prides herself on it.
The ideal chicken was: Freshly chicken.
The convenient option was: Frozen chicken.
The following are the demerits of the frozen chicken:
(a) It does not taste good.
(b) It does not cook fast.
(c) It requires a lot of water to cook.
The Inconveniences in getting fresh chicken were:
(a) It is more and more difficult to get it near-by.
(b) The search consumes time.
(c) It involves transportation cost.
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On deep probing, the consumer psychology while buying fresh chicken was one of guilt and disgust. The
birds look so cute, as they are young. Just a minute ago, they were alive. It is so awful. Those poor
creatures! Imagine them alive one minute, and then being eaten the next. It is so difficult to get used to this
process.
Advertising Strategy
It is not necessary to remind about live chicken. It is not necessary to see and think about raw chicken,
dressed or otherwise. The communication strategy should be to treat chicken as a vegetable. They are not to
be shown alive or in their ugly raw dressed form. The client was led step-by-step and was supportive.
Long-run Objective
Though chicken has high standing as a special food, we have to make it an almost twice or thrice a week
food item.
Positioning
It was necessary to overcome the negative barrier to frozen food. In the market, fresh chicken was in fact
frozen chicken vulnerable to bacterial contamination. The answer was a fact frozen chicken product.
Venky’s chickens were chilled by a special process: blast freezing. The position taken was that of
technological superiority. Venky’s unique freezing process makes it taste better and cook faster and melt
quickly.
Differentiation
It was a special breed of chicken, that was extra delicious to eat. It scores over ordinary frozen chicken and
even the freshly killed chicken. Brand Name
In spite of the Agency’s reservations, the Venky’s was chosen as brand name, since it was the name of the
M.D.’s son. The Agency had considered fifty other optional brand names. Marketing research showed
Venky’s connoted a South Indian image and was associated with vegetarian food. There were also
connections with Lord Venkateshwara.
Headlines
These worked hard to ward off negatives:
‘Chicken so fresh, it simply melts in your mouth. Reason: Superior blast freezing process.”
“Chicken so fresh, it’s only minutes old.”
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Promotion of Special Parts
The special parts were promoted as:
“The part you want are the parts you get.”
Execution
A simple mnemonic was used. Chicken was shown in a graphic from; one that did not turn off the house
wife, and yet looked modern.
The colour scheme used was of yellow and red colours, being happy and bright food colours. These colours
are appetising too.
For quick identification, a common symbol was used on all hoardings. ad material and at POP.
Success of the Launch
The launch created tremendous demand but the distribution was weak. There was the problem of spurious
brands.
The company strengthened the distribution network later. However consumer supplies were diverted to
institutional buyers leading to non-availability and spurious brands passing off as Venky’s.
The Agency advised premium pricing and quality policy. Instead, the company lowered the price. So many
persons dealt with the Agency. Each questioned and disagreed with the thinking of earlier persons. Gulam,
their E.D. left Venky’s. The number of out left were increased dramatically.
New Ad Agency
New agency was selected. It brought chicken again to a commodity position A good chicken that makes
tasty chicken dishes). Emphasis on blast freezing was dropped. Emphasis on blast freezing was dropped.
Raw chicken again appeared in the ads, contrary to research findings. Brand or product differentiation
strategy was dropped. Instead, emphasis was on different recipes.
Present Thinking
Venky’s is moving closer and closer to a commodity than a brand. It is fine as long as there is no
competition. The company perhaps believes that no one has the backing or volume of production to be a
threat to them. It is satisfied with a marginal price premium. Being a chicken monopoly, it can afford not to
have a marketing cutting edge. The following is their present ad copy:
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Questions (A)
(a) Comment on the advertising strategy adopted previously and currently.
(b) Comment on branding of food products, and their promotion.
(c) Can you think of a different creative strategy for a product like chicken?
Lip-sticks with permitted colours can also damage the lips since the stainers are tetra-bromo-fluorosine.
When rubbed against the palm, darkness of the stain will indicate the quantity of stainer present.
Darkening of lip colour also depends upon the bio-chemistry of individual’s lips.
Questions (B)
(a) The complete product knowledge is given in the above write-up. What do you think should be the copy
platform for these products? Indicate the theme, the appeal and the buying motives.
(b) Indicate a suitable media mix for advertising these products. Give your reasoning.
Case No : 2
ALEMBIC CHEMICAL WORKS LTD.
DIRECT MAILINGS OF ALCEPHIN: THE LEGEND
AMONG ANTIBIOTICS
The pharmaceutical companies have to do direct marketing by necessity as they cannot advertise ethical
products in layman’s media for him, but are required to promote only to the medical profession. They
produce fine visual aids and product literature which could either be sent as direct mailings to the medical
profession or can be delivered to them through medical representatives.
The Living Legends
What does one say about Lata Mangeshkar? That she has dominated the Indian film music scene for almost
four decades and promises to do so for atleast another decade? That she became a legend in her own life
time? That here is a musical genius which comes about just once in many centuries? One could say all
these things and yet be merely repeating what has been said a million times over. And yet there is so much
more to one is capturing one more vital as poet which one did not realize had existed in her. Such is the
quality of her singing.
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Very few of those who see her at the pinnacle of her success realise the amount of effort, hard work end
deprivation that have gone into building the facade which is so enviable. Born In Induce on September 28,
1929. Late Mangeshkar is the eldest in family of four sister, and a brother, all of whom have made a name in
the field of music. Daughter of the noted Marathi stage actor-singer Master Dinnanath Mangeshkar, Lata
revealed her musical genius at the tender age of five. Her first guru wee her own father and she avidly
followed his musical stage plays.
Late’s mother Mai Mangeshkar ha, one vivid memory of Lata as a child. It would seen that the young Late,
one day, was singing a song from one of her father’s. plays when she bumped against something. All rushed
toward the unconscious child and tried to revive her. When she came to, however, Lata continued with the
singing of the song as if nothing had happened. This dedication to music led to her debut on stage.
However, her father’s productive shadow was not to last for long. On April 24, 1942 Master Dinanath
passed away reportedly telling her “Except for the tanpura in the corner and these notebooks filled with
classical music and songs and God’s blessings. I have nothing elseto give you. “The family’spenury
compelled Lata to sign a contract with MasterVinayak’s Huna Pictures as an actress-singer. In the same
year,1942, she made her debut as a playback singer with Vasant Joglekar’s Kia Hasool in Marathi under the
baton of shripad Nevrekar .But taking up a career as a playback singer was still impossible. She continued
with her acting career, acting in Pahili Mangeshgar (Marathi 42) Chimna Sansar (Marathi43) More Bal
(Marathi 43) Gajadhan (Marathi 44) Badi Mao (Hindi 45) and Mandir (Hindi 48) With Mandir Lata seemed
to have reached a dead end. Mandir was Master Vinayak’s last film, after which he passed away. She was
no great shakes as an actress and her career in playback singing had not really taken off. Two Years earlier
she had made her debut in Hindi playback singing with Vasant Joglekar’s Aap Ki Sewa Afein under the
baton of composor Dutta Dawjekar but nothing much had happened. However, stars served more
benevolent. Ghulam Haider, who was then acoring the music for Majboor and who had seen and heard lata
in the early. Forties, signed her up to sing a song for the film. Within a week of singing this song. Lata
became the talk of the music world and was signed up by three other musical giants. Khemchand Prakash
for Mahal.
The most important thing is to make the mundane promotion outstanding by creative ideas. Promotion of
S.S. Oberoi came out with a set of 10 four-page folders for Alcephin based on the theme ‘The Living
Legends.’ The folders are extremely well-executed – well-designed and printed. The graphics and
typography and illustrations are appealing. The idea is outstanding. Ten living legends are chosen and
include names like Satyajit Ray (since then deceased), Mother Teresa, Baba Ainte, Lata Mangeshkar, Sunil
Gavaskar, R.K. Laxman, Abdul Kalain and Shivram Karanth. Each folder deals exclusively with one
legend. The selection covers a wide cross-section of interests.
Each folder is well-researched. It brings out the circumstances that inspired the magic in each of them. It
becomes a collector’s series. The centre-spread has the manufacturer’s plug. A short write-up on the
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characteristics of Alcephin and the line ‘The Legend Among Antibiotics.’ It is not intrusive at all. Yet it is
effective.
Questions
(a) Which other businesses/products can be suitable candidates for direct marketing? What promotional
techniques can be employed?
(b) Please do some research of your own on direct mailings of pharmaceutical companies. What are your
reactions?
(c) Put on your thinking cap. Identify a there for a campaign of one general tonic.
CASE : 3 : IS SUPER BOWL ADVERTISING SUPER EFFECTIVE ?
About 140 million Americans and 700 million total global viewers tune in to Super Bowl Sunday, making
the event one of the largest occasions for home entertainment. Advertising time during the Super Bowl is
limited and priced at a premium. The fight for the prime spots starts months in advance of the actual
airtime. In 1993, the cost for a 30 – second time slot was a high $850,000, but by 1997 the cost had shot to
$1.2 million for the same short time frame. In 1998, a 30-second spot during the Super Bowl cost $1.3
million. In 2000, a 30-second spot during the Super bowl cost companies a record average of $2.2 million.
Dot.com companies that have since failed or are struggling to keep their heads above water purchased forty
percent of the Super Bowl ad slots in 2000. For the 2001 Super Bowl XXXVI, the average rate for an
advertising spot was approximately 2.1 million.
In 2002, during Super Bowl XXXVI, Fox Network offered 60 commercial spots for a total of 30
minutes of advertising time. The average selling price for each 30-second spot was just under $2 million, at
$ 1.9 million each. Companies who paid for commercial time during Super Bowl XXXVI included
Anheuser- Busch, who purchased ten 30 – second spots, Pepsi Co, who featured one 90-second commercial
starring Britney Spears, E-trade, M & M/Mars, AT & T Wireless, Levi Strauss, Yahoo, Visa and fast food
chains Quizno’s Taco Bell, and Subway are among others.
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Although Fox did end up selling all of the available ad spots, the network did not sell the final ad
until the Thursday before the game. There are several reasons for the selling delay and for the reduced rates
in 2002. First, marketers were facing the “worst advertising recession in recent memory.” This caused
companies to carefully monitor how they spent their advertising budgets and many decided that the money
could be better applied elsewhere. Many companies chose to advertise during other prime time events that
were more affordable. The average rate for a 30-second spot during the early evening news in 2002 was
$45,900. Even events such as the Golden Globes (estimated price $45,000 per 30-second spot), the
Grammies (estimated price $57,000 per 30-second spot), and the Academy Awards (estimated price $1.6
million per 30-second spot) offer companies ad time at lower rates. However, these events do not draw as
many viewers as the Super Bowl. Secondly, the NFL, for the first time, sponsored a pre-game show on the
Friday night before the Super Bowl. Some companies, such as AOL Time Warner, Phillip Morris, Miller
Brewing Co., and Motorola chose to avoid paying “television’s highest commercial prices” and bought ad
time for lower rates during the pre-game show. A final reason for lower rates and less marketer interest in
Super Bowl ad time was competition from the 2002 Olympic Winter Games. The games began just five
days after the Super Bowl and offered 17 days of events during which advertisers could buy commercial
time. The average selling rate for a 30-second prime time spot during the Olympics was only $600,000, a
bargain compared to the Super Bowl.
Is Super Bowl advertising worth the cost? For many advertisers who bought time slots in previous
games the answer was a resounding no. Nissan, Porsche, Fila and MCI passed on the chance to advertise
during the game. According to marketing consultant Jack Trout, the increasing rates made buying Super
Bowl ad time difficult to justify. Nissan marketing Chief Brad Bradshaw stated that although the company
had intended to advertise during the game, it came to the conclusion that the resources could be better used
to sell its vehicles in other ways.
In addition to the cost factor, many question what effect advertising actually has on the audience.
The purpose of an advertisement is to increase customer awareness for a particular brand. For Super Bowl
ads, however, the brand name often becomes secondary to the commercial itself in terms of viewer
attention. Super Bowl ads have become events in and of themselves, with each firm trying to put out the
next earth-shattering commercial that will stir talk about the commercial itself. Ever since Apple
computer’s classic “1984” ad, firms have been trying to top previous years’ ads. Ad agencies and clients
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often seem to shoot for ads that are extraordinary for the sake or creativity, rather than their intended
purpose, with many attention-getting promotions not translating into product purchases. It is questionable
whether brand name is retained, and so despite having an incredible commercial, many advertisers’ ad
dollars possibly goes into just providing new fodder for water cooler conversation for the week instead of
forming a lasting brand image in the minds of consumers. Without new research into the effectiveness of
Super Bowl advertising and its effect on consumers, many advertisers may be better off avoiding buying
Super Bowl ad time and abandoning the world’s biggest television audience.
Some advertisers like Purina Cat Chow have taken a slightly different approach by purchasing
airtime on the show directly following the Super Bowl. They obtained airtime at one-sixth of the cost
during the game and they believe that they retain approximately 40 percent of the audience. Which
advertiser got the biggest bang for the bucks: M & M/Mars that advertised during Super Bowl 2002, or
Purina Cat Chow that advertised after the game? Without systematic marketing research aimed at
measuring Super Bowl advertising effectiveness, questions such as these beg answers. It remains to be
established that Super Bowl advertising is super effective?
Questions:
1. What kind of research design would you recommend for determining the effectiveness of M &
M/Mars advertising during the Super Bowl?
2. If the research design involves a survey of households, which survey method would you
recommend and why?
3. What kind of measures and scales will you employ in your survey?
4. Can the observation method be used to determine the effectiveness of M & M/Mars advertising
during the Super Bowl? If so, which observation method would you recommend and why?
5. Which syndicated services discussed in the book can provide useful information ?
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CASE NO : 4 : NIKE SPRINTS AHEAD OF THE COMPETITION,
YET HAS A LONG WAY TO RUN
Nike, Inc.(www.nike.com), located in Beaverton, Oregon, is the number one U.S. athletic footwear
company and one of the most recognized American brands among foreign consumers. This high degree of
recognition is one of the main reasons Nike has been so successful. For the 2001 fiscal year ended May 31,
2001, the company continued to soar, with sales of over $9.5 billion.
Perhaps such success could be attributed to its concept – based advertising campaigns. The company
uses a process that is often called “image transfer”. Nike ads traditionally did not specifically place a
product – or mention the brand name. A mood or atmosphere was created and then the brand is associated
with that mood. “We don’t set out to make ads. The ultimate goal is to make a connection,” states Dan
Weiden, executive of one of Nike’s ad agencies. One ad featured the Beatles and clips of Nike athletes,
Michael Jordan and John McEnroe, juxtaposed with pictures of regular folks also engaged in sports. It was
used to infer that real athletes prefer Nike and that perhaps if the general audience buys the brand they will
play better too. Nike’s unpredictable image-based ads have ranged from shocking, such as its portrayal of
real blood and guts in a “Search and Destroy” campaign usesd during the 1996 Olympic games, to
humorous, such as the first ad used to launch Michael Jordan’s Jordan brand wear. The latter advertising
made the tongue – in – cheek suggestion that Jordan himself had a hand in production by slipping away
from a Bulls’ game at half time to run over to his company and then return in time for the game’s second
half.
In 1998, Nike shifted to a new phase in its marketing strategy. Nike emphasized more of its product
innovation skills than the jockey, edgy attitude that it displayed in previous years. “We recognize that our
ads need to tell consumers that we’re about product innovation and not just athletes and exposure. We need
to prove to consumers that we’re not just slapping a swoosh (the company trademark) on stuff to make a
buck,” said Chris Zimmerman, director of Nike’s U.S. advertising. With the launch of the “I can”
campaign, Nike showed less of the celebrity athletes that previously adorned its marketing output and
showed more product usage than in the previous “Just Do It” campaign. Competitors Reebok and Adidas
recently featured more product-focused ads and were met with a great deal of success. Despite this
rearranged focus, Nike did not back away from innovative marketing.
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Nike continues to excel in the advertising arena. Nike was named one of 2001’s best in advertising
by Time magazine for its ad featuring expert dribblers doing trick moves. Time is quoted as saying the ad
conveyed a message that “Sport is music. Sport is dance. Sport is art.” Nike states that this ad was their
most popular ad in 20 years. Another popular ad from 2001 was known as the “Take Me Out to the
Ballgame” ad. This particular ad featured professional athletes from varying sports singing one line of the
song. “Take Me Out to the Ballgame” in their native language.
As the company looks ahead to 2010, at the heart of Nike’s future strategy is the international arena,
which could prove to be the most difficult element for Nike to undertake. There seemed to be a pretty
strong recognition that by 2010, Nike would be larger outside of the U.S. than inside. As of 2003,
international sales comprised one-third of Nike’s business. Nike would like to expand into the soccer and
international sports arena, but to do so, it would have to refocus its marketing and distribution in order to reestablish
itself as an authentic, technically superior sports shoe.
In February 2001, Nike unveiled its latest technological revolution, the Nike Shox, to United
Kingdom consumers. This shoe was in development for 16 years, and Nike hoped it would revolutionize
the sports shoe market in much the same way that NikeAir did when it was launched in the UK in the 1980s.
One reporter in London states that his pair of Nike Shox makes him feel like he is “walking on cloud nine
with a spring in (his) step.” The shoes are reported to provide support, comfort, shock absorbency, and style
all at the same time. The Nike Shox line of athletic shoes is shaping up to be very popular in both the U.S.
and the U.K.
Most recently, Nike bought out many of its worldwide distribution centers in order to achieve greater
control of its operations. In the future, Nike would like to build up its presence in the key markets of China,
Germany, Mexico, and Japan. Nike will focus its advertising on sports, and will feature sports that are of a
particular interest in specific regions. Nike realizes that while it is ahead of competition, it still has a long,
long way to run.
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Questions:
1. Should Nike switch from a focus on celebrities to a focus on its products in its advertising?
Discuss the role of marketing research in helping Nike management make this decision. What
kind of research should be undertaken /
2. How would you describe the buying behavior of consumers with respect to athletic footwear?
3. What is the management decision problem facing Nike as it attempts to retain its leadership
position?
4. Define the marketing research problem facing Nike, given the management decision problem
you have identified.
5. Develop two suitable research questions and formulate two hypotheses for each.
6. How can the Internet be used to help Nike in conducting marketing research, and in marketing
its products?

BUSINESS ETHICS
Page 2 of 3
CASE -1 (20 Marks)
Joan, an employee of Great American Market, was warned about her excessive absenteeism several
times, both verbally and in writing. The written warning included notice that “further violations will
result in disciplinary actions,” including suspension or discharge.
A short time after the written warning was issued, Joan called work to say she was not going to be in
because her babysitter had called in sick and she had to stay home and care for her young child. Joan’s
supervisor, Sylvia, told her that she had already exceeded the allowed number of absences and warned
that if she did not report to work, she could be suspended. When Joan did not report for her shift,
Sylvia suspended her for fifteen days.
In a subsequent hearing, Joan argued that it was not her fault that the babysitter had canceled, and
protested that she had no other choice but to stay home. Sylvia pointed out that Joan had not made a
good faith effort to find an alternate babysitter, nor had she tried to swap shifts with a co-worker.
Furthermore, Sylvia said that the lack of a babysitter was not a justifiable excuse for being absent.
Questions:
1. Was the suspension fair?
2. Did Joan act responsibly?
3. Should she be fired?
CASE-2 (20 Marks)
You own a cement company, and deal with most the local contractors for cement, sand, etc. You have
a reputation of high quality products, and for good customer service with your customers. Your
foreman has just run the standard quality control tests you have performed regularly on your products.
When the test results are ready, you discover that the new batch of product is 9% less durable than
your usual material. It is still well above all industry standards and meets all building codes and
requirements for the purposes for which it is intended, but it is, nevertheless, not up to your usual
standards. Throwing it away would cost your company many thousands of dollars.
You decide to sell the cement anyway.
Questions:
1) Should you tell your customers?
2) Should you discount the price?
3) Should you tell your employees, so they will be knowledgeable with the customers?
4) Would you use this cement on foundations for your own house?
Page 2 of 3
CASE-3 (20 Marks)
Fred, a 17-year employee with Sam’s Sauna, was fired for poor job performance and poor attendance,
after accruing five disciplinary penalties within a 12-month period under the company’s progressive
disciplinary policy. A week later, Fred told his former supervisor that he had a substance abuse
problem.
Although there was no employee assistance program in place and the company had not been aware of
Fred’s condition, their personnel director assisted Fred in obtaining treatment by allowing him to
continue receiving insurance benefits and approved his unemployment insurance claim.
Fred subsequently requested reinstatement, maintaining that he had been rehabilitated since his
discharge and was fully capable of being a productive employee. He pointed to a letter written by his
treatment counselor, which said that his prognosis for leading a “clean, sober lifestyle” was a big
incentive for him. Fred pleaded for another chance, arguing that his past problems resulted from drug
addiction and that Sam’s Saunas should have recognized and provided treatment for the problem.
Sam’s Saunas countered that Fred should have notified his supervisor of his drug problem, and that
everything possible had been done to help him receive treatment. Moreover, the company stressed that
the employee had been fired for poor performance and absenteeism. Use of the progressive discipline
policy had been necessary because the employee had committed a string of offenses over the course of
a year, including careless workmanship, distracting others, wasting time, and disregarding safety rules.
Questions:
1) Should Fred be reinstated?
2) Was the company fair to Fred in helping him receive treatment?
3) Did the personnel director behave ethically toward Fred?
4) Did he act ethically for his company?
5) Would it be fair to other employees to reinstate Fred?
CASE-4 (20 Marks)
In January of last year, the S.S. Vulgass, an oil tanker of the Big Dirty Oil Company ran around in the
area just north of Vancouver, spilling millions of gallons of crude into the waters and onto the beaches
of British Columbia and southern Alaska. The damage to the beaches and wildlife and consequently to
the tourist industry, the ecology and the quality of life of the local residents is incalculable, but in any
case will require many millions of dollars for even the most minimal clean-up.
The ship struck a small atoll, well-marked on the navigational maps, but it was a dark night and the
boat was well off course. On further investigation, it was discovered that the Captain of the Vulgass,
Mr. Slosh, had been drinking heavily. Leaving the navigation of the ship to his first mate, Mr. Mudd,
he retired to his cabin, to “sleep it off.” Mr. Mudd had never taken charge of the ship before, and it is
now clear that he misread the maps, misjudged the waters, maintained a speed that was inappropriate
and the accident occurred. Subsequent inquiries showed that Captain Slosh had been arrested on two
drunk driving convictions within months of the accident. The Vulgass itself, a double-hulled tanker,
was long due for renovation and, it was suggested, would not have cracked up if the hull had been
trebly reinforced, as some current tankers were.
Page 2 of 3
R. U. Rich, the Chief Executive Officer of Big Dirty Oil declared the accident a “tragedy” and offered
two million dollars to aid in the clean up. The Premier of British Columbia was outraged.
Environmental groups began a consumer campaign against Big Dirty Oil, urging customers to cut up
and send in their Big Dirty Oil credit cards in protest. In a meeting to the shareholders just last month,
CEO Rich proudly announced the largest quarterly profit in the history of the Big Dirty Oil Company.
He dismissed the protests as “the outpourings of Greenies and other fanatics” and assured the
shareholders that his obligation was, and would always be, to assure the highest profits possible in the
turmoil of today’s market.
Questions:
1) The question is, who is responsible?
2) Against whom should criminal charges be leveled?
3) What should be done, if anything, to punish the corporation itself?
4) What about the CEO?

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
2 | P a g e
CASE-1 (16 Marks)
Bloomsday Outfitters produces T-shirts for road races. They need to acquire some new stamping
machines to produce 30,000 good T-shirts per month. Their plant operates 200 hours per month, but
the new machines will be used for T-shirts only 60 percent of the time and the output usually includes
5 percent that are “seconds” and unusable. The stamping operation takes 1 minute per T-shirt, and the
stamping machines are expected to have 90 percent efficiency considering adjustments, changeover of
patterns, and unavoidable downtime. How many stamping machines are required?
CASE-2 (16 Marks)
In the table given below the Distribution Manager is expected to service these DCs as per the demands
placed. If the actual sales after completing week one is as follows, what would be the quantities that
would need amendment as far as Distribution Manager is concerned to service for week two and
onwards?
After week one the actual sales to Forecasted sales for week one ratio is as under: Mumbai did 80 % of
forecast , Lucknow did 75 % of forecast Kolkata did 60 % of week one forecast Chennai did 125 % of
forecast and Delhi did 150 % of week one forecast
Note : Kolkata will receive transit stocks in week 2 .
3 | P a g e
CASE-3 (16 Marks)
After working for 30 years, Ramjee Somjee Dutt opted for VRS and started a courier company and did
very well in the first four years. He was now looking for expansion of his business and decided to
venture into Road transportation business between Chennai and Mumbai and Mumbai and Delhi as he
felt that he could do well on this line. However before taking a final decision he hires your
Management Consultant firm formed by yourself. He has requested you to work out the Price to quote
his clients for these two routes considering the costs involved. He expects to earn a minimum profit of
Rs 1000 per day per truck after meeting all expenses. Your analysis of market conditions tell you the
following:
Vehicle cost Rs 7 lacs Depreciation 15 % Maintenance costs per day Rs 150 Drivers monthly Salary
Rs 5000 : Attendants monthly salary Rs 3000 . Misc expenses Rs 200 per day. Driver allowance is Rs
125 per day and attendant gets Rs 75. Diesel cost per liter is Rs 25 and the vehicle gives an average
mileage of 4 km to a liter. The Financial institutions offer loans at 10 % interest pa, which Ramjee has
been negotiating. It has been observed that on an average the vehicle covers 400 km per day. The
distance between Mumbai to Delhi is 1500 km and Mumbai to Chennai is 1350 km. The driver gets
rest day in Mumbai only for one day after they return from any trip.
CASE-4 (16 Marks)
A company is operating in two unrelated businesses. The first one is making common salt, which is
sold in one-kilogram consumer packs. The second business is making readymade garments. The owner
of the businesses has decided to implement Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) in one of the two
businesses, which is likely to give him greater benefit. Assuming that the current turnover and profits
of both the units are comparable, compare the relative benefits and limitations of Materials
Requirement Planning (MRP) for these two businesses.
CASE-5 (16 Marks)
A Manufacturer of motorcycles buys spark plugs at Rs.15 each. Now he wishes to manufacture the
plugs in his own factory. The estimated cost for the manufacture of spark plugs is around
Rs.50,000=00 and the variable cost comes to Rs.5 per spark plug. The Production Manager advises the
Manufacturer that the factory should go for manufacturing instead of procuring them from the open
market.
List out reasons for the decision of the Production Manager backed up by the necessary data.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Attempt all questions
1. Give a detailed description on “Detailed Project Report”. Indicate the Pros and Cons of it also.
(10 Marks)
2. What is Project Management Information System? Why is a Project Management Information
System considered to be of immense importance in a project? In designing a Project Management
Information System what parameters are to be spelt out clearly in line with the objectives of the
Project management Information System? (20 Marks)
3. Technology and processes play crucial role in certain projects. What the key issues are in regards
to choice of technology, equipment and processes at the stage of formulation of Detailed Project
Report?
(10 Marks)
4. Given the activity mean and Standard Deviation, Find the probability that the project will take
more than 10 weeks to complete. (20 Marks)
Activity
Mean Standard Deviation
1 – 2 5 1
2 – 3 4 1
1 – 3 8 1
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
5. For the following network data ,
(20 Marks)
(a) Identify the Critical Path and its duration
(b) Calculate the total network slack time.
Job
(Activity)
Network
Initial Node
Network
Final Node
Estimated Time(days)
A 1 2 2
B 1 3 3
C 1 4 3
D 2 5 3
E 2 9 3
F 3 5 1
G 3 6 2
H 3 7 3
I 4 7 5
J 4 8 3
K 5 6 3
L 6 9 4
M 7 9 4
N 8 9 3
O 9 10 2


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Operation Management
Page 1 Out of 1
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks
1. Ilhan’s, a local bakery, is worried about increased costs – particularly energy. Last year’s
records can provide a fairly good estimate of the parameters for this year. Ilhan Balci,
the owner, does not believe things have changed much, but he did invest an additional 3
000 MU for modifications to the bakery’s ovens to make them more energy efficient. The
modifications were supposed to make the ovens at least 15 % more efficient. I. Balci has
asked you, as a brilliant graduate of EMU, to check the energy savings of the new ovens
and also look over other measures of the bakery’s productivity to see if the
modifications were beneficial. You have the following data to work with:
2. Serra’s Ceramics spent 3 000 MU on a new kiln last year, in the belief that it would cut
energy usage 25 % over the old kiln. This kiln is an oven that turns “greenware” into
finished pottery. Serra is concerned that the new kiln requires extra labour hours for its
operation. Serra wants to check the energy saving of the new oven, and also to look over
other measures of their productivity to see if the change really was beneficial.
Serra has the following data to work with:
Were the modifications BENEFICIAL?
Last Year Now
Production (dozen) 1500 1500
Labour (hours) 350 325
Capital Investment (MU) 15 000 18 000
Energy (kw-hrs) 3 000 2 750
Last Year This Year
Production (finished units) 4000 4000
Greenware (pounds) 5000 5000
Labour (hrs) 350 375
Capital (MU) 15000 18000
Energy (kWh) 3000 2600
Page 1 Out of 1
3. Suzan has a part-time “cottage-industry” producing seasonal plywood yard ornaments
for resale at local craft fairs and bazaars. She currently works a total of 4 hours per day
to produce 10 ornaments.
a. What is her productivity?
b. She thinks that by redesigning the ornaments and switching from use of a wood glue to a
hot-glue gun she can increase her production to 20 ornaments per day. What is her new
productivity?
c. What is her percentage increase (or decrease) in productivity?
4. A company has asked YOU to evaluate the firm’s productivity by comparing this year’s
performance with last year’s. The following data are available:
Last Year This Year
OUTPUT 10500
units
12100
units
Labour Hours 12000 13200
Utilities 7600 MU 8250 MU
Capital 8300 MU 88000 MU
Has the company improved its PRODUCTIVITY during the past year?
5. Mr. Ilhan DALCI makes billiard balls in his Beyarmudu plant. With a recent increase in
taxes, his costs have gone up and he has a newfound interest in efficiency. Mr.Dalci is
interested in determining the productivity of his organisation. He would like to know if
his organisation is maintaining the manufacturing average of 3% increase in
productivity. He has the following data representing a month from last year and an
equivalent month this year.
__________________Last year Now
Units produced 1 000 1 000
Labour (hours) 300 275
Resin (kg.s) 50 45
Capital invested (MU) 10 000 11 000
Energy (BTU) 3 000 2 850
Show the productivity change for each category and then determine the IMPROVEMENT for
labour- hrs, the typical standard for comparison.
Page 1 Out of 1
6. Haldun LOP, the production manager of LOP Chemicals, in Gazimagusa, TRNC, is preparing
his quarterly report which is to include a productivity analysis for his department. One of the
inputs is production data prepared by Meltem SERIN, his operation analyst. The report,
which she gave him this morning, showed the following:
2005 2006
Production (units) 4500 6000
Raw Material Used (barrels ofPetroleum byproducts)
700 900
Labour Hours 22000 28000
Capital Cost applied to the Department (MU) 375000 620000
Haldun LOP wondered if his productivity had increased at all. He called Meltem into his office
and conveyed the above information to her and asked her to proceed with preparing this part
of the report. (Include your interpretations for each productivity figure)
7. Ahmet Uslu makes wooden boxes in which to ship motorcycles. Ahmet and his three
employees invest 40 hours per day making the 120 boxes.
a. What is their productivity?
b. Ahmet and his employees have discussed redesigning the process to
improve efficiency. If they can increase the rate to 125 per day, what
would be their new productivity?
c. What would be their increase in productivity?
8. The manager of a local firm says “the forecasting techniques are more trouble than they
are worth. I don`t forecast at all, and I`m doing 25% more business than last year”.
Comment.


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ACCOUNTING
Total Marks: 80
N.B. : 1) All questions are compulsory
Q1) ABC Ltd. Produces room coolers. The company is considering whether it should continue to
manufacture air circulating fans itself or purchase them from outside. Its annual requirement is
25000 units. An outsider vendor is prepared to supply fans for Rs 285 each. In addition, ABC Ltd
will have to incur costs of Rs 1.50 per unit for freight and Rs 10,000 per year for quality inspection,
storing etc of the product.
{25 Marks }
In the most recent year ABC Ltd. Produced 25000 fans at the following total cost :
Material Rs. 50,00,000
Labour Rs. 20,00,000
Supervision & other indirect labour Rs. 2,00,000
Power and Light Rs. 50,000
Depreciation Rs. 20,000
Factory Rent Rs. 5,000
Supplies Rs. 75,000
Power and light includes Rs 20,000 for general heating and lighting, which is an allocation based on
the light points. Indirect labour is attributed mainly to the manufacturing of fans. About 75% of it
can be dispensed with along with direct labour if manufacturing is discontinued. However, the
supervisor who receives annual salary of Rs 75,000 will have to be retained. The machines used for
manufacturing fans which have a book value of Rs 3,00,000 can be sold for Rs 1,25,000 and the
amount realized can be invested at 15% return. Factory rent is allocated on the basis of area, and the
company is not able to see an alternative use for the space which would be released. Should ABC
Ltd. Manufacture the fans or buy them?
AN ISO 9001 : 2000 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Page 1 Out of 1
Q2) Usha Company produces three consumer products : P, Q and R. The management of the
company wants to determine the most profitable mix. The cost accountant has supplied the following
data. {30 Marks }
Usha Company : Sales and Cost Data
Description Product Total
P Q R
Material Cost per unit
Quantity (Kg) 1.0 1.2 1.4
Rate per Kg (Rs) 50 50 50
Cost per unit (Rs) 50 60 70
Labour Cost per unit 30 90 90
Variable Overheads per unit 15 10 25
Fixed Overheads (Rs .000) 9,175
Current Sales (Units ,000) 100 50 60 210
Projected Sales (Units ,000) 109 55 125 289
Selling Price per unit (Rs) 150 200 270
Raw material used by the firm is in short supply and the firm can expect a maximum supply of 350
lakh kg for next year. Is the company’s projected sales mix most profitable or can it be changed for
the better?
Q3) DSQ Company Ltd, a diversified company, has three divisions, cement, fertilizers and
textiles. The summary of the company’s profit is given below : {25 Marks }
(Rs/Crore)
Cement Fertilizer Textiles Total
Sales 20.0 12.0 18.0 50.0
Less : Variable Cost 8.0 9.6 5.4 23.0
Contribution 12.0 2.4 12.6 27.0
Less : Fixed Cost (allocated to
divisions in proportion to
volumes of Sales)
8.0 4.8 7.2 20.0
Profit (Loss) 4.0 (2.4) 5.4 7.0
After allocating the company’s fixed overheads to products the Fertilizers, division incurs a loss of
Rs 2.4 crore. Should the company drop this division?

Corporate Finance

Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Explain in detail about Corporate Firm
2. Write a note on Short term solvency & Long-Term Solvency Measures
3. Explain Definition & Example of a Bond & Explain How to Value Bonds
4. Write a note on Growth Opportunities & Give one suitable example
5. You purchase a bond with an invoice price of $1,140. The bond has a
coupon rate of 7.2 percent, and there are five months to the next semiannual
coupon date. What is the clean price of the bond?
6. Explain in Detail about Monte Carlo Simulation
7. Calculating Future Values Compute the future value of $1,000 compounded
annually for
a) 10 years at 5 percent
b) 10 years at 7 percent
c) 20 years at 5 percent
d) Why is the interest earned in part(C) not twice the amount earned in
part(A)
8. Explain in Detail about Different types of Efficiency

Corporate Law
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. What are the functions of controller.
2. Distinguish cheque and bill of exchange
3. Discuss power to impose lesser penalty
4. State the miscellaneous provisions as regards charges.
5. How to convert public company in to a private company.
6. How to employ a controller and other officers.
7. What are the liability of members
8. How to determine the value of assets

Cost & Management Accountancy
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Discuss the different methods of calculating depreciation.
2. Bring out the difference between FIFO and LIFO method.
3. What are the components of the Standard Costs ?
4. Differentiate between the Direct Labour Costs and Indirect Labour costs.
5. Explain the methods of preparing the Cash Flow Statements.
6. Discuss the various Accounting concepts & What are the various Accounting Principles ?
7. What do you mean by depreciation & Explain the requirement of depreciation.
8. Explain the causes of differences between the cash book and pass book.

Finance Institution
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks (10 Marks)
1. What is the implication for cross-border trades if it can be shown that interest rate parity is maintained consistently across different markets and different currencies ?
2. What forms of protection and regulation are imposed by regulators of CBs to ensure their safety and soundness ?
3. How has the composition of the assets of U.S. life insurance companies changed over time ?
4. Describe the difference between a defined benefit pension fund and a defined contribution pension fund.
5. Why is the length of time selected for repricing assets and liabilities important when using the repricing model ?
6. Contrast the use of financial futures options with the use of options on cash instruments to construct interest rate hedges.
7. What is a mortgage-backed bond ? Why do financial institutions issue MBBs ?
8. What is the difference between loan participations and loan assignments ?

Financial Accountancy
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks (10 Marks)
1. What are the foreign currency transaction and translation exposures ? Describe the accounting treatment for these exposures.
2. How is MODVAT credit availed shown in financial statements ?
3. Distinguish between funds flow and cash flow statement.
4. Study journalisation process of a manufacturing company. Show the process with the help of a flow diagram.
5. Discuss the salient features of Accounting Standard 6 (AS-6) on Depreciation Accounting.
6. Collect financial statements of ten companies in a fast moving consumer goods industry and critically analyse their depreciation policy.
7. What is deferred tax liability ? How is it different from current tax liability ?
8. Discuss the accounting treatment of government grants relating to depreciation fixed assets.

Financial Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Explain the possible reasons for growth in international business
2. What risks confront dealers in the foreign Exchange Market? How can they cope with those Risks?
3. Why do companies go in for interest rate swaps? Give The advantages of Interest rate swaps.
4. What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of GDRs
5. What do you understand by the term,’ Inter-national Cash Management’ ? Briefly elucidate its objectives.
6. What are the advantages and Disadvantages of joint ventures
7. Differentiate between Transaction and economic exposure?
8. Discuss the market imperfections for derivatives that characterize the Indian Markets.

Investments
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks (10 Marks)
1. What is the relationship between securitization and the role of Financial Intermediaries in the economy? What happens to financial intermediaries as securitization progresses?
2. Balanced funds, life-cycle funds, and asset allocation funds all invest in both the stock and bond markets? What are the differences among these types of funds?
3. Using historical risk premiums over the 1980-2008 periods as your guide, what would be your estimate of the expected annual HPR on the sensex portfolio if the current risk-free interest rate is 6%?
4. If prices are as likely to increase as decrease, why do investors earn positive returns from the market on average?
5. The monthly rate of return on T-bill is 1%. The market went up this month by 1.5%. In addition, Amb Chases, Ins., which has an equity beta of 2, surprisingly just won a lawsuit that awards it Rs.1 million immediately.
a. If the original value of Amb Chaser equity were Rs. 100 million, what would you guess was the rate of return of its stock this month?
b. What is your answer to (a) if the market had expected Amb Chaser to win Rs. 2 million?
6. Why would you expect securitization to take place only in highly developed capital market?
7. Why do bond prices go down when interest rates go up? Don’t lenders like high interest rates?
8. Which of the following factors reflect pure market risk for a given corporation?
a. Increased short-term interest rates.
b. Fire in the corporate warehouse.

Take Over & Merger
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. What are some reasons why a merger can increase & decrease value?
2. Define target run-up. What are some possible reasons for run-up?
3. List four methods of valuation, and briefly set forth the advantages and Limitations of each
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of joint ventures?
5. What were the significant tax changes involving MLPs?
6. Explain the difference between flip-in and flip-over poison pills.
7. What are the three primary forms of corporate restructuring and divestitures?
8. Discuss the effect of the following variables on merger activity:
a) The growth rate of GDP
b) Interest rate risk premiums.


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ACCOUNTING
Total Marks: 80
N.B. : 1) All questions are compulsory
Q1) ABC Ltd. Produces room coolers. The company is considering whether it should continue to
manufacture air circulating fans itself or purchase them from outside. Its annual requirement is
25000 units. An outsider vendor is prepared to supply fans for Rs 285 each. In addition, ABC Ltd
will have to incur costs of Rs 1.50 per unit for freight and Rs 10,000 per year for quality inspection,
storing etc of the product.
{25 Marks }
In the most recent year ABC Ltd. Produced 25000 fans at the following total cost :
Material Rs. 50,00,000
Labour Rs. 20,00,000
Supervision & other indirect labour Rs. 2,00,000
Power and Light Rs. 50,000
Depreciation Rs. 20,000
Factory Rent Rs. 5,000
Supplies Rs. 75,000
Power and light includes Rs 20,000 for general heating and lighting, which is an allocation based on
the light points. Indirect labour is attributed mainly to the manufacturing of fans. About 75% of it
can be dispensed with along with direct labour if manufacturing is discontinued. However, the
supervisor who receives annual salary of Rs 75,000 will have to be retained. The machines used for
manufacturing fans which have a book value of Rs 3,00,000 can be sold for Rs 1,25,000 and the
amount realized can be invested at 15% return. Factory rent is allocated on the basis of area, and the
company is not able to see an alternative use for the space which would be released. Should ABC
Ltd. Manufacture the fans or buy them?
AN ISO 9001 : 2000 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Page 1 Out of 1
Q2) Usha Company produces three consumer products : P, Q and R. The management of the
company wants to determine the most profitable mix. The cost accountant has supplied the following
data. {30 Marks }
Usha Company : Sales and Cost Data
Description Product Total
P Q R
Material Cost per unit
Quantity (Kg) 1.0 1.2 1.4
Rate per Kg (Rs) 50 50 50
Cost per unit (Rs) 50 60 70
Labour Cost per unit 30 90 90
Variable Overheads per unit 15 10 25
Fixed Overheads (Rs .000) 9,175
Current Sales (Units ,000) 100 50 60 210
Projected Sales (Units ,000) 109 55 125 289
Selling Price per unit (Rs) 150 200 270
Raw material used by the firm is in short supply and the firm can expect a maximum supply of 350
lakh kg for next year. Is the company’s projected sales mix most profitable or can it be changed for
the better?
Q3) DSQ Company Ltd, a diversified company, has three divisions, cement, fertilizers and
textiles. The summary of the company’s profit is given below : {25 Marks }
(Rs/Crore)
Cement Fertilizer Textiles Total
Sales 20.0 12.0 18.0 50.0
Less : Variable Cost 8.0 9.6 5.4 23.0
Contribution 12.0 2.4 12.6 27.0
Less : Fixed Cost (allocated to
divisions in proportion to
volumes of Sales)
8.0 4.8 7.2 20.0
Profit (Loss) 4.0 (2.4) 5.4 7.0
After allocating the company’s fixed overheads to products the Fertilizers, division incurs a loss of
Rs 2.4 crore. Should the company drop this division?

Corporate Finance

Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Explain in detail about Corporate Firm
2. Write a note on Short term solvency & Long-Term Solvency Measures
3. Explain Definition & Example of a Bond & Explain How to Value Bonds
4. Write a note on Growth Opportunities & Give one suitable example
5. You purchase a bond with an invoice price of $1,140. The bond has a
coupon rate of 7.2 percent, and there are five months to the next semiannual
coupon date. What is the clean price of the bond?
6. Explain in Detail about Monte Carlo Simulation
7. Calculating Future Values Compute the future value of $1,000 compounded
annually for
a) 10 years at 5 percent
b) 10 years at 7 percent
c) 20 years at 5 percent
d) Why is the interest earned in part(C) not twice the amount earned in
part(A)
8. Explain in Detail about Different types of Efficiency

Corporate Law
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. What are the functions of controller.
2. Distinguish cheque and bill of exchange
3. Discuss power to impose lesser penalty
4. State the miscellaneous provisions as regards charges.
5. How to convert public company in to a private company.
6. How to employ a controller and other officers.
7. What are the liability of members
8. How to determine the value of assets

Cost & Management Accountancy
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Discuss the different methods of calculating depreciation.
2. Bring out the difference between FIFO and LIFO method.
3. What are the components of the Standard Costs ?
4. Differentiate between the Direct Labour Costs and Indirect Labour costs.
5. Explain the methods of preparing the Cash Flow Statements.
6. Discuss the various Accounting concepts & What are the various Accounting Principles ?
7. What do you mean by depreciation & Explain the requirement of depreciation.
8. Explain the causes of differences between the cash book and pass book.

Finance Institution
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks (10 Marks)
1. What is the implication for cross-border trades if it can be shown that interest rate parity is maintained consistently across different markets and different currencies ?
2. What forms of protection and regulation are imposed by regulators of CBs to ensure their safety and soundness ?
3. How has the composition of the assets of U.S. life insurance companies changed over time ?
4. Describe the difference between a defined benefit pension fund and a defined contribution pension fund.
5. Why is the length of time selected for repricing assets and liabilities important when using the repricing model ?
6. Contrast the use of financial futures options with the use of options on cash instruments to construct interest rate hedges.
7. What is a mortgage-backed bond ? Why do financial institutions issue MBBs ?
8. What is the difference between loan participations and loan assignments ?

Financial Accountancy
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks (10 Marks)
1. What are the foreign currency transaction and translation exposures ? Describe the accounting treatment for these exposures.
2. How is MODVAT credit availed shown in financial statements ?
3. Distinguish between funds flow and cash flow statement.
4. Study journalisation process of a manufacturing company. Show the process with the help of a flow diagram.
5. Discuss the salient features of Accounting Standard 6 (AS-6) on Depreciation Accounting.
6. Collect financial statements of ten companies in a fast moving consumer goods industry and critically analyse their depreciation policy.
7. What is deferred tax liability ? How is it different from current tax liability ?
8. Discuss the accounting treatment of government grants relating to depreciation fixed assets.

Financial Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Explain the possible reasons for growth in international business
2. What risks confront dealers in the foreign Exchange Market? How can they cope with those Risks?
3. Why do companies go in for interest rate swaps? Give The advantages of Interest rate swaps.
4. What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of GDRs
5. What do you understand by the term,’ Inter-national Cash Management’ ? Briefly elucidate its objectives.
6. What are the advantages and Disadvantages of joint ventures
7. Differentiate between Transaction and economic exposure?
8. Discuss the market imperfections for derivatives that characterize the Indian Markets.

Investments
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks (10 Marks)
1. What is the relationship between securitization and the role of Financial Intermediaries in the economy? What happens to financial intermediaries as securitization progresses?
2. Balanced funds, life-cycle funds, and asset allocation funds all invest in both the stock and bond markets? What are the differences among these types of funds?
3. Using historical risk premiums over the 1980-2008 periods as your guide, what would be your estimate of the expected annual HPR on the sensex portfolio if the current risk-free interest rate is 6%?
4. If prices are as likely to increase as decrease, why do investors earn positive returns from the market on average?
5. The monthly rate of return on T-bill is 1%. The market went up this month by 1.5%. In addition, Amb Chases, Ins., which has an equity beta of 2, surprisingly just won a lawsuit that awards it Rs.1 million immediately.
a. If the original value of Amb Chaser equity were Rs. 100 million, what would you guess was the rate of return of its stock this month?
b. What is your answer to (a) if the market had expected Amb Chaser to win Rs. 2 million?
6. Why would you expect securitization to take place only in highly developed capital market?
7. Why do bond prices go down when interest rates go up? Don’t lenders like high interest rates?
8. Which of the following factors reflect pure market risk for a given corporation?
a. Increased short-term interest rates.
b. Fire in the corporate warehouse.

Take Over & Merger
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. What are some reasons why a merger can increase & decrease value?
2. Define target run-up. What are some possible reasons for run-up?
3. List four methods of valuation, and briefly set forth the advantages and Limitations of each
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of joint ventures?
5. What were the significant tax changes involving MLPs?
6. Explain the difference between flip-in and flip-over poison pills.
7. What are the three primary forms of corporate restructuring and divestitures?
8. Discuss the effect of the following variables on merger activity:
a) The growth rate of GDP
b) Interest rate risk premiums.


HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT ISBM EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT ISBM EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

CONTACT:
DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

Hospitality management
Note: Each question carries 10 marks
1. Describe the stages of growth of hospitality industry.
2. Discuss the importance of training in hospitality sector.
3. Elaborate the concept of domestic and international tourism.
4. How do socio-cultural and economic scenarios get affected by tourism?
5. Describe the various departments of a hotel and their important functions.
6. Describe briefly the laws and guidelines, related to recognition of travel agency.
7. How will you successfully grow in the most competitive hospitality industry?
8. Suggest the long term plans and actions.

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
Page 2 of 2
CASE-1 (20 Marks)
Nestle has launched quality street ,lion and after 8 choclates imported from Europe. Qualtty Street is an
assortment of chocolates priced at Rs. 7 5 for 218 gm. After Eight is a popular adult chocolate priced at Rs.25
for 20 gm and Lion is a caramel wafer bar priced at Rs. 20 for a 45 gm bar. (Kit Kat )is priced at Rs. 6 for a 17
gm bar and has a chocolaty taste while Lion has a crunchy taste). The brands have different tastes and will
appeal to different target segments (though the target segment is one which may have already been exposed to
these brands during visits abroad). These brands have been introduced in metros in upmarket stores which sell
brands bears the label “lmported by Nestle India Ltd.” indicating that they may be better than smuggled ones
(which may be stale).
Question :
1 Suggest suitable media /media vehicles for promoting these brands. Give reasons in support of your answer
2 What business communication media you will utilize if you have to launch a soap in rural India?
CASE -2 (20 Marks)
The herbal shampoo market is valued at around Rs. 100 crores. Ny/e, Ayur, Dqbur and Biotique are some of the
established brands in the market.
Helene Curtis (JK Group) has introduced a premium herbal shampoo (with variants Shikskai, henna and qmla
and brqhmi and josur) priced between Rs. 80 and Rs. 90 (500 ml) for different types of hair. The proposition is
the benefits offered by lhe variant based on the combination of herbs, benefits offered by the variants range
from extra protection and nourishment to colour, body and bounce. The shampoos have been launched under
the brand name Premium Herbsl Shsmpoos and they target urban housewives with a monthly household
income of Rs.25,000. The brand is distributed through 7 0,000 retail outlets and 120 Raymond shops. The
company has planned only point of purchase (POP) posters initially and may consider the electronic media
later. The shampoo has an annual advertising expenditure of Rs. 10 crores.
Question :
1 Comment on the marketing mix of JK’s Premium Herbsl Shampoos ?
2 How can you make their communication more effective ?.
Page 2 of 2
CASE 3 (40 Marks)
Attempt all cases of the following: (10 marks each)
(i) Iran Rafsanjan Co., Rafsanjan City, Iran has taken a marine insurance policy No. VB/84/3629/29 dated
20th December, 2005 from Albroz Insurance Co., Kerman City, Iran for the import of 500 tractor gears
from Apex Products (India) Ltd., Delhi. The exporter shipped the cargo on board vessel — SEEMA on
26th December, 2005 for Bandar Abbas Port of Iran.
As per the letter of credit condition, the exporter was required to fax the shipment details to Albroz
Insurance Company within 24 hours of the shipment. However, the exporter could not fax such details due
to change in telephone (fax) number of the insurance company.
Draft an express telegram to intimate shipment details.
ii) Yours is a multinational company having joint venture with a Chinese company. Plant is to be located at
Surat. The company immediately needs an Executive – Foreign Affairs (male/female) with ability of
“writing and speaking Chinese language.
Draft a recruitment advertisement for publication under classified column of a national daily. Salary-is no
bar for the right candidate. E-mail address -info@krishnafashions.com
iii) The local head office of State Bank of India is located at 11, Parliament Street, New Delhi-110001. The
bank wants to construct 76 flats at Noida for its employees and invite applications for pre-qualification of
contractors. Full details are available on its website – www.sbi.co.in or www.statebankofindia.com/
procurement_news.
Draft a notice for pre-qualification of contractors.
iv) The Joint Admission Board (JAB) of Indian Institutes of Technology in its meeting held on 17th
September, 2005 at Kolkata has taken some decisions with regard to Joint Entrance Examination (JEE)
2006, i.e., to appear in JEE, one must secure at least 60% marks (55% for SC/ST and PD) in 10+2
examination; a candidate can have only two attempts with effect from JEE-2006; and a candidate who
joins any of the IITs through JEE-2006 will not be permitted to appear in JEE in future.* It was also
decided that candidates, who have passed their qualifying examination in 2005 or earlier, will be allowed
to appear in JEE-2006 as the last chance, witji no consideration of marks or attempts at JEE subject to age
requirements. On behalf of the JAB, draft a suitable press release to be issued by organising chairman
highlighting these decisions.

BUSINESS ETHICS
80
Page 2 of 3
CASE -1 (20 Marks)
Joan, an employee of Great American Market, was warned about her excessive absenteeism several
times, both verbally and in writing. The written warning included notice that “further violations will
result in disciplinary actions,” including suspension or discharge.
A short time after the written warning was issued, Joan called work to say she was not going to be in
because her babysitter had called in sick and she had to stay home and care for her young child. Joan’s
supervisor, Sylvia, told her that she had already exceeded the allowed number of absences and warned
that if she did not report to work, she could be suspended. When Joan did not report for her shift,
Sylvia suspended her for fifteen days.
In a subsequent hearing, Joan argued that it was not her fault that the babysitter had canceled, and
protested that she had no other choice but to stay home. Sylvia pointed out that Joan had not made a
good faith effort to find an alternate babysitter, nor had she tried to swap shifts with a co-worker.
Furthermore, Sylvia said that the lack of a babysitter was not a justifiable excuse for being absent.
Questions:
1. Was the suspension fair?
2. Did Joan act responsibly?
3. Should she be fired?
CASE-2 (20 Marks)
You own a cement company, and deal with most the local contractors for cement, sand, etc. You have
a reputation of high quality products, and for good customer service with your customers. Your
foreman has just run the standard quality control tests you have performed regularly on your products.
When the test results are ready, you discover that the new batch of product is 9% less durable than
your usual material. It is still well above all industry standards and meets all building codes and
requirements for the purposes for which it is intended, but it is, nevertheless, not up to your usual
standards. Throwing it away would cost your company many thousands of dollars.
You decide to sell the cement anyway.
Questions:
1) Should you tell your customers?
2) Should you discount the price?
3) Should you tell your employees, so they will be knowledgeable with the customers?
4) Would you use this cement on foundations for your own house?
Page 2 of 3
CASE-3 (20 Marks)
Fred, a 17-year employee with Sam’s Sauna, was fired for poor job performance and poor attendance,
after accruing five disciplinary penalties within a 12-month period under the company’s progressive
disciplinary policy. A week later, Fred told his former supervisor that he had a substance abuse
problem.
Although there was no employee assistance program in place and the company had not been aware of
Fred’s condition, their personnel director assisted Fred in obtaining treatment by allowing him to
continue receiving insurance benefits and approved his unemployment insurance claim.
Fred subsequently requested reinstatement, maintaining that he had been rehabilitated since his
discharge and was fully capable of being a productive employee. He pointed to a letter written by his
treatment counselor, which said that his prognosis for leading a “clean, sober lifestyle” was a big
incentive for him. Fred pleaded for another chance, arguing that his past problems resulted from drug
addiction and that Sam’s Saunas should have recognized and provided treatment for the problem.
Sam’s Saunas countered that Fred should have notified his supervisor of his drug problem, and that
everything possible had been done to help him receive treatment. Moreover, the company stressed that
the employee had been fired for poor performance and absenteeism. Use of the progressive discipline
policy had been necessary because the employee had committed a string of offenses over the course of
a year, including careless workmanship, distracting others, wasting time, and disregarding safety rules.
Questions:
1) Should Fred be reinstated?
2) Was the company fair to Fred in helping him receive treatment?
3) Did the personnel director behave ethically toward Fred?
4) Did he act ethically for his company?
5) Would it be fair to other employees to reinstate Fred?
CASE-4 (20 Marks)
In January of last year, the S.S. Vulgass, an oil tanker of the Big Dirty Oil Company ran around in the
area just north of Vancouver, spilling millions of gallons of crude into the waters and onto the beaches
of British Columbia and southern Alaska. The damage to the beaches and wildlife and consequently to
the tourist industry, the ecology and the quality of life of the local residents is incalculable, but in any
case will require many millions of dollars for even the most minimal clean-up.
The ship struck a small atoll, well-marked on the navigational maps, but it was a dark night and the
boat was well off course. On further investigation, it was discovered that the Captain of the Vulgass,
Mr. Slosh, had been drinking heavily. Leaving the navigation of the ship to his first mate, Mr. Mudd,
he retired to his cabin, to “sleep it off.” Mr. Mudd had never taken charge of the ship before, and it is
now clear that he misread the maps, misjudged the waters, maintained a speed that was inappropriate
and the accident occurred. Subsequent inquiries showed that Captain Slosh had been arrested on two
drunk driving convictions within months of the accident. The Vulgass itself, a double-hulled tanker,
was long due for renovation and, it was suggested, would not have cracked up if the hull had been
trebly reinforced, as some current tankers were.
Page 2 of 3
R. U. Rich, the Chief Executive Officer of Big Dirty Oil declared the accident a “tragedy” and offered
two million dollars to aid in the clean up. The Premier of British Columbia was outraged.
Environmental groups began a consumer campaign against Big Dirty Oil, urging customers to cut up
and send in their Big Dirty Oil credit cards in protest. In a meeting to the shareholders just last month,
CEO Rich proudly announced the largest quarterly profit in the history of the Big Dirty Oil Company.
He dismissed the protests as “the outpourings of Greenies and other fanatics” and assured the
shareholders that his obligation was, and would always be, to assure the highest profits possible in the
turmoil of today’s market.
Questions:
1) The question is, who is responsible?
2) Against whom should criminal charges be leveled?
3) What should be done, if anything, to punish the corporation itself?
4) What about the CEO?

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
CASE STUDY : 1
Manpower planning is important aspect. Macro issues concerning factors like national population trends,
educational plans, economic growth rate, overall supply and demand for various categories of manpower will
certainly have an impact on the manpower plans of the enterprise.
These factors impinge on the enterprises plans the manpower planner needs to be aware of their impact. One
of the assumptions made in a less developed country like India, with surplus labour, is that there are large
number of trained manpower available for any specific skill requirement. It is generally not so.
Q1) Define the term “Manpower Planning”?
Q2) Discuss “Manpower Planning makes for different purposes at different level”?
Q3) Explain some other pay-offs from Manpower Planning to the enterprise?
Q4) Objectives of Manpower Planning. Explain in detail?
CASE STUDY : 2
The process of selection involves three stages – Recruitment, Selection and Placement. Recruitment refers to
making the vacancies known to potential applicants and thereby generating applications for position. This is
generally done through advertisement in mass media, employment exchange, private employment agencies,
deputation, word of mouth and campus recruitment.
Once these applications are generated, the actual selection begins. The number of methods can be used to
select. These may include application form, selection tests, interviews, business games, physical
examination. Finally the employee’s are placed in the appropriate positions.
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Q1) Define the term “Word of Mouth”.
Q2) Define the objective and importance of advertisement in the process of Recruitment?
Q3) Define the term selection in brief.
Q4) Explain the methods of selection?
CASE STUDY : 3
Open and two way communication ensures survival of the organization. It is means to make members work
together. Formal communication can be downward and upward. Despite its significance communication
can suffer from distortions both intended as well as unconscious. Some of the reasons for distortions are
tendency to evaluate pre-existing attitudes, sterotypes, values and perceptions. Feedback can help improve
the quality of communication. Feedback however should be prompt both positive and negative, focus an
action and behavior instead of individual.
Q1) Distinguish between one way versus two way communication.
Q2) Define the tem formal and informal organizational communication?
Q3) Explain the most common channels available for downward communication in an organization?
Q4) What do you mean by communication filters?
CASE STUDY : 4
The quality of work life (QWL) research programme, which has been in progress for sometimes now, has
tried to understand human behavior in the work situation in order to enhance productivity job satisfaction
and employee involvement. QWL takes a holistic view of the employee at the work place. The focus has
shifted from time to time. QWL related activities are several but revolve around work restructuring, job
design, participative problem solving, reward systems and work environment.
Q1) What do you understand by the concept of QWL?
Q2) Identify its major activities and concerns?
Q3) Discuss the relevance of QSL in the Indian context?
Q4) ‘Flexible working time arrangement can be an answer to the multifarious roles of the Indian worker’,
Evaluate.


DMS ISBM EXAM QUESTION AND ANSWER PROVIDED

DMS ISBM EXAM QUESTION AND ANSWER PROVIDED

CONTACT:
DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

Business Environment
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Give a block diagram in establishing the design and quality standards of
technology recipient site?
2. Business decision making and the impact of the macro-environment, Discuss?
3. Give the constitution of SEBI Board and explain SEBI functions?
4. Write a note on socio-cultural environment of Business Write a note on sociocultural
environment of Business?
5. Discuss how the environment acts does as a stimulant to business. Analyze why
business often does little for the preservation of physical environment despite
the fact that it is significant for business activity?
6. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of FDI. What is your opinion on the
role of FDI in the Retail Sector? Justify your views with India’s experience in
this sector?
7. Discuss the Third plan (1961-66)?
8. Give any three critical elements of economic environment of Business?

Business Planning & Policy
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. What are the elements of strategic management?
2. What are the levels of strategy?
3. What are the components of a mission statemnet? What things
have to be kept in mind while formulating mission statement?
4. Explain TOWS Matrix.
5. What are the reasons for mergers and acquisitions?
6. Explain McKinsey’s 7-S model
7. what are the steps to build the organization structure?
8. What are the mechanisms of governance?

Business Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Explain who can be a partner also explain partnership deed
2. Define partnership & essentials of partnership
3. Advantages of soletradership & disadvantages of soletradership
4. Give the needs for principles and theory of management
5. Discuss coordination and cooperation
6. Explain specific features of the Gandhian Business Management
7. Give the functions of the cash department
8. Explain the principles of Mary Parker Follet

Corporate Law
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. How to convert public company into a private company
2. Distinguish between Managing Director and Manager
3. What are the exceptions to transfer of title by non-owners
4. State procedure for enquiry on complaints under S 19.
5. What are the circumstances in which a contract is not discharged
on the ground of subsequent
6. What are the circumstances under which agency terminates?
7. Discuss Ultra Vives Borrowing
8. How to employ a Controller and other officers?

Financial Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Compare and contrast the potential liability of owners of
proprietorships, partnerships (general partners), and corporations.
2. What is meant by Working capital? How is it calculated? Explain the
determinants of working capital requirements.
3. Are the share holders of a company likely to gain with a debt component
in the capital employed ? Explain with the help of an example?
4. What do you mean by yield to maturity (YTM) of a bond? Explain
briefly.
5. What can a financial institution often do for a deficit economic unit
(DEU)that it would have difficulty doing for itself if the DEU were to deal
directly with an SEU?
6. Why would an analyst use the Modified Du Pont system to calculate ROE
when ROE may be calculated more simply? Explain.
7. How are financial trades made in an over-the-counter market? Discuss
the role of a dealer in the OTC market.
8. What is a portfolio? Why an investor should invest his/her funds in a
portfolio rather than in the stocks of a single corporation.

Human Resource Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Explain Job Description and Job Specification.
2. Explain the modern methods of performance evaluation?
3. What are the factors affecting Job Design?
4. What do you understand by Career Development Program?
5. Explain the model of strategic HRM? What are the strategic challenges
HRM facing?
6. What do you understand by employee benefits?
7. Write the various methods of training?
8. Explain the traditional methods of performance evaluation?

International Business
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. List out agencies/funds noticed by government of India for the purpose of
deemed export benefits.
2. What is the problem of International Liquidity? In what manner this
problem has been solved by IMF?
3. What are the different dimensions of economic environment? What are the
steps taken by government to improve FDI?
4. What are the benefits to customer/ vendors derived from IT projects by
BPCL?
5. What are duty payables of soft bonded IT unit (S-BIT)
6. Short note on free trade & warehousing zones (FTWZ)
7. Explain exports of goods services in foreign exchange management act-
1999.
8. What do you understand by fundamental disequilibrium in the balance of
payments? What remedies do you suggest to correct it?

Marketing Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. Give the Classification of Products and state Product Line Decisions?
2. What are various ways to classify the service market?
3. Define marketing channel. And explain various types of marketing channels?
4. What are problems and constraints in Rural Marketing?
5. What is market segmentation and Basis of Market Segmentation?
6. How marketing Research and Distribution Management is done in Rural Markets?
7. State the Market Segmentation process and criteria for effective market Segmentation?
8. What is Matrix Organization and what are advantages and disadvantages?

Operations Management
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. What is continuous improvement (CI)? What are the major tools for this philosophy?
2. What is the logic of Taguchi methods?
3. Describe briefly the steps to develop a forecasting system.
4. Regression and correlation are both termed “causal” methods of forecasting. Explain how they are similar in this respect and also how they are different.
5. Define the terms “Qualitative Methods”, “Trend Analysis Method (Time Series Method), and “Causal Forecast”. Describe the uses of them.
6. What do you see as the main problem with qualitative (judgmental) forecasts? Are they ever better than “objective” methods?
7. Describe total quality management (TQM).
8. Explain the process of collaborative planning? How is available to promise involved?

Quantitative Methods
Page 1 Out of 1
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks
1. Three numbers, whose sum is 12, are in AP. If 1,2 and 6 are added to them, the resultin g
numbers are in GP. Find the numbers
2. Average rainfall on a city from Monday to Saturday is 0.3 inch. Due to heavy rainfall on
Sunday, the average rainfall for the week increased to 0.5 inch. What was the rainfall on
Sunday?
3. Calculate median from the following data
Marks 10-25 25-40 40-55 50-70 70-85 85-100
Frequency 6 20 44 26 3 1
4. Given the following results of the height and weight of 1000 students. The mean height is 170
cm, the mean weight is 75 kg. the standard deviation of the height and weight are 6 cm and 6
kg respectively r = 0.6. amit weighs 50 kg, sumeet is 1.5 m tall. Estimate the height of Amit
from his weight and the weight of sumeet from his height
5. In a sample of 500 people from a village in rajasthan, 280 are found to be rice eaters and rest
wheat eaters. Can we assume that both the food articles are equally popular?
6. In a binomial distribution 31% of the items are under 45 and 8% are over 64. Find the mean
and variance of the distribution
7. In a large number of group of children 55% are under 60 cm heighty nd 40% are between 60
and 65 cm. Assuming a normal distribution, find the mean and SD of height
8. Construct index number form the data by applying Marshall edge worthmethod
Commodity Price 2004 Quantity Price 2006 quantity
A 2 8 4 6
B 5 10 6 5
C 4 14 5 10
D 2 19 2 13

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REF NO :
COURSE :
SUBJECT:
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Research Methodology
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks 10 Marks
1. The monthly income of two persons are in the ratio 4:5 and their monthy expenditures are
in the ratio 7:9. If each saves rs. 50 per montrh, find their monthly incomes.
2. A tour operator charges rs. 136 per passenger for 100 passengers with a discount of rs. 4
for each 10 passengers in excess of 100. Determine the number of passengers that will
maximize the amount of money the tour operator services.
3. A firm has current sales of rs. 50000 e0.02t per month. The firm wants to embark upon a
certain advertising campaign that will increase the sales by 2% every month over the 12
months period ofcampaign. Find total increase of sales as a result of the campaign.
4. There are two branches of an establishment employing 200 and 160 persons respectively.
If the AMs of the monthly salaries paid by the two branches are rs. 550 and rs. 450
respectivvely, find AM of the salaries of the employees of the establishment as a whole.
5. Calculate the median for the following frequency distribution
Marks 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 45-50
No of
students
7 15 24 31 42 30 26 15 10
6. For the cost function y = 500x – 40×2 + 3×3 for x units, find the average cost, marginal
cost and marginal average cost.
7. A man borrows rs. 1500 and agrees to repay the debt in 5 equal instalmenst with 6%
interest, compounded annually. If the first payment is to be made at the end of the first
year, how much should each payment be?
8. A manufacturer can sell x items per month at a price of P = 300 – 2x rupees. Producing x
items cost the manufacturer y rupees where y = 2x + 1000. How much production will
yield maximum profit.


ONGOING ISBM EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

ONGOING ISBM EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

CONTACT
DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

Advertising
Case Studies
case (20
Marks)
1. Much has been researched and written about how advertising works and produces its effects,but it is important to appreciate that
there are few definitive answers because of the nature of the subject itself.According to exposure and familiarity modle,simply
repeated exposure to advertising can develop preferences in the audience.The exposure effect occurs at some preconscious level as a
result of pictures,text,or colour in the ads.Another explanation is that repeated exposure to ads creates a feeling of familiarity with
the advertised product or service and familiarity leads to favourable evaluation and liking.Yet another explanation is that consumers
view high frequency of advertising or larger size of ads indicator of brand’s quality.Hierarchy models suggest that advertising
produces its effects by moving the consumer through a series of steps in a sequence_from becoming aware to ultimate purchase of
product or service.The sequential order suggests that advertising effects are produced over a period of time and that advertising may
not produse desired effects immediately.The type of purchase behavior depicted by these models is usually more relevant to highinvolvement
purchases.According to low-involvement learning modle, TV is described as low-involvement medium.Audience have
little opportunity to think about any commercial.It is just a fleeting moment in time.The commercial cannot be slowed down or
stopped as per the convenience of the audience.It is believed that frequent repetition of an ad on TV can impart reliability to the
product that can build brand preference,Many scholars view consumer involvement as an important variable that can help in
explaining message processing and purchase decision by consumers.Consumer involvement could be high or low and its nature may
be rational or emotional.Based on this view,Foote,Cone & Belding agency developed an advertising planning model.Kim-Lord grid
proposes that consumer may be simultaneously involved rationally and emotionally.The location… of product on Kim –Lord grid
can help determining whether the ad copy should be more emotional or rational .Cognitive response model proposes that at the time
of exposure to an ad ,the thoughts that emerge in consumers mind,called cognitive responses,can be counter-arguments or support
arguments and these thought influence consumer’s attitudes positively or negatively.According to ELM model,the depth of
information processing by the audience as a result of exposure to advertisement is a key factor in persuasion by influencing
attitudes.The depth of information processing would depend on the motivation and ability of the audience member.If either is
missing ,peripheral route to persuasion will result.But if the audience member has both the motivation and the ability to process
information,the central route to persuasion will occur.Attitudes formed as a result of central route to information processing are more
resistant to subsequent efforts to change with respect to attitude object.
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is the case all about?
Q2. What are the advantages of repeated exposure to ads?
case (20
Marks)
10. Shoppers ‘Delight’a large retail store,had above-average quality and competitive prices.It advertised its retail promotions in local
newspapers.Its TV advertising was mainly aimed at building store image and did not address retail promotions.The management
kewn it well that they had to advertise their retail promotions more,but they did not feel comfortable with the effectiveness of persent
efforts and wanted to better understand the impact of their present promotions.To better understand the effectiveness of the present

efforts,a study of advertising exposure,interpretation,and purchases was undertaken.Researchers conducted 50 in-depth interviews
with customers of the store’s target market to determine the appropriate product mix,price,ad copy and media,In addition,the store,s
image and that of its two competitors were measured.Based on the research findings,different product lines that would appeal to the
target customer were selected.The retail promotion was run for a full week.Full-page advertisements were released each day in the
two local Hindi newspapers,and also in one English newapaper that devotes six pages to the coverage of the state.Each evening,a
sample of 100 target market customers were interviewed by telephone as follows:1 .Target customers were asked if they had read the
newspaper that day .This was done to determine their exposure to advertisement.2.After a general description of the product lines,the
respondents were asked to recall any related retail advertisements they had seen or read.3.if the respondents were able to recall,they
were asked to describle the ad,the promoted products,sale prices,and the name of the sponsoring store.4.If the respondents were
accurate in their ad interpretation ,they were asked to express their intentions to purchase.5.Respondents were also asked for
suggestions to be incorporated in future promotions targeted at this consumer segment .Immediately after the close of
promotion,500target market customers were surveyed to determine what percentage of the target market actually purchased the
promoted products.It also determined which sources of information influenced them in their decision to purchase and the amount of
their purchase.Results of the study showed that ad exposure was 75% and ad awareness level was 68% and was considered as
high.Only 43% respondents exposed to and aware of the ad copay could accurately recall important details,such as the name of the
store promoting the retail sale.Just 43% correct interpretation was considered as low.Of those who could accurately interpret the ad
copay ,32% said they intended to respond by purchasing the advertised products and 68 per cent sad they had no intention to
buy.This yields an overall intention to buy of 7%.The largest area of lost opportunity was due to those who did not accurately
interpret the ad copay.The post-promotion survey indicated that only 4.2% of the target market customers made purchasesof the
promoted products during the promotion period.In terms of how these buyers learned of the promotion,46% mentioned newspaper
A(Hindi) ,27% newspaper B (Hindi),8% newspaper c( English), and 15% learned about sale through word-of-mouth
communication.The retail promotion was judged as successful in many ways,besides yielding sales worth Rs.900,000.However
,management was concerned about not achieving a higher level of ad comprehension,missing a significant sales opportunity.It was
believed that a better ad would have at least 75% correct comprehension among those aware of the ad .This in turn would almost
double sales without any additional cost.
Answer the following question.
Q1. give an overview of the case.
Q2. How and why the retail promotion was run for a full week?
case (20
Marks)
9. ”A while ago UK’s Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) told Liverpool-based Halewood international that their ad part of a 2
million pound campaign for their Lambrini drink was too sexy.ASA issued guidelines suggesting they use balding paunchy,middleaged
men instead of someone who was attractive and desirable.”The ad is in danger of implying that the drink may bring
sexual/social success, because the man in question looks quite attractive and desirable,”
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the above case.
Q2. What is the role of ASA?
case (20
Marks)
15. . Unethical judgements lead to misleading and false advertising.Let us understand what is unethical and what is a lapse in the
application of ethics.Ethical dilemma is the outcome of an uneresolved interpretation of an ethical issue.We must appreciate the
difference between “having a right”and the “right thing to do “.For example should advertisers strive to persuade not so well-to-do
youth in urban and semi-urban areas to buy expensive sports shoes or brandedjeans?there is no law against such advertising but the
socially and morally responsible behavior may be to refrain,and so we have an ethical dilemma.It seems advertising professionals
find largely synonymous with legality and many consider advertising expensive jeans or sports shoes to all markets,including those
who should not buy them is “acceptable”ethical behavior.We must appreciate that one can be ethical only when there is the option of
being ethical.One cannot choose to be ethical when one cannot choose at all.Thus,ethics begins only where the law ends.Ethical
dilemmas can occur because advertisers typically sell brands,not just products.Even though functionally the products from different
manufacturers may be the same,advertisers present their brands as being different from other brands.In this process advertisers are
tempted to create false differences.Another situation creates dilemma when advertisers highlight only the good things about their
brand and omit any shortcomings.Whatever is said is not false,yet the ad dose not tell the whole truth.In contrast ethical lapse is
typically a clear of illegal behavior,not permitted by the law of the land.Plenty of laws govern what is legal in advertising but laws
ultimately reflect ethical judgements.As for the self-regulation,advertising and media associations,councils,and societies focus on
legalities rather than philosophies.The eternal question of when how by whom are these laws to be enforced in resolving ethical
dilemmas and lapses still remains.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the above case.

Q2. What is ethical lpase in ads?

Business Ethics
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss managers role in business ethics. (10 marks)
Q2. What is the relation of ethics in business? (10 marks)
Q3. Give need for consumer education. (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss seven points of mahatma Gandhi. (10 marks)
Q5. Give benefits of ISO 9000 quality systems. (10 marks)
Q6. What are some of the key strategies that a company can adopt to manage International Human Resource ? (10 marks)
Q7. List out the characteristics of direct distribution channel. (10 marks)
Q8. Explain exports of goods services in foreign exchange management act-1999. (10 marks)

Consumer Behaviour
Answer the following question.
Q1. Distinguish between rational and emotional buying motives with the help of examples? (10
marks)
Q2. Discuss the theories of learning (10
marks)
Q3. Discuss motive arousal (10
marks)
Q4. Write a note on price perceptions (10
marks)
Q5. Write a note on Motivational intensity (10
marks)
Q6. What are memory concepts relevant in advertising. (10
marks)
Q7. Define & explain the following with respect to consumer behavior, with examples Attitude (10
marks)
Q8. Explain the characteristics of Organizational buyers? State the factors affecting the same? Please explain the
individual consumer buying behavior?
(10
marks)

Finance Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Why does diversification reduce risk? (10 marks)
Q2. State the decisions involved in Financial management (10 marks)
Q3. How negatively correlated investments behave in a market? (10 marks)
Q4. List and explain the three financial factors that influence the value of a business (10 marks)
Q5. Why do we add back non cash items to net profit while calculating cash flow from operating activities (10 marks)
Q6. Explain why financial planning is important to today’s chief executives? (10 marks)
Q7. Differentiate the real assets and securities. (10 marks)
Q8. Briefly explain what call provision is and in which case companies use this option. (10 marks)

Human Resource Management
Case Studies
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
This case discusses software design and development company Menlo Innovations’ (Menlo) approach towards project management
and innovation. Menlo’s founder and president, Richard Sheridan (Sheridan) established the company in association with his
colleagues based on Thomas Edison’s Invention Factory. Sheridan advocated the use of project management during software
implementation. Menlo adopted agile project management practices namely extreme programming that helped it simultaneously run
several projects successfully. This required employees to work in pairs encouraging knowledge sharing and learning from each other.
Similar to Edison’s Invention Factory, the culture at Menlo was characterized by an open, flexible, and a collaborative working
environment. The case is about Menlo’s flexible workplace practices that helped it in curbing attrition and employee retention while
its innovative approach to project management encouraged employee engagement and led to innovation. However, a few analysts
opined that it remained to be seen whether Menlo’s flexible workplace approach could also be applied in a corporate environment.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain how Sheridan and the other co-founders at Menlo fostered innovation at the company.
Q2. Discuss the significance of project management in the success of a company.
Q3. Discuss the challenges faced in implementing such a system in a corporate environment.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Phones 4u is the UK’s leading independent mobile phone retailer for the youth and value segments, offering all networks and handset
brands, and is recognized for its success in engaging with these audiences through its unique standout marketing, social media
activity and through offering a market leading smartphone range. Leading the way in the mobile industry through its excellent
customer service, award-winning advertising and differentiated in-store experience, Phones 4u has over 500 stores and is still
growing. Phones 4u known for running the largest Ofsted accredited retail apprenticeship program in the UK. Significant investment
in the training and development along with a unique in store customer consultation process means Phones 4u delivers unrivalled
mobile expertise and advice tailored to individual customers’ needs. As a result, one in four new contract smartphones sold on the
high street are through Phones 4u. Due to a period of exceptional growth, the need arose to fill a number of vacancies in the South
HR team. It was imperative that the candidates recruited to these positions were an ideal fit in order to contribute to the continuing
success of the company. After briefing several agencies, Hudson HR stood out as the only consultancy able to deliver exactly what
was required. Essentially they needed a relationship that was built on trust and assurance of successful and sustainable delivery. Just
as crucial was a complete understanding of the client’s requirements on the recruitment consultancy’s part, not just of the company
and job roles, but also the team fit of both candidates into the current Phones 4u team. The initial contact with the Hudson HR
consultant proved fruitful – an instant rapport was created, which developed into a successful working relationship following faceto-
face meetings. Phones 4u felt from the start of the process that we really understood their needs which in turn helped us stand
apart from other agencies. The Hudson HR consultant took considerable care in ascertaining exactly what was required, whilst
finding out about the HR business partner herself, the team dynamic, team capability and how the team operates. Having all the
information and being diligent paid dividends; time was taken by Hudson HR to meet potential candidates and thoroughly establish
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culture and team fit, as well as the relevant work skills and experience. Hudson HR also impressed by being constantly accessible –
consultants ensured that they were always available on their mobiles and continually kept all parties informed. It was also felt that
Hudson HR struck the right note with regard to approach; having avoided the “too pushy” method. On top of that, it was clear to
Phones 4u that we truly had their interest at heart. The end of a successful and enjoyable recruitment process saw a number of people
placed at Phones 4u who are all still there today and are excelling in their roles.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an over view of the case.
Q2. How did he multiple vacancies for recruitment exist in Phone 4 u? Discuss the recruitment procedure adopted by
Phone4 u company.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
General Energy is start-up oil and gas company, the global HR Director, who is based in Turkey was keen to recruit an HR and
Reward Manager to be based in the London office. The role is fairly unique as the ideal candidate required a strong reward
background with some HR generalist experience. Given the uniqueness of the role, the Global HRD was not sure exactly what
background and career path the possible candidates might have taken. She initially pitched the role between £50-£100k. The client
was aware of Hudson as we are the preferred supplier with the previous organization she worked for – Thames Water. We agreed that
we would work on this role on an exclusive basis and dedicate the time fully to finding the right candidate. As this was a brand new
role within a start-up company we suggested to the client that we would send CVs of candidates at various levels to enable the hiring
manager to assess the level and experience required. Filtering through CVs, the hiring manager was able to identify the type of
individual from a technical and cultural perspective that would suit the organization. We agreed that a candidate at the more senior
end was required as this role would need a candidate who has experience of designing and implementing reward projects. We did
offer a candidate the role but unfortunately the candidate was not confident in moving to a start-up organization. We however did
find another candidate who had previous oil and gas and start-up experience who was a better fit for the role. The candidate accepted
the offer and has enjoyed joining General Energy.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Debate the difficulties being faced by the organization in recruiting a reward manager.
Q2. Explain the selection procedure used in the recruitment of HR and Reward Manager.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
On May 29, 2009, the Emeryville, California-based computer animation Production Company Pixar Animation Studios (Pixar)
released its tenth feature film, Up, which was billed to become a hit like all its earlier nine films. Experts felt that Pixar’s
unprecedented success was due to the culture of innovation developed and nurtured at the company. They felt that its internal
training and employee education program, Pixar University, was one of the devices that the company employed to take forward its
innovation agenda. Making the shift from an idea-centered business to a people-centered business was another.
Answer the following question.
Q1. How, according to you, does the Pixar University help foster creativity and innovation at Pixar?

International Business
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are the factors that affect international pricing ? (10
marks)
Q2. What are the stages involved in new product development at international market ? (10
marks)
Q3. Discuss the evolution of International trade theory. (10
marks)
Q4. What are the different forces of globalisation ? (10
marks)
Q5. Discuss about organization structure of the WTO (10
marks)
Q6. What are the benefits of banks for promoting exporters under the scheme? (10
marks)
Q7. What are the steps taken by government to improve FDI? (10
marks)
Q8. What are the different dimensions of economic environment? What are the steps taken by government to improve
FDI?
(10
marks)

Marketing Management
Case Studies
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
In early 2001, Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) planned to leverage its brand equity and distribution
network to turn Amul2 into India’s biggest food brand. Verghese Kurien, Chairman of GCMMF, set a sales target of Rs.10 bn by
2006 as against sales of Rs 2.3 bn in 2001. In 2001, GCMMF entered the fast food market in India with the launch of vegetable
pizzas under the brand name SnowCap in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. GCMMF was also planning to launch its pizzas in other western
Indian cities like Mumbai, Surat, and Baroda. Depending on the response in these cities, GCMMF would decide to introduce its
pizzas in other cities in India. The pizzas were offered in four flavours: plain tomato-onion-capsicum, fruit pizza (pineapple-topped),
mushroom and ‘Jain pizzas’ (pizzas without onion or garlic). GCMMF launched the pizzas in the Rs.20-25 price range. The existing
players in the pizza market, like Domino’s, Pizza Hut and Nirula’s offered pizzas at nothing less than Rs.39. Analysts felt that
GCMMF’s move would force the existing players to reduce their prices in the long run. GCMMF planned to open 3,000 pizza retail
franchise outlets all over the country by 2005. The pizzas would be made at the retail outlets. The technical training and the recipe
for the pizza would be provided by GCMMF. It would also negotiate with bulk suppliers of vegetables to get these at wholesale
rates. These would be provided to the retailers. The main cost component of the pizza is the mozarella cheese. GCMMF would offer
the cheese at a bulk rate of Rs.140 per kg, compared to the market price of Rs 146 per kg, thus saving the retailers Rs.6 per kg.
GCMMF on its part would have a ready market for its cheese products.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case.
Q2. Explain in detail the diversion strategy of Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF), “Amul”.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The very first major move which Paul S. Otellini took, after becoming the new CEO of Intel Corporation, was changing the
company’s 16-year old logo. The change was not only in the tag line but also in the famous Intel’s “dropped-e” corporate logo. The
company was the market leader in its microprocessor segment and the famous tag line, ‘Intel inside’, was closely associated with its
success. A sudden shift from its year-old and well known corporate logo to a new one, was quite unlikely Intel. Moreover, the
company was planning to diversify to other businesses, apart from its core PC segment, thus, decided to change from ‘Intel Inside’ to
‘Leap Ahead’. There were many instances where companies had changed their corporate logos and also succeeded in maintaining
their images in the market. This case allows room for discussing whether Intel has made the right move or not.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the new marketing initiatives taken by Intel.
Q2. Debate on whether this initiative would help Intel to succeed in future.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
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Mr. Harish Jain, CEO of Energetic Enterprises, has established the firm for the manufacture and marketing of an innovative product.
The firm earned a reputation of its product within two years of its inception and enjoyed monopoly position in the market for its
product. Now it has a turnover of about Rs.80 crores. Three years back, some firms entered the market and offered cheap substitutes
which were of better quality. This year, Mr. Harish Jain is worried because about 40% of the market share has already been taken
away by the new firms and he is not able to check this trend. Mr. Jain has been looking after both production and marketing
functions though finance is being looked after by a finance manager having a professional degree in chartered accountancy. Mr. Jain
has recently lowered the price of his product to fight competition, but even this has not helped. He has now approached you for
advice to stabilize his sales volume.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Analyze the case.
Q2. Identify the strong and weak points of this case.
Q3. What environmental factors have caused a worry to Mr.Jain?
Q4. As a consultant, what strategies would you suggest to check further fall in market share?
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
M/s SKYLINE Airlines is a large scale diversified group, since 1980. Due to recent global economic challenges Company is facing
problems with customer orientation. The firm is having declining sales & very few new customers. You have been asked to do the
best in this situation as the Marketing manager for the company
Answer the following question.
Q1. How to coin marketing concept of this company to boost sales?
Q2. What will you do to increase the customer’s base and retain old customers?
Q3. Draft a procedure for grievances.
Q4. Redesign a customer service process.

Operation Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. How are steady-state results achieved in a simulation? (10
marks)
Q2. Define the strategic goals of supply chain management and indicate how element of a supply chain (purchasing,
production, inventory and transportation and distribution) has an impact of these goals?
(10
marks)
Q3. Define the four basic waiting line structures and give an example of each? (10
marks)
Q4. Discuss the concept of robust design? Given an example of a robust product or service? (10
marks)
Q5. What is the logic of Taguchi methods? (10
marks)
Q6. List four basic operations strategies. (10
marks)
Q7. Explain the difference between total and partial productivity. (10
marks)
Q8. What is production/operations? (10
marks)

2/10/2018 Aeren Foundation
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INDIAN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND
ADMINISTRATION
AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Name : Sudip Bera Marks : 80
Course : Executive Masters in Business Administration (EMBA
Subject : Principles and Practice of Management
Case Studies
Case (20
Marks)
You are the head of a large department and several supervisors report to you. Recently you were confronted with a knotty problem. It
seems that one of the supervisors had gotten into a loud and disagreeable argument with an employee. You called the supervisor to
your office to hear his story. The supervisor admitted losing his temper and shouting at the employee, but he believed it was justified.
He had been observing the employee over the year the man had been with the company. During this period the employee had been
frequently late, and his absentee rate was above average. In addition, the supervisor went on to say that the employee was a
socializer on the job, frequently leaving his work to talk to other employees and to use the telephone for personal calls. The
supervisor then said that the proverbial last straw caused his outburst. The employee had come in late, and after about an hour of
work he made a telephone call which the supervisor had timed as lasting 14 minutes. The supervisor then started his tirade. The
employee denied being on the telephone that long, the supervisor called him a liar, and they continued the vituperative exchange
which ended when you called the supervisor to your office. After listening to the supervisor, you asked him if he had disciplined the
employee before, since apparently he had a poor record. You also asked if the employee had been placed on probation or had been
warned. The supervisor looked at you sheepishly and seemed reluctant to answer. You pressed him, for an answer, and he finally
blurted out that he was afraid to discipline the employee because he was black. He stated that the impression he had from you and
higher management was that black employees should be given special treatment so that they would feel welcome and not
discriminated against. He felt the company wanted to impress the public with its forward-looking employment practices and didn’t
want any trouble with the black community. As a result, he was lax in discipline and had kept a hands-off approach with all black
employees until his outburst. He said he couldn’t stand it anymore, and the 14-mintue telephone call caused him to lose his temper.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Why would a supervisor find it difficult to communicate with a black employee?
Q2. Could the company have done anything to offset the misunderstanding the supervisor apparently had about the
treatment of black employees?
Q3. To what extent did the supervisor’s lack of communication encourage the employee to think his behavior was
satisfactory? Explain.
Q4. What would you now tell the supervisor?
Case (20
Marks)
Medical Secretaries at Spire Sussex Hospital are delighted with the reporting capabilities of Health code’s e practice manager
system. Spire Sussex is one of 38 hospitals within the Spire Healthcare group, one of the country’s leading private hospital groups.
Located near Hastings, the hospital offers a range of services, including cosmetic surgery, orthopedics, psychiatry and gynecology,
treating thousands of insured and self-funded patients each year. Of more than 70 consultants who practice at Spire Sussex, half
entrust their billing and credit control to the hospital’s medical secretaries, a department which has expanded by 60% since it was
established in 1997. Catherine Good sell, PA to the Hospital Director, reports that her team process between 80 and 100 invoices
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each week and manage the hospital accounts for each consultant using Health code’s e Practice manager. Spire Sussex Hospital pays
a monthly subscription for the online system and then charges the consultants concerned. Catherine recalls the decision to use Health
code: “We looked at other practice management systems but only Health code was able to offer the functionality we needed at the
right price. This was an important consideration because we wanted consultants who were going to use the system to be confident
they were getting the best value for money.” She is now in no doubt that Spire Sussex Hospital made the right choice: “It is so much
quicker to send bills to insurer’s electronically using e Practice manager rather than through the post and we can be confident that the
validated invoice has been received and can be processed straight away. When bulk payments are received from insurers, we can
reallocate the money to each patient’s account swiftly and accurately. “But for us the system’s greatest asset is its excellent reporting
capabilities, particularly debt analysis which makes it quicker and easier to keep track of overdue payments. We were also delighted
that Health code’s technicians were able to create a bespoke transaction report for us which shows only the specific information we
need for each patient and the amount outstanding. It has made life so much easier.” E Practice manager’s detailed reports enables
Spire Sussex’s medical secretaries to send out timely account statements and regular reminder letters. This means queries from
insured patients about shortfalls, or from insurers about the treatment provided to a patient can be flagged and resolved quickly.
Catherine adds that her team finds the system’s secure messaging feature particularly useful to keep in touch with private medical
insurers without compromising patient confidentiality. Overall, Catherine believes that e-Practice manager has been a great
investment. She concludes: “I’m delighted to say that we have never looked back. The system is really intuitive which has made it
quick and easy to learn and yet it provides all the functionality we need. Most importantly, our consultants tell us it is working well
for them too.”
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the role of e-Practice Manager in Sussex Hospital.
Q2. Is this system helpful for such health organizations? Explain.
Case (20
Marks)
National Printers LTD, is a nationwide company engaged in printing and packaging industry with a market share of around 20 per
cent. Its corporate office at Mumbai, is a buzz with the appointment of director, personnel, Mr.Shashikant and today he’s to present
his ideas in first meeting he has called. The meeting attended by three Vice-President, heads of finance, marketing and around 45
managers, started and he was called upon to present his views. Mr.Shashikant started, “my division is responsible for developing
performance standards evaluation and personnel development of line managers. I want to specially focus on larger issue of
developing their abilities the company has relied upon evaluation by superiors and personnel department. But may I suggest, that the
performance of the manager should be evaluated by adding one more element, i.e., information obtained from their subordinates.”
He added, “I propose a procedure for obtaining information on key parameters as viewed by the subordinates. The procedure is
simple. Each manager and his subordinates will meet in presence of personnel trainer and discuss the concept. One trainer would
then complete a question which would indicate his/her expertise, people skills, functional skills, etc. the subordinates will judge the
manager on numerical scale and also provide base for such rating. The responses should be kept anonymous, if desired”. “Once all
the information is received, trainers will meet managers, brief them and discuss. The purpose is to develop a plan where provisions
of corrective actions, training programs and skill enhancement can be suggested”. Mr.Shashikant concluded by reaffirming that the
exercise will provide valuable information and feedback and also help managers to develop themselves. He said once the offer is
accepted, standards for performance shall be developed by the top management and then further steps would be taken.
Answer the following question.
Q1. As a manager with this company. What’s your reaction to this offer?
Q2. Give reasons, if you agree for training on skill development based on the performance report
Case (20
Marks)
This case gives an overview of the critical condition of the air pollution in New Delhi (India) in 2015. It discusses the causes, major
pollutants, effects and the government measures to control the air pollution levels. One of the government measures was the Odd
even formula, a plan to restrict private cars on the Delhi roads. The case also explains the details, strategies and regulations with
respect to the formula and highlights the mixed reviews on its working. of such incidents. On December 22, 2015, the Delhi High
Court commented that the air pollution condition in the national capital was of an “emergency nature”. According to The Economic
Times dated December 21, 2015, the Central Pollution Control Board reported that the Air Quality Index in New Delhi varied from
poor, very poor, to severe in the month of November and the first 10 days of December 2015. The Center for Science and
Environment stated that increased air pollution was the cause of 10,000 to 30,000 deaths in New Delhi annually.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the condition of air pollution in Delhi in the year2015.
Q2. What is CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)? Explain the various measures taken by the government to control
the air pollution.


ADVERTISING ISBM EMBA EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

ADVERTISING ISBM EMBA EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

CONTACT:
DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

Answer the following question.
Q1. What is the case all about?
Q2. What are the advantages of repeated exposure to ads?

Answer the following question.
Q1. give an overview of the case.
Q2. How and why the retail promotion was run for a full week?

Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the above case.
Q2. What is the role of ASA?

Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the above case.

Q2. What is ethical lpase in ads?

BUSINESS ETHICS

Q1. Discuss managers role in business ethics. (10 marks)
Q2. What is the relation of ethics in business? (10 marks)
Q3. Give need for consumer education. (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss seven points of mahatma Gandhi. (10 marks)
Q5. Give benefits of ISO 9000 quality systems. (10 marks)
Q6. What are some of the key strategies that a company can adopt to manage International Human Resource ? (10 marks)
Q7. List out the characteristics of direct distribution channel. (10 marks)
Q8. Explain exports of goods services in foreign exchange management act-1999.

CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

Answer the following question.
Q1. Distinguish between rational and emotional buying motives with the help of examples? (10
marks)
Q2. Discuss the theories of learning (10
marks)
Q3. Discuss motive arousal (10
marks)
Q4. Write a note on price perceptions (10
marks)
Q5. Write a note on Motivational intensity (10
marks)
Q6. What are memory concepts relevant in advertising. (10
marks)
Q7. Define & explain the following with respect to consumer behavior, with examples Attitude (10
marks)
Q8. Explain the characteristics of Organizational buyers? State the factors affecting the same? Please

Finance Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Why does diversification reduce risk? (10 marks)
Q2. State the decisions involved in Financial management (10 marks)
Q3. How negatively correlated investments behave in a market? (10 marks)
Q4. List and explain the three financial factors that influence the value of a business (10 marks)
Q5. Why do we add back non cash items to net profit while calculating cash flow from operating activities (10 marks)
Q6. Explain why financial planning is important to today s chief executives? (10 marks)
Q7. Differentiate the real assets and securities. (10 marks)
Q8. Briefly explain what call provision is and in which case companies use this option.

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ISBM EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED. MBA EMBA BMS DMS ANSWERS PROVIDED. DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain how Sheridan and the other co-founders at Menlo fostered innovation at the company.
Q2. Discuss the significance of project management in the success of a company.
Q3. Discuss the challenges faced in implementing such a system in a corporate environment

Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an over view of the case.
Q2. How did he multiple vacancies for recruitment exist in Phone 4 u? Discuss the recruitment procedure adopted by
Phone4 u company.

Answer the following question.
Q1. Debate the difficulties being faced by the organization in recruiting a reward manager.
Q2. Explain the selection procedure used in the recruitment of HR and Reward Manager.

Answer the following question.
Q1. How, according to you, does the Pixar University help foster creativity and innovation at Pixar?

International Business
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are the factors that affect international pricing ? (10
marks)
Q2. What are the stages involved in new product development at international market ? (10
marks)
Q3. Discuss the evolution of International trade theory. (10
marks)
Q4. What are the different forces of globalisation ? (10
marks)
Q5. Discuss about organization structure of the WTO (10
marks)
Q6. What are the benefits of banks for promoting exporters under the scheme? (10
marks)
Q7. What are the steps taken by government to improve FDI? (10
marks)
Q8. What are the different dimensions of economic environment? What are the steps taken by government to improve
FDI?

MARKETING MANAGEMENT

Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case.
Q2. Explain in detail the diversion strategy of Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF), Amul .
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the new marketing initiatives taken by Intel.
Q2. Debate on whether this initiative would help Intel to succeed in future.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Analyze the case.
Q2. Identify the strong and weak points of this case.
Q3. What environmental factors have caused a worry to Mr.Jain?
Q4. As a consultant, what strategies would you suggest to check further fall in market share?
Answer the following question.
Q1. How to coin marketing concept of this company to boost sales?
Q2. What will you do to increase the customer s base and retain old customers?
Q3. Draft a procedure for grievances.
Q4. Redesign a customer service process.

Operation Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. How are steady-state results achieved in a simulation? (10
marks)
Q2. Define the strategic goals of supply chain management and indicate how element of a supply chain (purchasing,
production, inventory and transportation and distribution) has an impact of these goals?
(10
marks)
Q3. Define the four basic waiting line structures and give an example of each? (10
marks)
Q4. Discuss the concept of robust design? Given an example of a robust product or service? (10
marks)
Q5. What is the logic of Taguchi methods? (10
marks)
Q6. List four basic operations strategies. (10
marks)
Q7. Explain the difference between total and partial productivity. (10
marks)
Q8. What is production/operations?

Principles and Practice of Management
ISBM EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED. MBA EMBA BMS DMS ANSWERS PROVIDED. DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

Answer the following question.
Q1. Why would a supervisor find it difficult to communicate with a black employee?
Q2. Could the company have done anything to offset the misunderstanding the supervisor apparently had about the
treatment of black employees?
Q3. To what extent did the supervisor s lack of communication encourage the employee to think his behavior was
satisfactory? Explain.
Q4. What would you now tell the supervisor?

Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the role of e-Practice Manager in Sussex Hospital.
Q2. Is this system helpful for such health organizations? Explain

Answer the following question.
Q1. As a manager with this company. What s your reaction to this offer?
Q2. Give reasons, if you agree for training on skill development based on the performance report

Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the condition of air pollution in Delhi in the year2015.
Q2. What is CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)? Explain the various measures taken by the government to control
the air pollution.


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ISBM EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED. MBA EMBA BMS DMS ANSWERS PROVIDED. DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com
Business Communication
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is Communication policy? What are its Specifications (10 marks)
Q2. Write Short note on Telephone Etiquette (10 marks)
Q3. Give Do’s for a GD (10 marks)
Q4. What is group discussion? How is it Evaluated? And what is the techniques of GD (10 marks)
Q5. Define Interview & explain any 5 types in details (10 marks)
Q6. Write notes on Intended form ,Block form and Modified Block form (10 marks)
Q7. Explain 7 phases of negotiating tactics (10 marks)
Q8. What are the different barriers of Communication (10 marks)

International Business
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is absolute advantage in international business ? (10 marks)
Q2. Define the concept of globalisation. (10 marks)
Q3. Write Short note on FOB & CPT (10 marks)
Q4. Explain main activities of ITPO. (10 marks)
Q5. Describe principles of trading system. (10 marks)
Q6. What is DDU? (10 marks)
Q7. Discuss about cottage sector & handicrafts in EXIM measures. (10 marks)
Q8. Explain International Trade Theory (10 marks)

Material Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain some important goals of corporate policy? (10 marks)
Q2. Which components are determined by reorder point? (10 marks)
Q3. Write a short note on discount flow method? (10 marks)
Q4. Describe techniques & selection of products for value analysis? (10 marks)
Q5. Which steps to be taken in insurance management? (10 marks)
Q6. What are the problems in import substitution? (10 marks)
Q7. Explain significance differences in purchasing of capital equipment? (10 marks)
Q8. Which items are includes in cost of ordering? (10 marks)

Organizational Behaviour
Answer the following question.
Q1. What do you understand by Effectiveness & efficiency? How these are related to OB? (10
marks)
Q2. Outline the importance of ensuring employee health and wellness in organizations. (10
marks)
Q3. Define Stress and describe a work or study related situation that you found stressful (10
marks)
Q4. How does corporate identity differ from organizational culture? (10
marks)
Q5. According to Rousseau’s social cognition theory, how are psychological contracts established? How effective is her
explanation?
(10
marks)
Q6. Can temporary workers develop relational contracts with the host organizaton? Provide an informed and
constructively critical social psychological justification for your answer.
(10
marks)
Q7. Define leadership. Explain the measure that can be taken for developing leadership ability of managers. (10
marks)
Q8. Critically evaluate the concept of ‘identity’ as a performance management tool. (10
marks)

Principles and Practice of Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is span of control? Identify the factors determining span of control. (10 marks)
Q2. Write short note on Managerial skills & Levels of management (10 marks)
Q3. Describe organizational excellence. (10 marks)
Q4. Briefly describe the 7-S framework. How it can be used to evaluate criteria for organizational success? (10 marks)
Q5. Explain disadvantages of functional organization. (10 marks)
Q6. What are the determinants of organizational culture? (10 marks)
Q7. Fayol ‘s principles of management (10 marks)
Q8. What are the aspects of the system approach focused attention ? (10 marks)


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CONTACT
ISBM EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED. MBA EMBA BMS DMS ANSWERS PROVIDED. DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

Business Communication
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is Communication policy? What are its Specifications (10 marks)
Q2. Write Short note on Telephone Etiquette (10 marks)
Q3. Give Do’s for a GD (10 marks)
Q4. What is group discussion? How is it Evaluated? And what is the techniques of GD (10 marks)
Q5. Define Interview & explain any 5 types in details (10 marks)
Q6. Write notes on Intended form ,Block form and Modified Block form (10 marks)
Q7. Explain 7 phases of negotiating tactics (10 marks)
Q8. What are the different barriers of Communication (10 marks)

International Business
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is absolute advantage in international business ? (10 marks)
Q2. Define the concept of globalisation. (10 marks)
Q3. Write Short note on FOB & CPT (10 marks)
Q4. Explain main activities of ITPO. (10 marks)
Q5. Describe principles of trading system. (10 marks)
Q6. What is DDU? (10 marks)
Q7. Discuss about cottage sector & handicrafts in EXIM measures. (10 marks)
Q8. Explain International Trade Theory (10 marks)

Material Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain some important goals of corporate policy? (10 marks)
Q2. Which components are determined by reorder point? (10 marks)
Q3. Write a short note on discount flow method? (10 marks)
Q4. Describe techniques & selection of products for value analysis? (10 marks)
Q5. Which steps to be taken in insurance management? (10 marks)
Q6. What are the problems in import substitution? (10 marks)
Q7. Explain significance differences in purchasing of capital equipment? (10 marks)
Q8. Which items are includes in cost of ordering? (10 marks)

Organizational Behaviour
Answer the following question.
Q1. What do you understand by Effectiveness & efficiency? How these are related to OB? (10
marks)
Q2. Outline the importance of ensuring employee health and wellness in organizations. (10
marks)
Q3. Define Stress and describe a work or study related situation that you found stressful (10
marks)
Q4. How does corporate identity differ from organizational culture? (10
marks)
Q5. According to Rousseau’s social cognition theory, how are psychological contracts established? How effective is her
explanation?
(10
marks)
Q6. Can temporary workers develop relational contracts with the host organizaton? Provide an informed and
constructively critical social psychological justification for your answer.
(10
marks)
Q7. Define leadership. Explain the measure that can be taken for developing leadership ability of managers. (10
marks)
Q8. Critically evaluate the concept of ‘identity’ as a performance management tool. (10
marks)

Principles and Practice of Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is span of control? Identify the factors determining span of control. (10 marks)
Q2. Write short note on Managerial skills & Levels of management (10 marks)
Q3. Describe organizational excellence. (10 marks)
Q4. Briefly describe the 7-S framework. How it can be used to evaluate criteria for organizational success? (10 marks)
Q5. Explain disadvantages of functional organization. (10 marks)
Q6. What are the determinants of organizational culture? (10 marks)
Q7. Fayol ‘s principles of management (10 marks)
Q8. What are the aspects of the system approach focused attention ? (10 marks)


ISBM EMBA EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED WHATSAPP 91 9924764558

ISBM EMBA EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

ISBM EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED. MBA EMBA BMS DMS ANSWERS PROVIDED. DR. PRASANTH MBA PH.D. DME MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

Principles and Practice of Management
Case Studies
Case (20
Marks)
This case is about the organization development (OD) initiatives undertaken at Whirlpool Corporation (Whirlpool) to create a new
core competency in the form of building an innovation culture within the organization. In the late 1990s, Whirlpool was faced with
stagnation in revenues, profits, and market share. According to analysts, this was a direct result of the stagnation in its product line
due to the lack of innovative products. Whirlpool used the services of Strategos, a consultancy firm, to develop I-consultants and
various I-mentors from within the organization, to form a coaching network to coach/mentor the employees and help them develop
an innovation mindset. The case discusses the various steps initiated by the top management at Whirlpool to bring about a change in
the company’s corporate culture and embed innovation as a core competency. Analysts felt that these efforts had borne fruit, judging
by the consistent growth in Whirlpool’s revenues since 2002.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the issues and challenges faced by a company in bringing about a change in organization culture.
Q2. Give the role of the senior management in culture change initiatives.
Q3. Explain the importance of coaching/mentoring in changing the organizational culture and creating a core
competency.
Q4. List out the uses of IT for Knowledge Management and Innovation management.
Case (20
Marks)
The Marketing manager of AMK Enterprises, Roopali Deshmukh (Deshmukh) stepped out of the conference hall in a pensive mood
after an important meeting called by the CEO. The meeting was attended by the heads of various departments in the company and
was convened to discuss the targets for the coming assessment year. Deshmukh had a formidable sales target to achieve and
wondered how she would be able to meet those seemingly impossible goals. This fear was further aggravated by the fact that the
productivity levels of employees in the company had been falling. Deshmukh was under tremendous pressure from the management
to improve the performance of her team. She also had to deal with the decreasing levels of employees’ morale in her 24-member
team. As a first step, Deshmukh informed her team members about a meeting that she planned to hold the next day. She then drafted
a plan of action that she intended to discuss with her team. The next day, Deshmukh began the meeting by informing her team
members about the corporate meeting she had attended. She then said, “We have a difficult task ahead for this year, and your
participation and involvement is essential to achieve the goals”. She then invited suggestions from her team members regarding the
role to be played by each of them. The meeting then progressed on to setting of individual targets for by each team member as, it was
felt that this would help in accomplishing the organizational goals. Specific goals were, therefore, set and agreed upon by all the
team members. The team aimed to increase the organizational profits by 18% over the next six months. They sketched out a plan of
action to achieve the targets set for the team and decided that they would meet once every two months to monitor their progress. Two
months later, the team met again and received their progress. Deshmukh also gave a feedback on the performance of every member
of the team. The team then collectively identified the areas of improvement and decided upon the measures they would take to
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overcome their deficiencies. This continued for the rest of the year. The final review meeting was held just before the yearly
corporate meeting attended by the top management. The team was surprised to see that they had achieved their targets. Thus,
effective planning and control mechanisms helped the team achieve their short term goals, and this in turn, helped in the
achievement of the organizational objectives. Besides, the employees were also motivated as the management gave adequate
recognition to their involvement and participation in achieving team goals. The target to be achieved by the team was highly
challenging. This further motivated the team members as they had better opportunities to prove their problems solving skills. Thus,
the outstanding performance of the sales team helped the organization achieve in the long term.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Roopali Deshmukh followed the practice of management by objectives (MBO) while setting goals for team
members. Discuss the various phases of the MBO process that helped her team achieve its goals.
Q2. Explain briefly the process of MBO and the various advantages of implementing MBO in organizations
Case (20
Marks)
This case talks about the environmental vs development issue that cropped up following the proposal by the government of the south
Indian state of Telangana to cut down thousands of trees in KBR Park located in the city of Hyderabad to lay new roads that would
ease traffic in the area. The civic body of the city, Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC), with the intention of easing
traffic snarls in Hyderabad, had taken up an ambitious project to construct flyovers at 54 junctions as a part of the Strategic Road
Development Project (SRDP). Of these, six flyovers were to be constructed around KBR Park. On May 2, 2016, the National Green
Tribunal (NGT), set up by the Government of India on October 18, 2010, under the Green Tribunal Act 2010 to handle cases
involving environmental issues, directed the municipal commissioner of the south Indian city of Hyderabad to withdraw the decision
to cut down thousands of trees in the iconic Kasu Brahmananda Reddy (KBR) national park, Hyderabad, as a part of the Strategic
Road Development Project (SRDP) GHMC proposed to axe thousands of trees as a part of the SRDP. KBR Park had a lot historical
significance and the people of Hyderabad were sentimentally attached to it. The decision taken by the State Government to cut down
the trees in the name of development, therefore, met with a lot of opposition. The National Green Tribunal (NGT) and the State High
court supported the people of Hyderabad by stopping the State Government from cutting down trees around KBR Park till further
hearing. However, the State Government was still confident about getting stay orders vacated by presenting the benefits that were
expected from the construction of the flyovers around KBR Park and by planting hundreds of trees as compensation. This issue once
again brought to the fore the dilemma faced by the urban planners in developing cities in a sustainable manner.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss Sustainable Development.
Q2. Debate the decision taken by the state Govt. and give your opinion with justification.
Case (20
Marks)
Ajay Sharma is manager -SU4, i.e. Sub Unit 4 and is direct uncharged of around forty five workers and ten supervisory staff. The
company is ISO9002 certificate holder and the policy clearly spells out objectives for all levels of employees. For the next two years.
Each unit has its own production target and any deviation from these targets is reflected in weekly reports prepared by head of units.
Ajay however is worried about his unit. Since he joined this new position to weeks ago, he has observed the functioning of the
workers and made notes on how they work. Out of 10 supervisors, only 2 of them have been recruited directly. But all the workers
show no difference of attitudes for direct supervisors. Ajay realized that his sub unit has defaulted on five occasions to meet the
target in the last 3 months. He emphasized the need to tackle this issue urgently. During his observations, Ajay noticed that a certain
supervisor, Chander Pal is most vocal and is seen discussing all issues with everybody in free time and is doing his a work very
efficiently. Ajay in a formal discussion with all his 10 supervisors raised the issue of failing to meet the weekly targets. He proposed
to form 3 work groups within the sub unit, who will be responsible for meeting weekly production targets and also for maintaining
performance ratings for individual workers. He suggested that Chander Pal should be the leader of these groups. He also made it
clear that there was no provision for performance related compensation or incentives. But based on the performance monitoring, we
will select a ‘Performer of SU-4’ on weekly basis. Ajay entrusted the following 3 major responsibilities to the groups. (a) Create
awareness on production target and quality. (b) Check the production achieved as against the targets on daily basis. (c) Monitor
individual performance.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss Ajay’s approach to the situation
Q2. Why Ajay has chosen Chander Pal as leader of group? Discuss the role of a group leader.
Q3. Whether the groups formed will show immediate results or not. Explain.
Q4. Debate the likely differences in departmental promoted and directly recruited supervisors.

Operation Management
Case Studies
Case study (20
Marks)
A new phenomenon called ‘Apparel on Demand’ is slowly making its presence felt. It is an extension of JIT linking retailers and
manufacturers for a just-in-time responsiveness. Nair Clothing Inc., promoted by a young management graduate has recently
ventured into the business of making reasonably priced custom jeans for women. It has partnered with many stores selling women
garments. In the stores, women are electronically measured and information like colour, fabric, style, etc., are recorded. The
information reaches the Nair manufacturing facility at Ahmedabad almost immediately through a state-of-the-art information
system. Nair guarantees delivery of the custom jeans within 10 days. With the growing acceptance of jeans among the women in
India, especially in the urban areas, the market for women’s jeans is growing at a fast pace. Nair with its unique business model
hopes to garner a significant share of this market. The promoter of Nair along with her top executives is confident that their concept
of JIT jeans would work.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Do you think Nair’s strategy would work? Why or why not? What is the importance of retailers in its business
strategy?
Q2. Will customers wait for 10 days to have the jeans delivered? What can Nair do to compete on customer service if
delivery takes this much time?
Case study (20
Marks)
After the 1995 release of Microsoft’s windows 95 multimedia operating system, every journalist started writing an obituary column
of apple inc and despite the best efforts of the then CEO Gil Amelio, the company was steadily moving towards bankruptcy. When
Steve jobs took over in 1976, not many people gave any chance to apple to survive the brutal competition in the personal computer
business. Steve did unleash many ruthless actions that surprised many in the industry; in an attempt to put Apple back on track.
Steve cut all of the 15 desktop and portable models that apple was struggling to sell, back to one. He showed the door to printers and
peripherals. He cut development engineers. He cut software development. He cut distributors. He cut out virtually all manufacturing,
moving it offshore to Taiwan. This paved the way for reducing inventory by over 80 percent. Apple started selling PCs through a
new web store. Armed with the best operating system that he brought from NeXT, Steve started serving customers with a simplified
product line through a limited set of outlets. Apple’s miraculous rise from the ashes, many researchers now attribute to these wellorchestrated,
coordinated set of actions put in place by Steve in quick succession. Through Pixar, the iPod and the iPhone, Steve
revolutionized the major industries of movies, music and phones-creating and exploiting opportunities that came along the way. A
good strategy is a product of coherent design, the application of strength to capture most promising opportunity.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give an overview of the case
Q2. Discuss the strategy used by Steve to capture the opportunity?
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Case study (20
Marks)
The demand for a product generally tends to follow a predictable pattern called the PLC. Product life cycle has been defined as an
attempt to recognize different distinct stages in the sales history of the product and a generalized model of sales and profit trends for
a product class or category over a period of time” The various stages are introduction, growth, maturity saturation and decline.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the introduction stage in brief.
Q2. Explain the maturity stage in brief.
Case study (20
Marks)
Finland-based Nokia Corporation (Nokia) is the world’s leading manufacturer of mobile devices. Analysts attributed Nokia’s success
to its supply chain management practices. The company had an integrated supply chain which inter-linked suppliers, manufacturing
plants, contract manufacturers, sales, logistics service providers, and the consumers. It entered into a long-term relationship with its
suppliers and also supported them in improving their processes, which in turn helped the company. Nokia was able to keep its costs
low because of its efficient manufacturing systems and processes. The company adopted a hybrid manufacturing system which was a
combination of in-house manufacturing and outsourcing. It also adopted the Smart manufacturing technique so as to enhance the
competitiveness of its manufacturing facilities Nokia comprised three business groups – Devices, Services, and Markets. These three
groups were supported by the Corporate Development Office. The Devices division developed and managed Nokia’s mobile device
portfolio, including the sourcing of components… The company had a wide distribution network which helped it to effectively reach
the end customers. Nokia has unique supply chain management practices. Despite the impact of global economic slowdown on
Nokia’s revenues and profitability, the company made its supply chain efficient to counter the impact of reduced demand of mobile
handsets.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the importance of efficient supply chain management practices in the success of any business.
Q2. Explain the operations of the supply chain management practices at Nokia.
Q3. Appreciate the need for a customized supply chain while operating in different countries.
Q4. Analyze the challenges faced by Nokia in the near future.

Marketing Management
Case Studies
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Ford Motors (Ford), one of the biggest manufacturers of automobiles in the US lost could not sustain its Lincoln brand due to
mismanagement. The company Concentrated more on its trucks division for profits and let its luxury car business slide. It faced
falling sales and profits due to a bloated product line, which was out of sync with the market. To get back to its former eminence,
Ford initiated the rebranding of its Lincoln luxury-car brand.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the concepts of brand, brand image and brand loyalty in the context of Ford.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Coca-Cola Company was universally recognized as a market leader in soft drinks with worldwide revenue of $23.1 billion and
presence in over 200 countries (2006). The Company manufactured beverage concentrates and syrups. The Coca-Cola Company
owned four of the world’s top five soft-drink brands, which included Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite. In America, sales of
carbonated drinks declined a little in 2005 as government campaigns and media coverage raised concerns over obesity. Bottled teas
and nutrition-enhancers were big opportunities for Coca-Cola. Sales of bottled teas were growing steadily and nutrient drinks had a
market of about $1 billion by 2006. According to a study conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, Americans opted
for a healthy alternative to their daily dose of energy instead of carbonated drinks. The study prompted Coca-Cola to go in for the
calorie burning Enviga. On 6th November, 2006, Coca-Cola along with Nestlé launched Enviga, a Nestea carbonated canned greentea
drink. Enviga burnt 60 to 100 calories per three 12-ounce cans in healthy adults aged between 18-35 years. For overweight
Americans, the release of Enviga was meant to bring good news. According to Coca-Cola, Enviga helped in reducing obesity. But
according to doctors green tea was unlikely to make anyone shrink, so the Center for Science in the Public Interest, an organization
that focuses on health and nutrition issues in US sued Coca-Cola and Nestle for their ad campaign of Enviga but the company had no
plans to change its claims. In the recent past Coca-Cola had already faced two soft-drink flops out of their four releases in the form
of Coca-Cola C2 and Vanilla Coke. What would Coca-Cola’s strategy be with the new drink? Would it be able to make it a success
despite the initial controversy that surrounded it? Would consumers take to Enviga?
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the trouble faced by Coca-Cola in 2005.
Q2. Debate Coca-Cola’s marketing strategies for Enviga and discuss whether Colca-Cola will succeed in its new
product.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The Indian watch industry was in a state of flux and market leader ‘Titan’ had to gear up its marketing strategies to retain its brand
positioning. Titan as a brand had established itself for its style and choice of design. Titan’s clear segmentation strategy had served it
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well and the challenge Titan faced was to combat the onslaught of popular international brands like Rado and Rolex. Would Titan be
able to match up by leveraging on its brand equity?
Answer the following question.
Q1. State the challenges faced by an Indian watch brand due to the entry of foreign players
Q2. Analyze the impact of brand equity for market sustenance.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Nike, one of the leading brands of athletic footwear, apparel, equipment and accessories is Oregon, US based company. It company’s
50% of the revenue comes from international sales and it registers it presence in more than 160 countries. Nike owns 400 retail
outlets which operate domestically as well as internationally. Over the past few years Nike’s subsidiaries have been performing well
and as a part of the company’s growth strategy and to maintain its position in the market Nike started concentrating on its subsidiary
business in the year 2006. With the acquisition of the Starter the company also envisaged to setup itself in the value retail. The case
analyses the impact of Nike’s subsidiary brand on its core brand.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss the segmentation, targeting and positioning strategies of core brands and subsidiary brands.
Q2. Give an overview of the case.

Marketing Management
Answer the following question.
Q1.
R.K.Industries Ltd., intends to launch a new folding exercise cycle in Indian market. As a marketing manager which
steps would you like to take while launching this product? How will you conduct the test marketing for this product.
Make necessary Assumptions and justify your answer.
(10
marks)
Q2. “Ware – housing decision are growingly becoming more critical” . Discuss quoting examples (10
marks)
Q3. What is Price sensitivity? (10
marks)
Q4. A New brand of a ‘Tyre –that-Never –punctures’ is to be launched in India by a multinational company with your
advice about concept – testing and test – marketing Justify your contention
(10
marks)
Q5. Advertisement expenses are usually wasteful, with no guarantee of enhanced sales or higher loyalty from among the
target audience” .Do you agree with this statement ?Present your view – point.
(10
marks)
Q6. Define the term Marketing Mix. Explain the significance of appropriate marketing mix in the present competitive
environment. Cite examples to support your answer.
(10
marks)
Q7. Explain Warehousing and Inventory Decisions (10
marks)
Q8. Explain Psychological Pricing (10
marks)

International Business
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are the functions of the distribution channels ? (10 marks)
Q2. Explain the types of data collected during marketing research. (