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Sales Management
Case Studies
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Auckland Engineering plc Jim Withey, sales manager for Auckland Engineering plc, a well-established engineering company based
in the Midlands, had been contemplating the memo he had received two days earlier from his newly appointed marketing director.
Memo To: J Withey, sales manager From: D C Duncan, marketing director Date: 16 January 2008 Subject: Preparation of annual
marketing plan You will recall that, at our series of preliminary meetings to discuss future marketing plans for the company, I
suggested that I was unhappy with the seemingly haphazard approach to planning. Accordingly, you will recall it was agreed
between departmental heads that each would undertake to prepare a formal input to next month’s planning meeting. At this stage, I
am not seeking detailed plans for each product market, rather I am concerned that you give some thought to how your department
can contribute to the planning process. Being new to the company and its product/markets, I am not entirely up to date on what has
been happening to the market for our products, although as we all know our market share at 3.5 per cent is down on last year. I
would particularly like to know what information ‘our department could contribute to the analysis of the situation. To help you in
your own analysis I have summarized below what I feel came out of our first planning meetings. • Business definition. It was agreed
that the business needs redefining in customer terms. An appropriate definition for our company would he as follows: ‘Solutions to
engine component design and manufacturing problems.’ • Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, i.e. SWOT analysis. The
main strengths of our company are as follows. — We have excellent customer awareness and an image of reliability and quality. —
Our sales force is technically well qualified. — Our manufacturing flexibility is second to none. We can respond quickly and
effectively to individual customer needs. Our main weaknesses are as follows. — Our prices are approximately 10 per cent above the
industry average. 3 — We are spending a far higher proportion of our turnover on advertising than some of our main competitors. —
Our sales force is not skilled in generating new leads. Major opportunities are as follows. — Some of our major competitors are
having difficulty keeping their customers because of quality and delivery problems. Buyers in the industry seem particularly prone to
switching their suppliers. — Recent legislation in the industry means that our research and development programme on the new
TDIX component with its emphasis on lower exhaust emission levels, should prove advantageous. — Recent and forecast trends in
the exchange rate should help our export marketing efforts. Major threats are shown below. — Our largest customer is threatening to
switch to another supplier because of our higher average prices. — Apart from the TDIX programmer, we have not been keeping
pace with the rapid technological change in the industry. — Some of our major export markets are threatened by the possibility of
import restrictions. • Objectives. Financial. – To increase our return on capital employed by 5 per cent after taxes. — Our net profit in
the forthcoming year to be £2.0 million. Marketing. — Sales revenue to be increased to £18 million in the forthcoming year. •
Marketing strategy. Target markets. — Major manufacturers of diesel engines worldwide. Positioning. — Highest engineering quality
and after-sales service in the supply of specialist low-volume diesel engine components. I would of course welcome your comments
on my analysis of the situation, together with ‘our views on the appropriateness of the objectives I have set. In addition, for the next
meeting, I suggest that as sales manager you give some thought as to where the relative emphasis should be placed in our
promotional effort. As I have already mentioned in my summary of our preliminary meetings, we seem to be spending an excessive
amount on advertising compared with our competitors. Perhaps you could appraise me of your thoughts on this, as I understand that
you were instrumental in raising our advertising budget from 3 per cent to 5 per cent of our turnover last year. As you are well
aware, from a limited budget we must decide where to place the relative emphasis in our promotional mix. Perhaps, you would
indicate what you feel are the major considerations in this decision.
Answer the following question.

Q1. Give a brief outline of the ways in which you as sales manager can contribute to the marketing planning process at
Auckland Engineering.
Q2. Looking at Mr. Duncan’s analysis of your previous meetings, what issues/problems do you see which are of
particular relevance to the activities of the sales force?
Q3. How would you respond to Mr. Duncan’s comments on the promotional mix and, in particular, to his comments
about the level of advertising expenditure?
Q4. What is the point in conducting a SWOT analysis?
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Swish flow Ltd.—Hiring Salespeople “Why two out of five salespersons have resigned within six months of joining the company?”
asked marketing director to the sales manager, Sunil Kumar, of Swish flow Ltd. “I think, there is something wrong with our staffing
process,” responded Sunil Kumar, without knowing the real reasons for the turnover of salespeople. Swish flow Ltd started
manufacturing and marketing consumer durables like fans and water purifiers for household consumers and commercial firms in
1993. The sales and marketing office was located in Mumbai, the commercial capital of India. Swish flow was a newly established
company and for its first year of operations, the company decided to recruit five salespersons to cover major metros and cities of
Maharashtra. The staffing process included the sales manager deciding the job qualifications of salespersons based on what he learnt
in the MBA programmer. The administration manager was asked to place the advertisement in the local newspapers. The resumes of
applicants were forwarded to Sunil Kumar, who screened the same and sent interview calls to about ten applicants. The interviews
were conducted by Sunil Kumar and the marketing director and the selected candidates were given the appointment letters. Some of
the candidates had a problem of finding suitable residence, but the company policy did nor provide any consideration for the same.
Sunil Kumar conducted one-week training programmer and generally guided the new Salespersons, who reported to him directly.
There was a delay in the receipt of the fans front the factory, located at Baroda in Gujarat. During this period of three months, Sunil
Kumar was asked to conduct market surveys and look after advertising function of the entire group. He asked the salespersons to
collect market information on various other products like water purifiers, power tillers, and so on in which the group was interested
to diversify. During this period, two salespersons suddenly stopped coming to work, after collecting their salaries of the previous
working month.
Answer the following question.
Q1. What improvements do you suggest in the staffing process followed by the company?
Q2. Was Sunil Kumar right in getting market surveys done by the new salespersons?
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Plastic Products Ltd Plastic Products Ltd is a company that produces and markets plastic cups, teaspoons, knives and forks for the
catering industry. The company was established in 1974 in response to the changes taking place in the catering industry. The growth
of the fast-food sector of the market was seen as an opportunity to provide disposable eating utensils which would save on
manpower and allow the speedy provision of utensils for fast customer flow. In addition, Plastic Products has benefited from the
growth in supermarkets and sells consumer packs’ through four of the large supermarket groups. The expansion of sales and outlets
has led Jim Spencer, the sales manager, to recommend to Bill Preedy, the general manager, that the present sales force of two
regional representatives he increased to four. Spencer believes that the new recruits should have experience of selling fast-moving
consumer goods since essentially that is what his products are. Preedy believes that the new recruits should he familiar with plastic
products since that is what they are selling. He favors recruiting from within the plastics industry, since such people are familiar with
the supply, production and properties of plastic and are likely to talk the same language as other people working at the firm.
Answer the following question.
Q1. What general factors should be taken into account when recruiting salesmen?
Q2. Do you agree with Spencer or Preedy or neither?
Q3. Distinguish between the job description and the personnel specification. For an industry of your choice, write a
suitable job description and personnel specification for a salesperson.
Q4. Discuss the role of psychological testing in the selection process for salespeople.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
C. G. Engineering Company Achieving Quotas Ashok Desai was transferred from western region, where he worked as area sales
manager of CQ Engineering Company, to eastern region as regional marketing manager —industries. He was told by the company’s
general manager (Sales) that he was transferred from western region to eastern region to set things right, as eastern region was not
performing well on sales and profits. Ashok’s main responsibilities were to manage effectively 11 sales engineers and achieve the
sales volume and contribution (to profits) quotas. For Ashok, not only the industrial customers but also the sales engineers were new.
3/19/2019 Aeren Foundation
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The sales engineers were compensated based on straight salary and perquisites like house rent allowance and medical
reimbursement. There was no incentive scheme. The territory of eastern region consisted of states of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam,
and Orissa. Ashok felt that the sales engineers were not covering the market adequately and were not following any system of
routing and scheduling. He also thought that sales people were spending more time in travelling and less time in selling activities.
After talking to sales engineers individually, he got an impression that most of them were not motivated, as they were not given
adequate freedom of operations and recognition whenever they got good orders. Ashok thought that there was a good scope of
applying what he had learnt in the management institute and achieve superior results as expected by the general manager (Sales).
Answer the following question.
Q1. If you were Ashok, what would you do to achieve the sales volume and contribution quotas?


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INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks
CASE STUDY : 1
(20 Marks)
Zhuhai of Shanghai
“I’m not sure whether they understand that a firm cannot he a bundle of discreet businesses.
Most of the senior
Chinese executives I talk to arc convinced that they can make anything . . . absolutely
anything that will make
money. After so many years of command economy, managers are oblivious to the concept of
market ……they aren’t
keen to get into bilateral trading even when it makes sense. They would rather pursue
different ventures totally
unrelated to each other,” said a financial analyst of an American brokerage firm located in
Shanghai.
Mr. Dong Hong is the president of Zhuhai To Zi Company (Zuhai) which was founded in
1980 as a construction
company. Before joining the company in 1989, Hong was a high ranking army officer in the
People’s Republic of
China. As president of Zhuhai, he attended an executive management programme at Harvard
Business School.
Although Hong enjoyed the programme, he came back with some reservations about the
relevance of what he
learned. One of his oft-repeated summation of the programme was: “I have problem with the
terms like core
competency and synergy. At this point in time, there are ample opportunities in China to
make good return in any
business. You don’t mean to say that we simply stick to the knitting and pass these
opportunities to others? China is a
virgin land, you need to understand that.”
HISTORY OF SGL
Zhuhai has received a favorable media splash in China upon its taking a controlling interest
of Shanghai Gue Za Liao
Company (SGL), a poly-crystal manufacturer. SGL was founded in 1969. At that time, it was
the largest
manufacturer of poly-crystal in China employing 900 people. It received quality awards for
six consecutive years. In
1992, SGL was authorized by the Shanghai Municipal Government to become a joint stock
company. In less than 15
days, it sold RMB ¥(yen) 1.1 million worth of stock at RMB ¥22.00 per stock (¥10 par value)
to the public and to
the employees of the firm. The registered capital was RMB ¥33.799 after the fund raising.
The Government owned
RMB ¥18.799 million worth of stock. The stock was floated through the Shanghai Securities
Exchange Centre. In
1993, the market price per stock was RMB ¥l8.79, with a price of RMB ¥7.85 at its lowest
point. By being a listed
company, SGL cased its cash flow problems but the rate of return was getting depressingly
low and its market share
went down from 51 per cent in 1970 to 36 per cent in 1993.
MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY OF POLY-CRYSTAL
Poly-crystal is a crystalline specimen which contains many small individual crystals. There
are different methods of
making this product. The most common and widely used method is called Chemical Vapour
Disposition or CVP. In
this process, the material to be crystallised is vaporised in a chamber and then condensed on a
substrate to form
crystals. Silicon crystals are mostly used in semiconductor (i.e., computer chips) and solar
power applications for
their unique properties and inexpensive raw materials (mainly sand). Though it is not a
labour-intensive process, it
requires rather sophisticated technical skills.
The electronic industry in the developed countries produces its own crystals. IBM, RCA,
Motorola, and Texas
Instruments are the major producers of crystals in the U.S. Application of semiconductors
and use of photovoltaic
cells will continue to rise, and with it the demand for poly-crystal is expected to increase.
OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY OF SGL
Since China started allowing imports, SGL’s market share had shrunk for a combination of
reasons. First was the
slow rate of growth of Chinese electronic industry where poly-crystal is mostly used. Second
was that imports had
been consistently of high quality which SGL could not match due to lack of skilled labour
and obsolete technology.
Third was the ever-increasing costs of power and raw materials contributing much to
increasing cost per unit of
production.
Pricewise, SGL could not compete with the major importers from the U.S., Russia, Ukraine,
and Germany inspite of
the fact that the labour rate in China is about one-third of the U.S. and Germany. In 1994,
SQL sold 34 tons of
polycrystal where the total domestic demand was estimated to be about 105 tons.
In an attempt to diversify the company, the board of directors decided to get into the taxi
business as the city
experienced a surge in the tourist market. As of 1994, Shanghai had about 35,000 taxis. A
taxi owner typically
receives V300 per day per taxi irrespective of the driver’s earnings. The driver makes on an
average about V150 to
200 each day but he is responsible for buying gas and paying for repairs of any mechanical
defects. In addition, he
has to pay the police for any traffic violation.
The time SGL entered this market, the Chinese banks eased their lending process allowing
many of the existing
drivers to buy their own taxis with easy repayment schedules. This had the salutary effect, for
SQL, of not finding
enough “qualified” drivers without lowering the owner’s usual income of 300 per day.
Managing this line of business
was becoming a headache. SGL asked several of its managers to move into the taxi-sector.
Some of them flatly
refused and a few accepted the assignment grudgingly. SQL, though doing poorly both in
crystal and taxi business,
did not lay-off employees or reduce their benefits.
SGL’s top management thought that the company had gone as far as possible with its
restructuring efforts and
decided to be taken over either by a foreign or a domestic firm. It also tried in vain to form
alliances. In April 1994,
the Government decided to sell its RMB Vl2 million worth of stock of SGL to Zhuhai To Zi
company, making it the
largest stock holder holding 35.5 per cent of the entire stock. Immediately after the takeover,
Zhuhai asked SGL to
produce quartz glass for a particular Japanese company. The outsourcing attempt by this
Japanese firm to SQL lasted
about a year as it was not satisfied with the variance in quality and delivery schedule. With
the available technology
of SGL, Zhuhai decided to get into manufacturing electric energy meters for state-owned
facilities. These stateowned
operations had been the major customer base for SGL’ s poly-crystal. Working with
the similar customer
base, SGL started to make money with its energy meters. The two business segments, real
estate and the energy
meters, contributed much of Zhuhai’s net return of 15 per cent, providing an overall liquidity
ratio of 2.7 per cent and
a quick ratio of 1.94. The financial position of Zhuhai is provided in the Table 1.below
RESTRUCTURING OF ZHUHAI
The president of Zhuhai restructured the company making each division a separate strategic
business unit (SBU). The
revised organisation structure is provided below.
Note that the positions immediately below the unit vice presidents and under them there were
a cadre of personnel
doing various jobs as directed by their bosses. Mr. Hong made it clear to all SBU vice
presidents (VPs) that decisions
regarding product development, pricing, procurement and human resource management
would be taken by the
president himself in consultation with the board of directors. Mr. Hong stated in a recent
meeting that the VPs were
responsible for making at least 20 per cent rate of return for their units. “Lower than 20 per
cent will mean either
demotion or transfer for that particular VP”, he said. “We have started making short cuts,
saving money in every
possible way…. but I’m not sure whether any strategic business unit can function without
strategy. Just a promise of
fixed rate of return at the end of the year? Is that all in the name of strategy?”, asked the vice
president of an SBU.
Question :
1) Discuss the typicality’s of Chinese Industrial system vis-à-vis the Western/global
Industrial system.
2) Where does the Chinese system fault?
3) Is over production and mis-match in marketing leads to poor prices of Chinese products
in the International
market?
4) If you are offered, views as a top consultant, what would you like to suggest the
Chinese Government and
industry. Give your reasons.
Case-2
(20 Marks)
Toyota Comes to Georgetown
Mrs. Friers, in her early sixties, of Georgetown’s new Wal-Mart store cannot be anything but
polite when she
discusses Toyota. In a low voice to my companion, the doctor at the local Scott County
General Hospital, Friers said,
“You know Doe, Toyota did not offer that job to my daughter.” “I am sorry to hear that,” the
Doctor commented
casually. “Are you all glad that Toyota came to town?” I asked Mrs. Friers, somewhat to fill
the void. “Yes and no …
we were all excited when they first announced it . . . it kind of sank in now, I guess.”
Toyota’s labour practices was the hot topic at the local drug store too. A middle aged man,
who had worked in an
iron foundry for 31 years, commented, “In Toyota you have to earn every penny . . . there is
never a slag . . . never
the time to say hello.” His youngest son, Dwayne, is currently employed in the Toyota plant.
He is extremely pleased
that the company has abandoned the practice of workout in the morning. A skeptical Baptist
preacher asked, “what
the heck have we got because of Toyota? Most of their people come from Indiana and Ohio. I
hear some of them
even commute from Arkansas.”
TOYOTA COMES TO GEORGETOWN
Georgetown, about 25 miles south of Lexington, Kentucky is the Scott County’s heartland.
The county’s population
is 25,000 out of which 22,000 are white. Over 53 per cent of the household income is
between $15,000 to $49,999
per year. It has 93.7 males for every 100 females. About 43 per cent of the population are
between the ages of 18 to
44 years.
It was a puzzle to many residents as to why Toyota selected this sleepy town for their new
venture. Some of them
argued that the then Governor of the State, Martha Lay Collins, charmed the Japanese so
much that they lost their
way and their heads too. Some others contended that the State made huge tax concessions to
the company and wrote
blank checks. The local paper cashed in by printing all possible undocumented stories about
Toyota.
However the present Mayor of Georgetown denied charges of any underhanded deal. He
rationalized the process of
selection thus: Toyota selected this location mainly to take advantage of the transportation
network of 1-75 (North
and South) and 1-64 (East and West). He added, “the topography of the land here is very
similar to the land around
the Toyota City in Japan. I assume the company was also attracted because of non-union
focus in this State.”
The original plant location was about three miles outside the Georgetown city limit. The
office of the Mayor made it
clear to the Toyota people that since the city was the closest municipality it would end up
providing most of the
infrastructural services to the plant but without any return from Toyota. Why should the
taxpayers of Georgetown
accept this liability without any tax revenue coming from the company?
The company’s vice-president had asked the Mayor to attend a series of breakfast meeting
with him and other
officials to sort out this and other related problems. The Mayor described the outcome of
these meetings thus: “We
were aware that this was a huge economic development opportunity but was also conscious
of the fact that the town
people should not be shortchanged in any shape or manner.” In April 1987, Toyota confirmed
the setting up of the
plant in Georgetown.
TOYOTA’S OPERATIONS
In May 1988, the first Kentucky Camry was introduced at a plantwide celebration. And in the
same year, Camry
received the J.D. Power Gold Plant Quality Award. In November 1988, Toyota announced
plans to double the plant
size and production at the Georgetown plant. In September 1991, Toyota unveiled a major
model redesign for the
year 1992. In January 1992, Toyota announced plans to expand Powertrain Plant to add V-6
productions. By March,
the production of Camry Wagon began. In September 1994, the Georgetown plant began
production of the Avalon, a
new large sedan aimed at the North American market.
In 1988, Toyota was able to produce about 200,000 Camry Sedans of which 20 per cent were
exported. In 1995, it
doubled the production to 400,000 with the hope of exporting 20 per cent to Taiwan, Europe
and Japan.
With this tremendous pace of change, the company demanded from its workforce nothing
short of total dedication.
The pace became such that the workers started using “Kaizen”, “Kieretsu”, “Kanban” and
few other similar Japanese
phrases even in dealing with their own family members. In 1995, the employees were told
that since the sales had
declined by 2.5 per cent, the process had to he streamlined, using fewer model variations and
increasing white-collar
productivity. An assembly line worker said, “Gosh, how could any more speed be achieved
without killing each other
. . . but this is Toyota. Find a way to do it . . . or a way out.”
THE GAINS AND THE BARGAINS
Toyota’s direct employment in the U.S., as of December 1993 was 16,674. including the
1438 Toyota/Lexus dealers,
the company employs over 90,000 people in the U.S. In Georgetown alone, it employs 6000
people representing all
120 counties of the State of Kentucky. What Kentucky gained from Toyota is a question that
ninny people ask. For
instance, the company was provided with an incentive package of $325 million. Out of this
amount, $68 million was
paid for job training, and $40 million went to building roads and sewers. Toyota operates
under the Free Trade Zone
which provides tariff exemption of $14 million a year. The company was allowed to import
parts and machinery
without paying any additional tariffs. The State paid $167.6 million interest costs for its
warehousing distribution.
The balance sheet predicts that the Camry plant could generate $673.4 million in state tax
revenue including
individual and sales taxes. Further, due to Toyota’s plant expansion there will be a whole host
of satellite industries
around the area with vast potential for job opportunities. Estimates suggest that the Camry
plant and its suppliers
based in the State have already created 22,000 jobs in Kentucky.
OTHER STATES FOLLOW LEAD
The State of Tennessee, in order to bring in Nissan, convinced the Federal Government to
approve $5 million-a-year
tax break on plant expansion (production expanded from 250,000 to 450,000), and allowed it
to operate under the
Free Trade Zone as Kentucky did for Toyota. The State of South Carolina in its effort to get
BMW also had to
provide $5 million in state income tax credits and an additional $3 million for employee
training. The State wl1 set
the BMW’s property taxes at the same rate for 5 years at a time and extend the Zone on
Greenville-Spartan airport.
This venture estimates 10,000 additional jobs in the region including about 2,000 at the
BMW location itself.
According to his estimate, the State will benefit by $28 million a year in taxes.
The latest in this league of getting large employers is the State of Alabama. Mercedes Benz
has accepted we location
to manufacture under the following conditions: the State will provide $92 million for site
development, $77 million
for infrastructure, $60 million for job training, and $8.6 million for sales and tax concessions
on equipment. The
State also made a good faith commitment to buy from the company, 2,500 vehicles at an
estimated price of $75
million. Mercedes will employ 1,500 people and it expects a mushrooming of industries
around the plant site.
TOYOTA TRIES TO BE A GOOD CITIZEN
From the day of inception. Toyota officials insisted that the company should be a part of the
community. For
instance, it cited the following contributions: $1 million for the citizens of Scott County to
build a community centre,
$15 million over a 20 year period to the County school system; $141,000 to develop a child
care centre; $500,000 for
the development of a Thoroughbred Park; $25,000 and $30,000 to the Lexington’s Children’s
Museum and
Philharmonic respectively. The city of Georgetown receives one per cent of the payroll tax
and an additional
percentage of the net profit of sales. The city’s general fund budget went up to $6.7 million in
1992 from a mere $2.2
million in earlier years. This allowed the city to extend its police force and add a fire station.
Fire insurance rating for
the city went sown from class 6 to class 4, resulting in savings of about $500,000 a year in
insurance costs for the
homeowners.
Although Toyota has never agreed to give preferential treatment in employing Kentuckians or
people from
Georgetown, the mix at the shop floor level suggests that over 80 per cent of them are not
residents of the county. At
the managerial level, the Japanese are in charge of production control,’ purchasing, finance,
engineering, and quality
control functions. The president is also a Japanese national. The U.S. personnel occupy the
positions of senior vicepresident,
human resources, public affairs, and vehicle assembly production. A majority of
managerial and
supervisory staff live in Lexington and Louisville (Kentucky), and Cincinnati (Ohio).
GEORGETOWN ON THE MAP
Has Toyota not been the single most important factor to bring prominence to this area? The
existence of two
interstate highways 1-64 and 1-75 was what had attracted Toyota to Georgetown. Yet these
two highways
contributed negatively by moving people away, towards bigger cities like Lexington,
Kentucky and Cincinnati, Ohio.
Lexington and Cincinnati, for example, have better schools, shopping centres, cultural
activities, and have legal
liquor sales. The Director of Georgetown-Scott County Planning Commission notes, “the
originally anticipated large
increase in population has not occurred . . . and is not anticipated to rise substantially beyond
the normal growth for a
community of our size.” The Director agreed that traffic had dramatically increased since
Toyota’s arrival and this
was much to the annoyance of the local people. But on the plus side, he claims, the local
schools have benefited from
the company’s contributions.
To Mrs. Friers and many others, the presence of Toyota has added to their frustration. They
are angry and dismayed
since the plant has changed their way of life. They feel that the way life was in Georgetown
will never to be back,
and they do not know how to fill the void they now experience. One of them aptly
summarized the feeling of others
thus: “we now see lots of new faces, and we don’t know where they come from, where they
arc going. But they seem
to leave us at night to guard this divided city—that’s the new city where Toyota is . .
Japanese money, fancy cars,
fast foods. The other city is where we folks are—still chewing our deep-fried catfish and
spoon bread while recalling
the long list of small mom and pop shops which used to be on the main street that are now
being sucked up by the
winds of the Wal-Marts and the Krogers of the new world. Do we have to destroy the
yesteryears to get to the year 2000? There used to be a word called co-existen de. I guess, we
don’t care what it
means any more!”
Questions
1. What is the difference between American production policy and Japanese production
policy?
2. Where the Japanese Excel?
3. In quality control of Toyota what do you observe?
4. Can Japanese, be really leader in auto production and marketing, all over the world? Justify
your moves.
Case -3
(20 Marks)
How to Win at Westinghouse
Westinghouse founded the Westinghouse Electric Company in 1886, over 100 years ago.
From the beginning, the
hallmark of the company was one of entrepreneurship and creativity. By inventing a new for
tr3nsmitting electric
current over long distances, the firm penetrated the fledgling electric industry. Its aptitude for
technological
innovation led the firm into the development and creation of diverse products, from
household appliances to watches
to nuclear power equipment. The firm also demonstrated creative diversity, branching into
such endeavours as radio
station operations, softdrink bottling, and low income housing Today, the Westinghouse
Corporation is organized
into six operational groups broadcasting, commercial, electronics systems, energy and utility
systems, financial
services, and industries.
As Westinghouse grew and began its expansion into foreign markets, it became apparent that
the firm’s
organisational structures and communication systems would have to be modernized to
provide the flexibility
demanded by overseas operations. Rigid procedures and red tape had to be eliminated, and
ways had to be developed,
by which key employees around the world could communicate with each other rapidly, so
that their giant company
could adequately react to changing conditions around the world.
To meet this communication support challenge, Westinghouse established a
change-responsive high-tech
communication network to support its far-flung operations. A new commuter system allows
employees at all levels
of the corporation to communicate through decentralized support networks. Westinghouse
employees from different
divisions and different departments can link-up in order to share information around the
world.
The new support system, called the Westinghouse Information Network (WIN), links more
than 600 Westinghouse
facilities, providing both voice and data transmissions as well as an electronic mail system.
Westinghouse employees
can link WIN to their homes or to their lap-tops when travelling. WIN offers
videoconferencing, which reduces or
eliminates the need for costly and time-consuming travel to meetings. WIN also contains an
advanced negotiation
system, called EDGE, which supports sales personnel during complex sales negotiations.
Every working day, over 90000 Westinghouse employees utilize the WIN system, which
provides the flexible on-line
support that Westinghouse needs to expand its global enterprises. (16).
QUESTIONS
1. Describe the ways in which international business has an impact on your life.
2. Pick an Indian corporation with which you are familiar and analyse the reasons why it
might be motivated to
expand its internationalism.
3. What sorts of adjustments might McDonald’s have to make in its operations in India?
4. What do you believe India must do to improve its international competitiveness?
5. How do you perceive your managerial career will have an impact by the phenomenon of
international business?
Case-4 (20
Marks)
Doing Business with the East—Motorola Style
When Motorola decided to do business with the East, it was done in a big way. Motorola has
penetrated virtually
every niche in Asia’s booming telecommunication and semiconductor markets. It’s Asian
strategy has already
accounted for 13 new factories in nine countries. Its dynamic growth in Asia is exemplified
by Tam Chung Ding,
President of Motorola’s Asia-Pacific semiconductor division. His office is located in
Motorola’s now $400 million
Silicon Harbour complex with a grand view of the Hong Kong harbour. Motorola leans
heavily on Turns instincts
and his aggressive leadership style. Tam’s division is one of the most profitable and
fastest-growing of Motorola’s
far-flung industrial empire. In 1990, Motorola’s chip sales in non-Japan Asia rose by 20 per
cent to $528 million,
making it the world’s third largest chip producer. Motorola is also Asia’s top supplier of
top-of-the-line walkietalkies
and digital cordless telephones.
The East is critical for Motorola, as Asian sales—outside Japan—total more than $1 billion
per year— almost 10 per
cent of Motorola’s total sales. Motorola has long recognised the potential of Asia. It began
dabbling in Asian
business in the early 1960s, when it established sales agencies in Tokyo and Hong Kong. A
decade ago, Motorola
split up its Asian semiconductor headquarters in Tokyo, locating the office for its non-Japan
Asian business to Hong
Kong under the charge of Mr. Tam.
For years, Motorola had complained about Japanese trade barriers to no avail. Then in 1987,
it formed an alliance
with Toshiba. The two formed a successful chip-manufacturing joint venture, with Toshiba
providing essential
marketing services. In 1990, Toshiba executive Isamu Kuru joined Motorola after serving
Toshiba for 28 years. Mr.
Kuru provides the necessary insight and understanding necessary to guide the Motorola’s
Japanese operations.
Other notable Motorola successes have been recorded in India, Australia, Singapore, China,
and South Korea.
However, the latter two ventures have been serious challenges. In June of 1992, Motorola
broke ground for a new
$120 million semiconductor plant in Tianjin, a Chinese port city near Beijing. It will be the
first U.S. semiconductor
plant in China. In addition to making semiconductors, the new plant will produce telephone
pagers, mobile
telephones, and electronic equipment for automobiles. Many observers believe that such an
investment, coming so
soon after the Tiananmen Square disaster, is far too risky. Motorola is willing to take that
risk, believing that China
holds the key to future competitiveness in Asia. Hovever, to test those Chinese waters, while
the new plant was just
starting construction, Motorola opened a make-shift plant—also in Tianjin—to build the first
of its paging devices.
Originally, Motorola assumed that the local demand for pagers would be so small that it
would have to export a large
share of production. However, the plant now produces 10,000 units each week, and the entire
output is sold in China,
with each pager selling for $200. Experts indicate that the Chinese demand for pagers has
risen from 1 million in
1991 to 4 million in 1993. With the make-shift plant performing well, the new plant
scheduled to begin production
by the end of 1993, and a second new plant planned for the near future, Motorola’s
competitive position in China
seems to be on a sound footing.
Motorola had more serious difficulties with its “Motorola Korea”, Limited venture, especially
with respect to labour
problems. At first, the well-educated, hard-working Korean workforce seemed to be ideal for
Motorola’s needs.
However, in the late 1980s, Korean labour became disenchanted with long working hours,
low pay, and poor
working conditions. Noting the growing riches of the Chaebols, the working class wanted a
greater piece of the
economic pie. Thousands of Korean workers took to the streets in massive demonstrations,
demanding economic
reforms and the right to form labour unions.
Motorola’s first taste of trouble co” when 34 of its more than 3,800 Korean workers
petitioned the Korean
government for the right to organise a union. Motorola has held a long-standing policy
against the unionisation of its
workers and refused to negotiate the matter with its employees. Some of them latter
barricaded themselves in the
factory cafeteria and threatened to stay there until their union demands were met. In response,
Motorola closed the
factory for a week in an effort to provide a cooling-off period. However, when the factory
reopened, violence
immediately broke out at the factory gates, and Motorola had to evacuate the facility. In the
following weeks,
violence continued, a union organiser was arrested, and public sentiment moved to the side of
the ernployee. Before
the matter was resolved, Motorola lost an estimated $2 million in property damage and lost
product. The settlement
also required Motorola to improve working conditions and to improve wages for its
employees Despite this setback,
the Motorola operations in Korea are still growing in keeping with the firm’s commitment to
Asian development.
Despite the nagging problems of unionisation, a shortage of engineers and technicians
continuing trade barriers, and
dealing with a divergence of local customs, Motorola continues to press Asian development
strategy—without harm
to its domestic reputation. A 1995 Fortune Corporate Reputation survey ranked Motorola the
fourth most admired
corporation in the U.S. (up from sixth in 1994) and the most admired firm in the electronics
and electrical equipment
industry (for the second year in a row).
QUESTIONS:
1. Describe some recent changes in your life or in your community that reflects
the world’s shift from the West to the East.
2. What factors would you suggest are behind the shift from the West to the East?
3. Did Japanese management style evolve from the Japanese culture, or did Japanese culture
evolve from Japanese
management style?
4. Describe the business-government ties that result in Japanese trade barriers.
5. Which of the Four Tigers of Asia do you believe has the greatest potential for long-term
economic growth? Why?
6. What must China do to realise the magnitude of economic success earned by the Japanese?
7. Outside of Singapore, which of the other ASEAN nations holds potential for economic
success? Why?


FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT ISBM ONGOING EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

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Financial Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Compare and contrast a defined benefit and a defined contribution pension plan. (10
marks)
Q2. Describe the duties of the financial manager in a business firm. (10
marks)
Q3. Where will you show purchase of furniture in cash flow statement ? (10
marks)
Q4. Discuss how Working capital affects both the liquidity and profitability of a business (10
marks)
Q5. Different types of investments time horizons. (10
marks)
Q6. 22. A stock is expected to pay a dividend of Rs.0.75 at the end of the year. The required rate of return is ks = 10.5%,
and the expected constant growth rate is g = 6.4%. What is the stock’s current price?
(10
marks)
Q7. What is the definition of management fraud? (10
marks)
Q8. Why we use WACC? (10
marks)

 

Quantitative Methods
Case Studies
A monte Carlo Case Study (20
Marks)
Laura,’ a 57 year old unmarried woman, earns around 68,000 dollars per year with expenditure of 37,500 dollars. She hit away
14,000 dollars each year and collected 330,000 dollars in her RRSP and TFSA, and also a rented apartment worth 250,000 dollars.
She has a iixed pension given by her employer, although it is not indicated to price rise, and Is entitled to get complete benefits of
Canada Pension Plan and Old Age Security, for retirement. She did not have a very competent portfolio: one fourth of cash is there,
and most of it was in contracted sector ETFs, single stocks and business bonds. Due to wrong entry of ETFs in the account,
unnecessary taxes were charged. Even before reconstructing Laura’s portfolio,”he had to make certain that it matched with.her
financial aims. Laura’s main aim was to ascertain if she could retire before the age of 65, maybe as early as 60, therefore she had to
know if her investments could produce enough flow of cash after she retires. Monte Carlo may show a top possibility of success with
the allotment of equity of 70% ot 80%. Through a risky questionnaire and art open interview, Justin Ill ‘ascertain that Laura was the
best person for a portfolio of 60% fixed income and 40% equities. . Through Monte Carlo software, Justin entered the current
portfolio . size of Laura, her rate of savings, projected retirement expenditure, and other employer income and government pensions.
If Laura feels that working till the age of 63 was unpleasant, she could go for the reproduction again and with different estimation.
Increasing her anticipated returns or bringing down the rate of inflation, is only a thought, therefore, she will have to make some
stronger decisions: she will have to making some more savings, or bring down her rate of planned expenses after retirement.
Amazingly, by bringing up the allotment to fixed salary could increase her opportunity to succeed: in spite of th returns being lower
than the equities, the volatility is also less, which lessens the risk of helpless decline in the early years. At last, Laura decided to work
for 6 more years and plan her retirement at the age of 63. After this, Justin decided to help her make a fresh ETF portfolio to match
that goal: it was finalized at 30% short term business bonds, 30% GICs, and the rest of it was divided among Canadian, L’S and
global equities. Laura was able to make a notified decision through the Monte Carlo simulation, but this wasn’t the end of the
procedure. In two or three years time, she will have to visit the location again to see that she is still on the right path of her retirement
goal, as many issues like, loss of job, a legacy, new connections, increase in the interest rates, all these could bring a change in the
main suppusitions 1 ; and she will have to redo her plans. The possibilities are different before the age of 63. For each added year
that Laura works, her portfolio will addition instead of a decrease and this will lead to a thrilling difference: the success rate will rise
up by 25% points if she continues to work till the age of 61 instead of 60.
Answer the following question.
Q1. How much was Laura earning at the age of 57? (Hint: 68,000 dollars per year)
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The cost of fuel in running of an engine is proportional to the square of the speed and is Rs 48 per hour for speed of 16 kilometers
per hour. Other expenses amount to Rs 300 per hour. What is the most economical speed?
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is most economical speed?
3/19/2019 Aeren Foundation
2/2
Q2. What is a chi-square test?
Q3. What is sampling and what are its uses.
Q4. Is there any alternative formula to find the value of Chi-square?
Finoplastika Industries Ltd, Nigeria (20
Marks)
Time series analysis has two important aims: 1) recognizing the quality of the phenomenon shown by the series of studies, and 2)
Both the aims need the plan of the viewed time series data is recognized and somewhat officially explained: A time series is said to
be a ‘collection of observations made in sequence with time’. For example: recording level of daily rainfall, periodical total domestic
product of US, and monthly strength of the. workers in Marine Corps for a specific rank and MOS. The evaluation of time series
gives instruments for picking a symbolic model and delivering forecasts. There are two sorts of times series data: • Continuous: in
this the data consists of study at every moment, for example, seismic movement recorded on a seismogram. • Discrete: the data
contains recordings taken at different periods ,like, statistics of each month crime. Until the data is absolutely haphazard, studies in
time series are usually related to each and the following studies could be partly ascertain by the last values. For instance, the reasons
pertaining to the meteorology which have an effect on the temperature for any given day tend to have some affect on the next day’s
climate. Hence, the observations of the past temperature are helpful for predicting temperatures for the following days. • A time
series can be deterministic if there are no haphazard or feasible features but goes in a set and foreseeable manner. The data gathered
during the classical physics experiment like showing Newton’s Law of Motion, is one example of a deterministic time series. The
stochastic type of series is more appropriate to the econometric function. Stochastic variables contain undefined or arbitrary
viewpoint. Though the worth of each study cannot be precisely foreseen, calculating the various observations could follow the
expected method. These methods can be explained through the statistical models. According to these models, studies differ
erratically on the underlying mean value whtch is the role of time. Time series data can be put in the following categories: one or
more performance factors; trend, seasonality, cyclical function and random sound. Various kinds of time series predicting models
give forecasts through extrapolating the previous performance of the values of a specified \’l!riable of interest. Consecutive study in
econometric times series are generally not free and forecast can be made on the basis of last observations. Although precise
predictions can be made with deterministic time series, predictions of stochastic time series are restricted to ‘conditional statements
regarding the future on the basis of particular hypothesis.’ Armstrong (2001) says, “The basic Assumption is that the variable ui!!
continue in the future as it has behaved in the past. ” Particularly, the time series predictions are suitable for stochastic type of data in
which the fundamental root cause of variation like, trend, cyclical performance, seasonality, and uneven variations, do not change
radically m time. Therefore, modeling is considered to be more suitable temporarily instead of permanent predictions.
Answer the following question.
Q1.
Write briefly on time-series analysis. (Hint: recognizing the quality of the phenomenon shown by the series of
studies, and, both the aims need the plan of the viewed time series data is recognized and somewhat officially
explained)
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The price P per unit at which a company can sell all that it produces is given by the function P(x) = 300 — 4x. The cost function is
c(x) = 500 + 28x where x is the number of units produced. Find x so that the profit is maximum.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Find the value of x.
Q2. In using regression analysis for making predictions what are the assumptions involved.
Q3. What is a simple linear regression model?
Q4. What is a scatter diagram method?


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CONTACT:

PRASANTH BE BBA MBA PH.D. MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

 

Business Administration
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss – The unit of planning (10 marks)
Q2. What is the meaning and aims of filin (10 marks)
Q3. Write a note on staffing (10 marks)
Q4. Explain preparation of the product (10 marks)
Q5. Give advantages of soletradership (10 marks)
Q6. Explain origin of business policies (10 marks)
Q7. Explain the rise of management as a profession (10 marks)
Q8. What is flexibility of policies (10 marks)

Business Administration
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give advantages of card index system (10 marks)
Q2. Explain Liason Men and coordination (10 marks)
Q3. Give the benefits of admitting a partner (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss pricing of the product (10 marks)
Q5. Explain Single use programmes (10 marks)
Q6. How to set a new project (10 marks)
Q7. Explain specific features of the Gandhian Business Management (10 marks)
Q8. Write a note on controlling (10 marks)

 

Business Communication
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give 10 foreign words of in Common use (With meaning) (10 marks)
Q2. Give 10 pairs/groups of words that confuse (With meaning) (10 marks)
Q3. What does good business behavior includes (10 marks)
Q4. What is the time honored conventions for conducting Interviews? (10 marks)
Q5. Draft a sample notice of meeting & Agenda (10 marks)
Q6. Explain 7 phases of negotiating tactics (10 marks)
Q7. Write a note on Silence as Communication (10 marks)
Q8. List the measures to overcome Communication barriers. (10 marks)

 

Business Environment
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss resumption of MAPIN. (10 marks)
Q2. What do you think about airport privatisation. (10 marks)
Q3. What does management transfer involve. (10 marks)
Q4. What is information collection system. (10 marks)
Q5. Discuss economic upliftment. (10 marks)
Q6. What points are included in assessment of performance during plans . (10 marks)
Q7. Give a chart of River systems in India. (10 marks)
Q8. Water has critical importance in human lives, explain. (10 marks)

 

Business Ethics
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are attributes of profession. (10 marks)
Q2. What is code of conduct for citizens. (10 marks)
Q3. Explain need for a check on quackery. (10 marks)
Q4. What is cultural ethos? (10 marks)
Q5. What are some ethical problems in business. (10 marks)
Q6. Write a note on national consumer duputes redressal commission (10 marks)
Q7. Write a note on consumerism. (10 marks)
Q8. Write a note on human culture and civilization. (10 marks)

 

Business Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss test of partnership (10 marks)
Q2. Explain integration of plans (10 marks)
Q3. Explain origin of business policies (10 marks)
Q4. Explain policies as help in delegation of authority (10 marks)
Q5. Explain setting up a new project (10 marks)
Q6. How is the team effort achieved (10 marks)
Q7. Write a note on organizing (10 marks)
Q8. Compare administration versus management (10 marks)

Quantitative Methods
Case Studies
A monte Carlo Case Study (20
Marks)
Laura,’ a 57 year old unmarried woman, earns around 68,000 dollars per year with expenditure of 37,500 dollars. She hit away
14,000 dollars each year and collected 330,000 dollars in her RRSP and TFSA, and also a rented apartment worth 250,000 dollars.
She has a iixed pension given by her employer, although it is not indicated to price rise, and Is entitled to get complete benefits of
Canada Pension Plan and Old Age Security, for retirement. She did not have a very competent portfolio: one fourth of cash is there,
and most of it was in contracted sector ETFs, single stocks and business bonds. Due to wrong entry of ETFs in the account,
unnecessary taxes were charged. Even before reconstructing Laura’s portfolio,”he had to make certain that it matched with.her
financial aims. Laura’s main aim was to ascertain if she could retire before the age of 65, maybe as early as 60, therefore she had to
know if her investments could produce enough flow of cash after she retires. Monte Carlo may show a top possibility of success with
the allotment of equity of 70% ot 80%. Through a risky questionnaire and art open interview, Justin Ill ‘ascertain that Laura was the
best person for a portfolio of 60% fixed income and 40% equities. . Through Monte Carlo software, Justin entered the current
portfolio . size of Laura, her rate of savings, projected retirement expenditure, and other employer income and government pensions.
If Laura feels that working till the age of 63 was unpleasant, she could go for the reproduction again and with different estimation.
Increasing her anticipated returns or bringing down the rate of inflation, is only a thought, therefore, she will have to make some
stronger decisions: she will have to making some more savings, or bring down her rate of planned expenses after retirement.
Amazingly, by bringing up the allotment to fixed salary could increase her opportunity to succeed: in spite of th returns being lower
than the equities, the volatility is also less, which lessens the risk of helpless decline in the early years. At last, Laura decided to work
for 6 more years and plan her retirement at the age of 63. After this, Justin decided to help her make a fresh ETF portfolio to match
that goal: it was finalized at 30% short term business bonds, 30% GICs, and the rest of it was divided among Canadian, L’S and
global equities. Laura was able to make a notified decision through the Monte Carlo simulation, but this wasn’t the end of the
procedure. In two or three years time, she will have to visit the location again to see that she is still on the right path of her retirement
goal, as many issues like, loss of job, a legacy, new connections, increase in the interest rates, all these could bring a change in the
main suppusitions 1 ; and she will have to redo her plans. The possibilities are different before the age of 63. For each added year
that Laura works, her portfolio will addition instead of a decrease and this will lead to a thrilling difference: the success rate will rise
up by 25% points if she continues to work till the age of 61 instead of 60.
Answer the following question.
Q1. How much was Laura earning at the age of 57? (Hint: 68,000 dollars per year)
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The cost of fuel in running of an engine is proportional to the square of the speed and is Rs 48 per hour for speed of 16 kilometers
per hour. Other expenses amount to Rs 300 per hour. What is the most economical speed?
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is most economical speed?
3/19/2019 Aeren Foundation
2/2
Q2. What is a chi-square test?
Q3. What is sampling and what are its uses.
Q4. Is there any alternative formula to find the value of Chi-square?
Finoplastika Industries Ltd, Nigeria (20
Marks)
Time series analysis has two important aims: 1) recognizing the quality of the phenomenon shown by the series of studies, and 2)
Both the aims need the plan of the viewed time series data is recognized and somewhat officially explained: A time series is said to
be a ‘collection of observations made in sequence with time’. For example: recording level of daily rainfall, periodical total domestic
product of US, and monthly strength of the. workers in Marine Corps for a specific rank and MOS. The evaluation of time series
gives instruments for picking a symbolic model and delivering forecasts. There are two sorts of times series data: • Continuous: in
this the data consists of study at every moment, for example, seismic movement recorded on a seismogram. • Discrete: the data
contains recordings taken at different periods ,like, statistics of each month crime. Until the data is absolutely haphazard, studies in
time series are usually related to each and the following studies could be partly ascertain by the last values. For instance, the reasons
pertaining to the meteorology which have an effect on the temperature for any given day tend to have some affect on the next day’s
climate. Hence, the observations of the past temperature are helpful for predicting temperatures for the following days. • A time
series can be deterministic if there are no haphazard or feasible features but goes in a set and foreseeable manner. The data gathered
during the classical physics experiment like showing Newton’s Law of Motion, is one example of a deterministic time series. The
stochastic type of series is more appropriate to the econometric function. Stochastic variables contain undefined or arbitrary
viewpoint. Though the worth of each study cannot be precisely foreseen, calculating the various observations could follow the
expected method. These methods can be explained through the statistical models. According to these models, studies differ
erratically on the underlying mean value whtch is the role of time. Time series data can be put in the following categories: one or
more performance factors; trend, seasonality, cyclical function and random sound. Various kinds of time series predicting models
give forecasts through extrapolating the previous performance of the values of a specified \’l!riable of interest. Consecutive study in
econometric times series are generally not free and forecast can be made on the basis of last observations. Although precise
predictions can be made with deterministic time series, predictions of stochastic time series are restricted to ‘conditional statements
regarding the future on the basis of particular hypothesis.’ Armstrong (2001) says, “The basic Assumption is that the variable ui!!
continue in the future as it has behaved in the past. ” Particularly, the time series predictions are suitable for stochastic type of data in
which the fundamental root cause of variation like, trend, cyclical performance, seasonality, and uneven variations, do not change
radically m time. Therefore, modeling is considered to be more suitable temporarily instead of permanent predictions.
Answer the following question.
Q1.
Write briefly on time-series analysis. (Hint: recognizing the quality of the phenomenon shown by the series of
studies, and, both the aims need the plan of the viewed time series data is recognized and somewhat officially
explained)
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The price P per unit at which a company can sell all that it produces is given by the function P(x) = 300 — 4x. The cost function is
c(x) = 500 + 28x where x is the number of units produced. Find x so that the profit is maximum.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Find the value of x.
Q2. In using regression analysis for making predictions what are the assumptions involved.
Q3. What is a simple linear regression model?
Q4. What is a scatter diagram method?

 

Research Methodology
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss Interview as a technique of data collection. (10
marks)
Q2. Why is questionnaire still widely used in spite of its limitations? Mention some important points to be kept in mind
while constructing a questionnaire.
(10
marks)
Q3. Explain ‘Data Reduction’ and ‘Data Display’ in Qualitative Research (10
marks)
Q4. For the cost function y = 500x – 40×2 + 3×3 for x units, find the average cost, marginal cost and marginal average cost. (10
marks)
Q5. The monthly income of two persons are in the ratio 4:5 and their monthy expenditures are in the ratio 7:9. If each
saves rs. 50 per montrh, find their monthly incomes.
(10
marks)
Q6. A manufacturer can sell x items per month at a price of P = 300 – 2x rupees. Producing x items cost the manufacturer
y rupees where y = 2x + 1000. How much production will yield maximum profit.
(10
marks)
Q7.
There are two branches of an establishment employing 200 and 160 persons respectively. If the AMs of the monthly
salaries paid by the two branches are rs. 550 and rs. 450 respectivvely, find AM of the salaries of the employees of the
establishment as a whole.
(10
marks)
Q8. The monthly income of two persons are in the ratio 4:5 and their monthy expenditures are in the ratio 7:9. If each
saves rs. 50 per montrh, find their monthly incomes.
(10
marks)