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Subject : Business Administration
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss – The unit of planning (10 marks)
Q2. What is the meaning and aims of filin (10 marks)
Q3. Write a note on staffing (10 marks)
Q4. Explain preparation of the product (10 marks)
Q5. Give advantages of soletradership (10 marks)
Q6. Explain origin of business policies (10 marks)
Q7. Explain the rise of management as a profession (10 marks)
Q8. What is flexibility of policies (10 marks)

Business Communication
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give the rules of Introducing others (10 marks)
Q2. Explain the process of Conduct of meeting (10 marks)
Q3. Write notes on Negotiation Climate (10 marks)
Q4. Write notes on Audience Analysis (10 marks)
Q5. Write notes on Perceptual Barriers (10 marks)
Q6. What is reading Efficiency? List the factors affecting it (10 marks)
Q7. What are the Components of Reading skill (10 marks)
Q8. What are the gateways of Communication in an Organization (10 marks)

 

Business Ethics
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are attributes of profession. (10 marks)
Q2. Give song of eighteen values. (10 marks)
Q3. Write a short note on environment. (10 marks)
Q4. Give benefits of consumer education. (10 marks)
Q5. Give a note on Human culture. (10 marks)
Q6. Discuss philosophy and religion. (10 marks)
Q7. Write a note on consumerism. (10 marks)
Q8. Give benefits of ISO 9000 quality systems. (10 marks)

 

Corporate Law
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is the meaning of price . (10 marks)
Q2. What are the rights of agent . (10 marks)
Q3. State kinds of guarantee. (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss Wagering Agreements . (10 marks)
Q5. Classify public law and private law . (10 marks)
Q6. Explain property in goods . (10 marks)
Q7. Explain dissolution. (10 marks)
Q8. Discuss restrictive trade agreements. (10 marks)

 

Financial and Cost Accounting
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the different rules of journalizing the transaction with appropriate illustrations? (10
marks)
Q2. Explain the role of Accountant in the present day Economy? (10
marks)
Q3. Enumerate the steps involved in the installation of budgetary control system in an organization? (10
marks)
Q4. Which are the different ways by which the cost can be analysed? (10
marks)
Q5. Discuss the limitations of financial accounting and explain the importance of cost accounting. (10
marks)
Q6. Cost accounting is a system of foresight like pre-natal care, but financial accounting is just a postmortem
examination”. Critically examine this statement
(10
marks)
Q7. Cost accounting is better understood as a cost control and cost reduction exercise and not a more cost ascertainment
process”. Discuss.
(10
marks)
Q8. Differentiate between Management Accounting and Financial Accounting (10
marks)


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Business Communication
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give Guidelines for interviewer (10 marks)
Q2. Draft a sample notice of meeting & Agenda ‘ (10 marks)
Q3. Which are the important preparatory points? Explain any 3 (10 marks)
Q4. Summarize the negotiating tactics (10 marks)
Q5. Write notes on Integrative Strategies (10 marks)
Q6. Define & State nature of negotiation (10 marks)
Q7. What are the terms used in a debate Speech (10 marks)
Q8. Write notes on Related Barriers (10 marks)

 

Financial and Cost Accounting
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the role of Accountant in the present day Economy? (10
marks)
Q2. Explain the importance of the Marginal cost technique in managerial decision making? (10
marks)
Q3. Which are the different ways by which the cost can be analysed? (10
marks)
Q4. Cost accounting has become an essential tool of management”. Comment and state the steps to be taken while
installing a costing system in a manufacturing concern.
(10
marks)
Q5. Discuss the limitations of financial accounting and explain the importance of cost accounting. (10
marks)
Q6. Define costing. Discuss briefly the objectives and advantages of costing. (10
marks)
Q7. What one the limitations of financial accounting? How do you overcome item in cost accounting? (10
marks)
Q8. Cost accounting is better understood as a cost control and cost reduction exercise and not a more cost ascertainment
process”. Discuss.
(10
marks)

 

General Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain management information system (10 marks)
Q2. What are the characteristics of the integrating leadership style? (10 marks)
Q3. What are the managerial functions in HRM? (10 marks)
Q4. What are the models of effectiveness? (10 marks)
Q5. What are the factors affecting the degree of decentralization? (10 marks)
Q6. Explain in detail theline and staff organization (10 marks)
Q7. What are principles of formal organization? (10 marks)
Q8. What are the internationalization stages? (10 marks)

 

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is the role in SAP? (10 marks)
Q2. Explain the client/server computing. (10 marks)
Q3. Write short notes on MIS. (10 marks)
Q4. Explain Custom programming outsourcing. (10 marks)
Q5. Why is entrepreneurship important to economics? (10 marks)
Q6. Discuss the structure of MIS in detail. (10 marks)
Q7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of anonymity? (10 marks)
Q8. What is meant by the term drill down in an executive information system? (10 marks)

 

International Business
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is International Business Risk ? (10 marks)
Q2. Write Short note on ITO. (10 marks)
Q3. Explain main activities of ITPO. (10 marks)
Q4. Description of SCM project undertaken by BPCL. (10 marks)
Q5. Explain different types of dumping (10 marks)
Q6. Explain main responsibilities of IMF. (10 marks)
Q7. Explain insta online account facility. (10 marks)
Q8. What are the functions of UNO? (10 marks)

 

Marketing Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain Psychological Pricing. (10
marks)
Q2. What is Non-store retailing? (10
marks)
Q3. Explain Channel conflicts (10
marks)
Q4. What is Brand equity? (10
marks)
Q5. What is Direct Marketing? (10
marks)
Q6. Explain Inventory Decisions. (10
marks)
Q7.
R.K.Industries Ltd., intends to launch a new folding exercise cycle in Indian market. As a marketing manager which
steps would you like to take while launching this product? How will you conduct the test marketing for this product.
Make necessary Assumptions and justify your answer.
(10
marks)
Q8. What are the various channels of distribution generally used by companies of Distribute FMCG. (10
marks)

 

Operations Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. List the types of quality costs. (10
marks)
Q2. What is continuous improvement (CI)? What are the major tools for this philosophy? (10
marks)
Q3. List four basic operations strategies. (10
marks)
Q4. Describe briefly the steps to develop a forecasting system. (10
marks)
Q5. Define the terms “Qualitative Methods”, “Trend Analysis Method (Time Series Method), and “Causal Forecast”.
Describe the uses of them.
(10
marks)
Q6. Magusa Metal Works produces cast bronze valves on an assembly line. On a recent day, 160 valves were produced
during an 8-hour shift. Calculate the productivity of the line
(10
marks)
Q7. What is Audio-visual Medias of Advertising? (10
marks)
Q8. What is Test marketing? (10
marks)

 

Principles & Practice of management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Write about effective use of Grapevine . (10 marks)
Q2. What is MBO? & explain its characteristics. (10 marks)
Q3. List out importance of communications. (10 marks)
Q4. Describe types of internal co-ordination. (10 marks)
Q5. Describe characteristics of delegation. (10 marks)
Q6. Disadvantages of an informal organization. (10 marks)
Q7. Describe any five essentials of good plan. (10 marks)
Q8. Fayol ‘s principles of management. (10 marks)


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PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Attempt all questions
1. Give a detailed description on “Detailed Project Report”. Indicate the Pros and Cons of it also.
(10 Marks)
2. What is Project Management Information System? Why is a Project Management Information
System considered to be of immense importance in a project? In designing a Project Management
Information System what parameters are to be spelt out clearly in line with the objectives of the
Project management Information System? (20 Marks)
3. Technology and processes play crucial role in certain projects. What the key issues are in regards
to choice of technology, equipment and processes at the stage of formulation of Detailed Project
Report?
(10 Marks)
4. Given the activity mean and Standard Deviation, Find the probability that the project will take
more than 10 weeks to complete. (20 Marks)
Activity
Mean Standard Deviation
1 – 2 5 1
2 – 3 4 1
1 – 3 8 1
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
5. For the following network data ,
(20 Marks)
(a) Identify the Critical Path and its duration
(b) Calculate the total network slack time.
Job
(Activity)
Network
Initial Node
Network
Final Node
Estimated Time(days)
A 1 2 2
B 1 3 3
C 1 4 3
D 2 5 3
E 2 9 3
F 3 5 1
G 3 6 2
H 3 7 3
I 4 7 5
J 4 8 3
K 5 6 3
L 6 9 4
M 7 9 4
N 8 9 3
O 9 10 2


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OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

CASE-1 (16 Marks)
Bloomsday Outfitters produces T-shirts for road races. They need to acquire some new stamping
machines to produce 30,000 good T-shirts per month. Their plant operates 200 hours per month, but
the new machines will be used for T-shirts only 60 percent of the time and the output usually includes
5 percent that are “seconds” and unusable. The stamping operation takes 1 minute per T-shirt, and the
stamping machines are expected to have 90 percent efficiency considering adjustments, changeover of
patterns, and unavoidable downtime. How many stamping machines are required?
CASE-2 (16 Marks)
In the table given below the Distribution Manager is expected to service these DCs as per the demands
placed. If the actual sales after completing week one is as follows, what would be the quantities that
would need amendment as far as Distribution Manager is concerned to service for week two and
onwards?
After week one the actual sales to Forecasted sales for week one ratio is as under: Mumbai did 80 % of
forecast , Lucknow did 75 % of forecast Kolkata did 60 % of week one forecast Chennai did 125 % of
forecast and Delhi did 150 % of week one forecast
Note : Kolkata will receive transit stocks in week 2 .
3 | P a g e
CASE-3 (16 Marks)
After working for 30 years, Ramjee Somjee Dutt opted for VRS and started a courier company and did
very well in the first four years. He was now looking for expansion of his business and decided to
venture into Road transportation business between Chennai and Mumbai and Mumbai and Delhi as he
felt that he could do well on this line. However before taking a final decision he hires your
Management Consultant firm formed by yourself. He has requested you to work out the Price to quote
his clients for these two routes considering the costs involved. He expects to earn a minimum profit of
Rs 1000 per day per truck after meeting all expenses. Your analysis of market conditions tell you the
following:
Vehicle cost Rs 7 lacs Depreciation 15 % Maintenance costs per day Rs 150 Drivers monthly Salary
Rs 5000 : Attendants monthly salary Rs 3000 . Misc expenses Rs 200 per day. Driver allowance is Rs
125 per day and attendant gets Rs 75. Diesel cost per liter is Rs 25 and the vehicle gives an average
mileage of 4 km to a liter. The Financial institutions offer loans at 10 % interest pa, which Ramjee has
been negotiating. It has been observed that on an average the vehicle covers 400 km per day. The
distance between Mumbai to Delhi is 1500 km and Mumbai to Chennai is 1350 km. The driver gets
rest day in Mumbai only for one day after they return from any trip.
CASE-4 (16 Marks)
A company is operating in two unrelated businesses. The first one is making common salt, which is
sold in one-kilogram consumer packs. The second business is making readymade garments. The owner
of the businesses has decided to implement Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) in one of the two
businesses, which is likely to give him greater benefit. Assuming that the current turnover and profits
of both the units are comparable, compare the relative benefits and limitations of Materials
Requirement Planning (MRP) for these two businesses.
CASE-5 (16 Marks)
A Manufacturer of motorcycles buys spark plugs at Rs.15 each. Now he wishes to manufacture the
plugs in his own factory. The estimated cost for the manufacture of spark plugs is around
Rs.50,000=00 and the variable cost comes to Rs.5 per spark plug. The Production Manager advises the
Manufacturer that the factory should go for manufacturing instead of procuring them from the open
market.
List out reasons for the decision of the Production Manager backed up by the necessary data.


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CONTACT:

DR. PRASANTH BE BBA MBA PH.D. MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com

Business Communication
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give Guidelines for interviewer (10 marks)
Q2. Draft a sample notice of meeting & Agenda ‘ (10 marks)
Q3. Which are the important preparatory points? Explain any 3 (10 marks)
Q4. Summarize the negotiating tactics (10 marks)
Q5. Write notes on Integrative Strategies (10 marks)
Q6. Define & State nature of negotiation (10 marks)
Q7. What are the terms used in a debate Speech (10 marks)
Q8. Write notes on Related Barriers (10 marks)

 

Business Ethics
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are attributes of profession. (10 marks)
Q2. Give song of eighteen values. (10 marks)
Q3. Write a short note on environment. (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss consumerism. (10 marks)
Q5. Give benefits of consumer education. (10 marks)
Q6. Give a note on Human culture. (10 marks)
Q7. What is cultural ethos? (10 marks)
Q8. Write a note on consumerism. (10 marks)

Corporate Law
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are Promisory notes. (10 marks)
Q2. What are the duties of a bailor? (10 marks)
Q3. How to maintain liquid assets . (10 marks)
Q4. Explain property in goods . (10 marks)
Q5. Discuss Agency by Ratification . (10 marks)
Q6. Rights of duties of a pledgor, write (10 marks)
Q7. Define Bailment and explain. (10 marks)
Q8. Discuss tangible and intangible property. (10 marks)

 

Financial and Cost Accounting
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the role of Accountant in the present day Economy? (10
marks)
Q2. Explain the importance of the Marginal cost technique in managerial decision making? (10
marks)
Q3. Which are the different ways by which the cost can be analysed? (10
marks)
Q4. Cost accounting has become an essential tool of management”. Comment and state the steps to be taken while
installing a costing system in a manufacturing concern.
(10
marks)
Q5. Discuss the limitations of financial accounting and explain the importance of cost accounting. (10
marks)
Q6. Define costing. Discuss briefly the objectives and advantages of costing. (10
marks)
Q7. What one the limitations of financial accounting? How do you overcome item in cost accounting? (10
marks)
Q8. Cost accounting is better understood as a cost control and cost reduction exercise and not a more cost ascertainment
process”. Discuss.
(10
marks)

General Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain management information system (10 marks)
Q2. What are the characteristics of the integrating leadership style? (10 marks)
Q3. What are the managerial functions in HRM? (10 marks)
Q4. What are the models of effectiveness? (10 marks)
Q5. What are the factors affecting the degree of decentralization? (10 marks)
Q6. Explain in detail theline and staff organization (10 marks)
Q7. What are principles of formal organization? (10 marks)
Q8. What are the internationalization stages? (10 marks)

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is the role in SAP? (10 marks)
Q2. Explain the client/server computing. (10 marks)
Q3. Write short notes on MIS. (10 marks)
Q4. Explain Custom programming outsourcing. (10 marks)
Q5. Why is entrepreneurship important to economics? (10 marks)
Q6. Discuss the structure of MIS in detail. (10 marks)
Q7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of anonymity? (10 marks)
Q8. What is meant by the term drill down in an executive information system? (10 marks)

International Business
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is International Business Risk ? (10 marks)
Q2. Write Short note on ITO. (10 marks)
Q3. Explain main activities of ITPO. (10 marks)
Q4. Description of SCM project undertaken by BPCL. (10 marks)
Q5. Explain different types of dumping (10 marks)
Q6. Explain main responsibilities of IMF. (10 marks)
Q7. Explain insta online account facility. (10 marks)
Q8. What are the functions of UNO? (10 marks)

 

Marketing Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain Psychological Pricing. (10
marks)
Q2. What is Non-store retailing? (10
marks)
Q3. Explain Channel conflicts (10
marks)
Q4. What is Brand equity? (10
marks)
Q5. What is Direct Marketing? (10
marks)
Q6. Explain Inventory Decisions. (10
marks)
Q7.
R.K.Industries Ltd., intends to launch a new folding exercise cycle in Indian market. As a marketing manager which
steps would you like to take while launching this product? How will you conduct the test marketing for this product.
Make necessary Assumptions and justify your answer.
(10
marks)
Q8. What are the various channels of distribution generally used by companies of Distribute FMCG. (10
marks)

 

Operations Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. List the types of quality costs. (10
marks)
Q2. What is continuous improvement (CI)? What are the major tools for this philosophy? (10
marks)
Q3. List four basic operations strategies. (10
marks)
Q4. Describe briefly the steps to develop a forecasting system. (10
marks)
Q5. Define the terms “Qualitative Methods”, “Trend Analysis Method (Time Series Method), and “Causal Forecast”.
Describe the uses of them.
(10
marks)
Q6. Magusa Metal Works produces cast bronze valves on an assembly line. On a recent day, 160 valves were produced
during an 8-hour shift. Calculate the productivity of the line
(10
marks)
Q7. What is Audio-visual Medias of Advertising? (10
marks)
Q8. What is Test marketing? (10
marks)

 

Organization Behavior
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the uses of job analysis. (10 marks)
Q2. Describe importance of communications. (10 marks)
Q3. What are the steps of MBO process? (10 marks)
Q4. List out internal forces. (10 marks)
Q5. List out theories of leadership. (10 marks)
Q6. Explain functions of attitude. (10 marks)
Q7. State the decision Making Process. (10 marks)
Q8. Define organizational behavior (OB) in detail. (10 marks)

 

Personnel Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. How approaches differ as per the environment? (10 marks)
Q2. what is profit ethic ? (10 marks)
Q3. what is the process of audit? (10 marks)
Q4. Why is audit necessary? (10 marks)
Q5. Classify the methods of training. (10 marks)
Q6. What is the basic selection model? (10 marks)
Q7. Explain the types of departments. (10 marks)
Q8. What are the ways to motivate an employee? (10 marks)

 

Principles & Practice of management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Write about effective use of Grapevine . (10 marks)
Q2. What is MBO? & explain its characteristics. (10 marks)
Q3. List out importance of communications. (10 marks)
Q4. Describe types of internal co-ordination. (10 marks)
Q5. Describe characteristics of delegation. (10 marks)
Q6. Disadvantages of an informal organization. (10 marks)
Q7. Describe any five essentials of good plan. (10 marks)
Q8. Fayol ‘s principles of management. (10 marks)


COST AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING ISBM EXAM ANSWER SHEETS PROVIDED

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CONTACT:

DR. PRASANTH BE BBA MBA PH.D. MOBILE / WHATSAPP: +91 9924764558 OR +91 9447965521 EMAIL: prasanththampi1975@gmail.com WEBSITE: www.casestudyandprojectreports.com
COST & MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
CASE STUDY : 1
J P Ltd manufacturers of a special product, follows the policy of EOQ for one of its components. The
components’s details are as follows.
Purchase price per component, Rs 200
Cost of an order Rs 100
Annual cost of carrying one unit in inventory,
10 per cent of purchase price
Annual usage of components, 4000
The company has been offered a discount of 2 per cent on the price of the component provided the lot size is
2000 components at a time.
Q1) You are required to compute the EOQ?
Q2) Advise whether the quantity discount offer can be accepted (assume that the inventory carrying cost
does not vary according to discount policy).
Q3) Would your advise differ if the company is offered 5 per cent discount on a single order?
Q4) Explain the term EOQ?
CASE STUDY : 2
In an engineering concern, the employees are paid incentive bonus in addition to their normal wages at
hourly rates. Incentive bonus is calculated in proportion of time taken to time allowed, of the time saved.
The following details are made available in respect of employees X, Y & Z for a particular week.
X Y Z
Normal Wages (Per hour) (Rs) 4 5 6
Completed units of Production 6000 3000 4800
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
Time allowed per 100 Units
(hour)
0.8 1.5 1.0
Actual time taken (hours) 42 40 48
Q1) You are required to work out for each employee the amount of bonus earned?
Q2) Explain the term incentive?
Q3) You are required to work out for each employee the total amount of wages received?
Q4) You are required to work out for each employee the total wages cost per 100 units of output?
CASE STUDY : 3
Following particulars have been extracted from the books of Supreme Engineers Ltd.
Time allowed for the job (hours) 15 15 15
Time take (hours) 15 12 9
Bonus ratio for Halsey (per cent) 50
Rate per Hour Rs. 2
Q1) You are required to compute the quantum of wages under Halsey Scheme and Rowon Scheme?
Q2) Which of these schemes would you like to introduce in this company if the time taken to complete the
job is likely to reduce to 6 hours after three months.
Q3) An alternative method of payment by results by a straight piece work rate for completion of the job in 7
hours is feasible. Would you like to switch over to this method of payment given further that hourly rate
would be reckoned at Rs 1.50 for fixation of the price rate?
Q4) Give reasons for your advice?
CASE STUDY : 4
The soft flow Ink Ltd’s income statement for the preceding year is presented below. Expect as noted the cost
/ revenue relationship for the coming year is expected to follow the same pattern as in the preceding year.
Income statement for the year ending March 31 is as follows.
Rs. Rs.
Sales (2,00,000 bottles @ Rs 2.5
paise each)
5,00,000
Variable Costs 3,00,000
Fixed Costs 1,00,000 4,00,000
Pre-Tax Profit 1,00,000
Less : Taxes 35,000
Profit After Tax 65,000
Q1) What is the break-even point in account and units?
Q2) Suppose that a plant expansion will add Rs 50,000 to fixed costs and increase capacity by 60 per cent.
How many bottles would have to be sold after the addition to break even?
Q3) At what level of sales will the company be able to maintain its present pre-tax profit provision even
after expansion?
Q4) Suppose the plant operates at full capacity after the expansion, what profit will be earned?


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BANKING MANAGEMENT
Total Marks—80
Q.1) The exchange rate and forward rate of rupee against US dollar on 3rd November, 2008 is given below:
(20 marks)
Spot rate 1 US dollar Rs 45.36
One month forward 3.72%
Three months forward 3.27%
Six months forward 2.76%
Twelve months forward 2.26%
Calculate the forward rate, forward premium rate and swap rate from the given data.
Q.2) In May beginning you decide that shares in X Ltd. will rise over the next month or so. The current price
is Rs 100 and you hope that the shares will be at Rs. 150 by the end of July. Give your comments if the
Option is traded and if the option is not traded. Make assumptions.
(20 marks)

Q.3) (15 marks)
A) The unit price of TSS scheme of a mutual fund is Rs 10. The public offer price (POP) of the unit is Rs
10.204 and the redemption price is Rs 9.80.
Calculate
i) Front-end load and
ii) Back-end load.
B) Mr. A can earn a return of 16% by investing in equity shares on his own. Now he is considering a recently
announced equity based mutual fund scheme in which initial expenses are 5.5 percent and annual recurring
expenses are 1.5 percent. How much should the mutual fund earn to provide Mr. A a return of 16%
(5 Marks)
Q.4) The closing price of the stock of Veryfine Ltd. at the stock exchange for 20 successive days was as
follows: (20 Marks)
Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Closing
Price(Rs.)
25
26
25
24
26
26
28
26
25
27
You are required to calculate a 7 day moving average of stock price of the company and comment on its short-term
trend
Day 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Closing
price(Rs)
27
25
26
28
26
26
24
25
26
25


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OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
2 | P a g e
CASE-1 (16 Marks)
Bloomsday Outfitters produces T-shirts for road races. They need to acquire some new stamping
machines to produce 30,000 good T-shirts per month. Their plant operates 200 hours per month, but
the new machines will be used for T-shirts only 60 percent of the time and the output usually includes
5 percent that are “seconds” and unusable. The stamping operation takes 1 minute per T-shirt, and the
stamping machines are expected to have 90 percent efficiency considering adjustments, changeover of
patterns, and unavoidable downtime. How many stamping machines are required?
CASE-2 (16 Marks)
In the table given below the Distribution Manager is expected to service these DCs as per the demands
placed. If the actual sales after completing week one is as follows, what would be the quantities that
would need amendment as far as Distribution Manager is concerned to service for week two and
onwards?
After week one the actual sales to Forecasted sales for week one ratio is as under: Mumbai did 80 % of
forecast , Lucknow did 75 % of forecast Kolkata did 60 % of week one forecast Chennai did 125 % of
forecast and Delhi did 150 % of week one forecast
Note : Kolkata will receive transit stocks in week 2 .
3 | P a g e
CASE-3 (16 Marks)
After working for 30 years, Ramjee Somjee Dutt opted for VRS and started a courier company and did
very well in the first four years. He was now looking for expansion of his business and decided to
venture into Road transportation business between Chennai and Mumbai and Mumbai and Delhi as he
felt that he could do well on this line. However before taking a final decision he hires your
Management Consultant firm formed by yourself. He has requested you to work out the Price to quote
his clients for these two routes considering the costs involved. He expects to earn a minimum profit of
Rs 1000 per day per truck after meeting all expenses. Your analysis of market conditions tell you the
following:
Vehicle cost Rs 7 lacs Depreciation 15 % Maintenance costs per day Rs 150 Drivers monthly Salary
Rs 5000 : Attendants monthly salary Rs 3000 . Misc expenses Rs 200 per day. Driver allowance is Rs
125 per day and attendant gets Rs 75. Diesel cost per liter is Rs 25 and the vehicle gives an average
mileage of 4 km to a liter. The Financial institutions offer loans at 10 % interest pa, which Ramjee has
been negotiating. It has been observed that on an average the vehicle covers 400 km per day. The
distance between Mumbai to Delhi is 1500 km and Mumbai to Chennai is 1350 km. The driver gets
rest day in Mumbai only for one day after they return from any trip.
CASE-4 (16 Marks)
A company is operating in two unrelated businesses. The first one is making common salt, which is
sold in one-kilogram consumer packs. The second business is making readymade garments. The owner
of the businesses has decided to implement Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) in one of the two
businesses, which is likely to give him greater benefit. Assuming that the current turnover and profits
of both the units are comparable, compare the relative benefits and limitations of Materials
Requirement Planning (MRP) for these two businesses.
CASE-5 (16 Marks)
A Manufacturer of motorcycles buys spark plugs at Rs.15 each. Now he wishes to manufacture the
plugs in his own factory. The estimated cost for the manufacture of spark plugs is around
Rs.50,000=00 and the variable cost comes to Rs.5 per spark plug. The Production Manager advises the
Manufacturer that the factory should go for manufacturing instead of procuring them from the open
market.
List out reasons for the decision of the Production Manager backed up by the necessary data.

 

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Attempt all questions
1. Give a detailed description on “Detailed Project Report”. Indicate the Pros and Cons of it also.
(10 Marks)
2. What is Project Management Information System? Why is a Project Management Information
System considered to be of immense importance in a project? In designing a Project Management
Information System what parameters are to be spelt out clearly in line with the objectives of the
Project management Information System? (20 Marks)
3. Technology and processes play crucial role in certain projects. What the key issues are in regards
to choice of technology, equipment and processes at the stage of formulation of Detailed Project
Report?
(10 Marks)
4. Given the activity mean and Standard Deviation, Find the probability that the project will take
more than 10 weeks to complete. (20 Marks)
Activity
Mean Standard Deviation
1 – 2 5 1
2 – 3 4 1
1 – 3 8 1
AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
5. For the following network data ,
(20 Marks)
(a) Identify the Critical Path and its duration
(b) Calculate the total network slack time.
Job
(Activity)
Network
Initial Node
Network
Final Node
Estimated Time(days)
A 1 2 2
B 1 3 3
C 1 4 3
D 2 5 3
E 2 9 3
F 3 5 1
G 3 6 2
H 3 7 3
I 4 7 5
J 4 8 3
K 5 6 3
L 6 9 4
M 7 9 4
N 8 9 3
O 9 10 2

 
BUSINESS ETHICS
Page 2 of 3
CASE -1 (20 Marks)
Joan, an employee of Great American Market, was warned about her excessive absenteeism several
times, both verbally and in writing. The written warning included notice that “further violations will
result in disciplinary actions,” including suspension or discharge.
A short time after the written warning was issued, Joan called work to say she was not going to be in
because her babysitter had called in sick and she had to stay home and care for her young child. Joan’s
supervisor, Sylvia, told her that she had already exceeded the allowed number of absences and warned
that if she did not report to work, she could be suspended. When Joan did not report for her shift,
Sylvia suspended her for fifteen days.
In a subsequent hearing, Joan argued that it was not her fault that the babysitter had canceled, and
protested that she had no other choice but to stay home. Sylvia pointed out that Joan had not made a
good faith effort to find an alternate babysitter, nor had she tried to swap shifts with a co-worker.
Furthermore, Sylvia said that the lack of a babysitter was not a justifiable excuse for being absent.
Questions:
1. Was the suspension fair?
2. Did Joan act responsibly?
3. Should she be fired?
CASE-2 (20 Marks)
You own a cement company, and deal with most the local contractors for cement, sand, etc. You have
a reputation of high quality products, and for good customer service with your customers. Your
foreman has just run the standard quality control tests you have performed regularly on your products.
When the test results are ready, you discover that the new batch of product is 9% less durable than
your usual material. It is still well above all industry standards and meets all building codes and
requirements for the purposes for which it is intended, but it is, nevertheless, not up to your usual
standards. Throwing it away would cost your company many thousands of dollars.
You decide to sell the cement anyway.
Questions:
1) Should you tell your customers?
2) Should you discount the price?
3) Should you tell your employees, so they will be knowledgeable with the customers?
4) Would you use this cement on foundations for your own house?
Page 2 of 3
CASE-3 (20 Marks)
Fred, a 17-year employee with Sam’s Sauna, was fired for poor job performance and poor attendance,
after accruing five disciplinary penalties within a 12-month period under the company’s progressive
disciplinary policy. A week later, Fred told his former supervisor that he had a substance abuse
problem.
Although there was no employee assistance program in place and the company had not been aware of
Fred’s condition, their personnel director assisted Fred in obtaining treatment by allowing him to
continue receiving insurance benefits and approved his unemployment insurance claim.
Fred subsequently requested reinstatement, maintaining that he had been rehabilitated since his
discharge and was fully capable of being a productive employee. He pointed to a letter written by his
treatment counselor, which said that his prognosis for leading a “clean, sober lifestyle” was a big
incentive for him. Fred pleaded for another chance, arguing that his past problems resulted from drug
addiction and that Sam’s Saunas should have recognized and provided treatment for the problem.
Sam’s Saunas countered that Fred should have notified his supervisor of his drug problem, and that
everything possible had been done to help him receive treatment. Moreover, the company stressed that
the employee had been fired for poor performance and absenteeism. Use of the progressive discipline
policy had been necessary because the employee had committed a string of offenses over the course of
a year, including careless workmanship, distracting others, wasting time, and disregarding safety rules.
Questions:
1) Should Fred be reinstated?
2) Was the company fair to Fred in helping him receive treatment?
3) Did the personnel director behave ethically toward Fred?
4) Did he act ethically for his company?
5) Would it be fair to other employees to reinstate Fred?
CASE-4 (20 Marks)
In January of last year, the S.S. Vulgass, an oil tanker of the Big Dirty Oil Company ran around in the
area just north of Vancouver, spilling millions of gallons of crude into the waters and onto the beaches
of British Columbia and southern Alaska. The damage to the beaches and wildlife and consequently to
the tourist industry, the ecology and the quality of life of the local residents is incalculable, but in any
case will require many millions of dollars for even the most minimal clean-up.
The ship struck a small atoll, well-marked on the navigational maps, but it was a dark night and the
boat was well off course. On further investigation, it was discovered that the Captain of the Vulgass,
Mr. Slosh, had been drinking heavily. Leaving the navigation of the ship to his first mate, Mr. Mudd,
he retired to his cabin, to “sleep it off.” Mr. Mudd had never taken charge of the ship before, and it is
now clear that he misread the maps, misjudged the waters, maintained a speed that was inappropriate
and the accident occurred. Subsequent inquiries showed that Captain Slosh had been arrested on two
drunk driving convictions within months of the accident. The Vulgass itself, a double-hulled tanker,
was long due for renovation and, it was suggested, would not have cracked up if the hull had been
trebly reinforced, as some current tankers were.
Page 2 of 3
R. U. Rich, the Chief Executive Officer of Big Dirty Oil declared the accident a “tragedy” and offered
two million dollars to aid in the clean up. The Premier of British Columbia was outraged.
Environmental groups began a consumer campaign against Big Dirty Oil, urging customers to cut up
and send in their Big Dirty Oil credit cards in protest. In a meeting to the shareholders just last month,
CEO Rich proudly announced the largest quarterly profit in the history of the Big Dirty Oil Company.
He dismissed the protests as “the outpourings of Greenies and other fanatics” and assured the
shareholders that his obligation was, and would always be, to assure the highest profits possible in the
turmoil of today’s market.
Questions:
1) The question is, who is responsible?
2) Against whom should criminal charges be leveled?
3) What should be done, if anything, to punish the corporation itself?
4) What about the CEO?


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Business Communication
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is Communication policy? What are its Specifications (10 marks)
Q2. What are the essential points in writing Minutes (10 marks)
Q3. State some Strategies to overcome Stage fear (10 marks)
Q4. Write a short note on Planning &Drafting Speech (10 marks)
Q5. Which are the 6 great helpers of Presentation (10 marks)
Q6. Mention & Explain any 5 attributes for Communication (10 marks)
Q7. Mention the characteristics of written Communication . (10 marks)
Q8. What are the advantages of Oral Communication ? (10 marks)

 

Corporate Law
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is the mode of giving a public notice. (10 marks)
Q2. What do you mean by consent and free consent . (10 marks)
Q3. What are the essentials of contract . (10 marks)
Q4. What are brokerage contracts . (10 marks)
Q5. What are features of a company . (10 marks)
Q6. What is FERA? (10 marks)
Q7. What is personal liability of agent. (10 marks)
Q8. Explain concept need not be in writing. (10 marks)

Financial and Cost Accounting
Answer the following question.
Q1. Which ratios will help in determining the long term solvency of a business and how? (10
marks)
Q2. Explain the term Convention of materiality. (10
marks)
Q3. Define Budgetary Control and explain the pre-requisites for its successful introduction and implementation? (10
marks)
Q4. Explain the advantages of cost accounting. (10
marks)
Q5. How cost accounting is superior over financial accounting? Explain the techniques of costing and their application
and suitability.
(10
marks)
Q6. What do you mean by installation of costing system? Explain the practical difficulties involved in installing such a
system in a manufacturing concern
(10
marks)
Q7. Cost accounting has become an essential tool of management. Mention the steps to be taken while installing cost
accounting system in a manufacturing concern.
(10
marks)
Q8. What is the different between cost accounting and management accounting? (10
marks)

 

General Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. identify some of informal groups (10 marks)
Q2. What are the advantages and limitations of forecasting? (10 marks)
Q3. What are policies? What are the characteristics of policies? (10 marks)
Q4. Write a note on MBO (10 marks)
Q5. Explain soem of the regional trading blocs (10 marks)
Q6. What are international organization design? (10 marks)
Q7. What are the elements of management? (10 marks)
Q8. Describe Henry fayol’s 14 principles of management (10 marks)


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Business Environment
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is consumer education? (10 marks)
Q2. What is FEMA. (10 marks)
Q3. How bad is India’s infrastructure. (10 marks)
Q4. What is licensing? (10 marks)
Q5. Discuss patents. (10 marks)
Q6. What does management transfer involve. (10 marks)
Q7. Is India sharing a comfortable position with regard to natural resources? (10 marks)
Q8. Write a note on socio-cultural environment of Business. (10 marks)

 

Business Communication
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is Communication policy? What are its Specifications (10 marks)
Q2. What is the time honored conventions for conducting Interviews? (10 marks)
Q3. Which are the areas where preparatory work related to conducting a meeting are necessary (10 marks)
Q4. State some Strategies to overcome Stage fear (10 marks)
Q5. Define Public Speaking & Determine the purpose of topic Selection (10 marks)
Q6. Write notes on Listeners Related Barriers (10 marks)
Q7. Write notes on Related Barriers (10 marks)
Q8. What are the Components of Reading skill (10 marks)

 

Business Ethics
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give pts of Narasimhan Committee Report (1991)? (10 marks)
Q2. Give enlightening words of the Dalai Lama. (10 marks)
Q3. What are the fundamental duties of every citizen of India. (10 marks)
Q4. Give importance of media in guiding citizens (10 marks)
Q5. Give importance and use of ISO 9000 standard. (10 marks)
Q6. Give benefits of consumer education. (10 marks)
Q7. Write note on electrification of villages. (10 marks)
Q8. What is imperative need? (10 marks)

 

Business Strategy
Answer the following question.
Q1. Define Joint Ventures. (10 marks)
Q2. What is Core Competency? (10 marks)
Q3. Discuss about differentiation strategy. (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss about the global strategy levels. (10 marks)
Q5. What are the criticisms of the five forces model? (10 marks)
Q6. What are the risks of a single – country strategy. (10 marks)
Q7. Write a note on internal political considerations. (10 marks)
Q8. Give expansion strategies of organisations. (10 marks)

 

 


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Business Communication
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is Communication policy? What are its Specifications (10 marks)
Q2. What are the essential points in writing Minutes (10 marks)
Q3. State some Strategies to overcome Stage fear (10 marks)
Q4. Write a short note on Planning &Drafting Speech (10 marks)
Q5. Which are the 6 great helpers of Presentation (10 marks)
Q6. Mention & Explain any 5 attributes for Communication (10 marks)
Q7. Mention the characteristics of written Communication . (10 marks)
Q8. What are the advantages of Oral Communication ? (10 marks)

Business Ethics
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give measures to control pollution. (10 marks)
Q2. Give importance and use of ISO 9000 standard. (10 marks)
Q3. What are some ethical problems in business. (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss managers role in business ethics. (10 marks)
Q5. Give SWOT analysis in Indian scenario. (10 marks)
Q6. Write a note on national consumer duputes redressal commission (10 marks)
Q7. Write a note on human culture and civilization. (10 marks)
Q8. How promotion of ethical values occur. (10 marks)

Financial and Cost Accounting
Answer the following question.
Q1. Which ratios will help in determining the long term solvency of a business and how? (10
marks)
Q2. Explain the term Convention of materiality. (10
marks)
Q3. Define Budgetary Control and explain the pre-requisites for its successful introduction and implementation? (10
marks)
Q4. Explain the advantages of cost accounting. (10
marks)
Q5. How cost accounting is superior over financial accounting? Explain the techniques of costing and their application
and suitability.
(10
marks)
Q6. What do you mean by installation of costing system? Explain the practical difficulties involved in installing such a
system in a manufacturing concern
(10
marks)
Q7. Cost accounting has become an essential tool of management. Mention the steps to be taken while installing cost
accounting system in a manufacturing concern.
(10
marks)
Q8. What is the different between cost accounting and management accounting? (10
marks)

 

Operations Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is ISO-9000 Series Standards? List key quality awards. (10
marks)
Q2. How does productivity measurement differ between manufacturing and service operations? (10
marks)
Q3. . What are the major decision areas in P/OM? (10
marks)
Q4. A firm uses exponential smoothing with a very high value of alpha. What does this indicate with respect to the
emphasis if placed on past data
(10
marks)
Q5. A Turkish manufacturing company operating a subsidiary in TRNC shows the following results: (10
marks)
Q6.
Ahmet grows domatoes in his 100 by 100 meters garden. He then sells the crop at the local farmer’s market. Two
summers ago, he was able to produce and sell 1200 kgs of tomatoes. Last summer, he tried a new fertilizer that
promised a 20% increase in yield. He harvested 1350 kgs. Did the fertilizer live up to its promise?
(10
marks)
Q7. “Expenditure’ incurred for advertising is wasteful. Its results are unpredictable”. Comment. (10
marks)
Q8. What do you mean by the term Physical Distribution? Explain briefly the nature & importation in the sphere of
physical distribution.
(10
marks)


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CONTACT:

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Business Communication
Answer the following question.
Q1. Draft a sample notice of meeting & Agenda ‘ (10 marks)
Q2. Explain the process of Conduct of meeting (10 marks)
Q3. Summarize the negotiating tactics (10 marks)
Q4. Write notes on Integrative Strategies (10 marks)
Q5. What are the terms used in a debate Speech (10 marks)
Q6. List the do’s & don’ts of effective listening (10 marks)
Q7. Explain the 10 Commandments of Communication (10 marks)
Q8. Write about effective use of Grapevine . (10 marks)

 

Business Ethics
Answer the following question.
Q1. Write a short note on environment. (10 marks)
Q2. Discuss philosophy and religion. (10 marks)
Q3. How morality is useful in business? (10 marks)
Q4. What is the relation of ethics in business? (10 marks)
Q5. Give need for consumer education. (10 marks)
Q6. Write a note on consumerism. (10 marks)
Q7. What is imperative need? (10 marks)
Q8. Give benefits of ISO 9000 quality systems.

 

Corporate Law
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is Contract of Indemnity? (10 marks)
Q2. Discuss purpose of guarantee . (10 marks)
Q3. Discuss Wagering Agreements . (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss FDI . (10 marks)
Q5. What is FEMA? (10 marks)
Q6. Define appropriate laboratory . (10 marks)
Q7. What are duties of Agent . (10 marks)
Q8. Give kinds of bailment.

 

Financial and Cost Accounting
Answer the following question.
Q1. Explain the role of Accountant in the present day Economy? (10
marks)
Q2. Enumerate the steps involved in the installation of budgetary control system in an organization? (10
marks)
Q3. Cost accounting has become an essential tool of management”. Comment and state the steps to be taken while
installing a costing system in a manufacturing concern.
(10
marks)
Q4. What one the objectives of cost accounting? What are its advantages and limitations? (10
marks)
Q5. Define costing. Discuss briefly the objectives and advantages of costing. (10
marks)
Q6. Cost accounting is a system of foresight like pre-natal care, but financial accounting is just a postmortem
examination”. Critically examine this statement
(10
marks)
Q7. Cost accounting is better understood as a cost control and cost reduction exercise and not a more cost ascertainment
process”. Discuss.
(10
marks)
Q8. Differentiate between Management Accounting and Financial Accounting

 

General Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are the components of MIS? (10 marks)
Q2. Explain management information system (10 marks)
Q3. Explain a model of power and influence (10 marks)
Q4. Explain some of the management games (10 marks)
Q5. Explain equity model (10 marks)
Q6. What are the methods of gathering job information? (10 marks)
Q7. What is span of management? What are the factors determining span of management? (10 marks)
Q8. Define planning.. what are the characteristics of planning?

 

International Business
Answer the following question.
Q1. How would you manage risk at business ? (10 marks)
Q2. What is International Business Risk ? (10 marks)
Q3. What is foreign exchange market ? (10 marks)
Q4. Write a short note on IMF. (10 marks)
Q5. Define inflation rate with example (10 marks)
Q6. Explain different types of dumping (10 marks)
Q7. Explain insta online account facility. (10 marks)
Q8. What are the functions of WTO?

 

 


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Consumer Behaviour
Page 1 Out of 1
Total Marks: 80
CASE – 1 (15 Marks)
Tony the Tiger goes Global
Kellogg Company has distribution in more than 150 countries and yet is still “unknown to half the world’s
population.” according to Arnold Langbo, Kellogg’s CEO. Langbo plans to change that.
Kellogg recently built a company—owned cereal plant in Latvia and currently has sales in Poland, Hungary
and Czechoslovakia. It has also started construction on a plant in India and is entering China. However
international expansion and the development of global brands will not be easy.
To become more international, the firm recently reorganized into four divisions :North America,Latin
America, Europe and Australasia. According to Langbo:
The way we used to be organized, we were a US-based Multinational-a company with a big domestic business
and, by the way,some international business. That was the way we were thinking; that’s the way the
organization was structured.
Today, if you talk to customers in the UK, Canada, or Australia, they think of Kellogg’s as being based in the
U.K or Canada or Australia. We’re global in organizational structure and business but also multidomestic.
We now have a number of truly global brands (Frosted Flakes and Corn Flakes, with Froot Loopa and Rice
Krispies close, and Frosted Mini-Wheats and Honey Nut loops moving rapidly).There used to be slight
variations in our food around the world, but now you’ll recognize the product wherever you go.
Expanding into many markets will involve more than trying to gain share from other cereal marketers. It
will require altering long—held traditions:
In Eastern Europe it’s going to he pretty slow because we’re going to have to go in there and literally create
the habit—much as we did in Germany 25 years ago or France 20 years ago. Cereal is a whole new breakfast
concept for these people. However, they do eat breakfast in those countries, and they eat fairly substantial
breakfasts.
In Asia, consumers are used to eating something warm, soft, and savory for breakfast—and we’re going to sell
them something that’s cold, crisp, and sweet or bran tasting. That’s quite a difference.
The challenge is made greater by the presence of aggressive competition in many developed or develop-ing
markets. Competition is particularly intense in Europe where Nestle and General Mills formed a joint venture
called Cereal Partners Worldwide. Langbo characterizes the new competitor this way:
They are a very formidable competitor with Nestle’s distribution strength and knowledge of the European
market and General Mills’ technology and cereal marketing expertise.
The result of the entry of the new competitor, which spent an estimated $35 to $50 million in advertising in the
top six European markets, and the response of existing firms such as Kellogg was an increase in the growth
rate of total cereal sales as well as share erosion among the weaker brands.
Competition is strong even in some countries where consumption is low. For example, in Japan, with
consumption at four bowls per year per person, compared to 10 pounds in the United States, there are more
than 100 products fighting for shelf space.
According to Langbo, a global brand requires a core position strategy or product benefit that will work in
multiple countries and local execution of that idea to reflect local attitudes. The key ideas for three of
Kellogg’s global or near-global brands are described by Langbo in the following paragraphs.
Page 1 Out of 1
Frosted Flakes
Frosted Flakes is based on the concept of vitality. This idea originated in the United States but is a universal
idea that both translates and travels well. Because the product has a special appeal to children, the cultural
differences are not so pronounced. Tony the Tiger illustrates the vitality theme in a universally understandable
manner. Tony is loved throughout the world symborizing appeals that are truly global. We use Tony and he
vitality message everywhere from the United States to Taiwan in Argentina.
Corn Flakes
The basic positioning concept for Corn Flakes is simple, unadulterated food that tastes surprisingly good. This
concept also has universal appeal. It is typically the first product we introduce in a new market, It is the
foundation of our line, and it is the world’s most popular cereal.
All-Bran
The value proposition for All-Bran is the health benefits of fiber in the diet. This proposition does not have
universal appeal without development. The concept of the value of fiber in the diet is new to many countries
and is often resisted.
In 1984, we began a massive campaign to countries where the benefits of fiber were not widely accepted.
campaign varied across countries due to differences in the attitudes of local medical and nutritional
professionals, specific diseases that were most on the minds of the local population, and local restrictions on
health claims. However, the basic approach was to educate and support the medical and nutritional community
in each country. We would sponsor symposia on dietary fiber. As a country’s experts became convinced of the
value of fiber, they told their story in their academic press, the general press, and in public service
announcements. Today, despite competition from many other high-fiber cereals., All-Bran is one of the top 15
cereals worldwide.
Questions
1. What type of innovation would cold cereal be to a country not accustomed to this type of food?
2. Conduct an innovation analysis based for cold cereal in China.
3. What values are involved in the consumption of product such as breakfast cereal?
4. What values would support and what values would harm the chances of Kellogg succeeding the cold cereal
in
the following countries? What other factors would be important?
a. China
b. Mexico
c. Japan
d. France
5. What nonverbal communications factors would be important in developing an advertising campaign for a
cold cereal?
6. Develop a marketing program to market one of Kellogg’s cold cereals in the following countries.
a. China
b. Mexico
c. Japan
d. France
7. Why does Tony the Tiger “travel” so well’?
8. Evaluate the communications process Kellogg used to gain acceptance for All-Bran. Could a version of this
work for gaining acceptance of cold cereals in China?
Page 1 Out of 1
Case – 2 (20 Marks)
Boots with six – inch heels are the latest fashion rage among young Japanese women. Several teens
have died after tripping over their shoes and fracturing their skulls. However, followers of the style
claim they are willing to risk twisted ankles, broken bones, bruised faces, and other dangers
associated with the platform shoes. One teenager said, “ I’ve fallen and twisted my ankle many
times, but they are so cute that I won’t give them up until they go out of fashion.” Many consumers
around the world seem to be willing to suffer for the sake of fashion. Others argue that we are merely
pawns in the hands of designers, who conspire to force unwieldy fashions down our throats.
Questions
1.)What do you think ?
2.) What is and what should be the role of fashion in our society ?
3.) How important is it for people to be in style ?
4.) What are the pros and cons of keeping up with the latest fashions ? Do you believe that we are at
the mercy of designers.
CASE – 3 (6 Marks)
You are the Business Development Manager of an Engineering company that has developed a highly advanced
machine for packaging of pharmaceutical products. The machine saves a lot of time and cost involved in the
packaging as it is faster compared to other machines, it consumes lesser electricity and requires lesser
manpower. One of your clients, N.K. Pharma is a 1200 crores pharmaceutical company having its head office
in Mumbai. The company has six manufacturing units, one in Tarapur, two at Vapi, one in Nagpur, one in
Chennai and the newest one at Baddi in Haryana. Each unit is led by a Factory Manager, who reports to the
GM – Production who sits at the head office. The GM – Production, GM – R & D, GM – Marketing, and G.M.
HRM report to the COO. The Accounts and Finance functions report directly to the COO. The COO is a 36
year old enthusiastic leader who enjoys immense trust of the MD (who is also the founder of the organization).
The company sells through a network of 400 Medical Representatives spread all over India.
Questions
1 Analyze the buying behaviour of this organization with respect to your product.
Page 1 Out of 1
Case -4 (10 Marks)
THE ECONOMIC PARADIGM
The 1940s view of the consumer in the marketplace was rooted in economic theory. Most scholars of
economics probably still hold to the theory of Economic Man. In this paradigm, purchasing decisions
are the result of largely “rational” and conscious economic calculations. The individual buyer seeks to
spend his income on those goods that will deliver the most utility (satisfaction) according to his tastes
and relative prices. This is a normative rather than a descriptive model of behavior, because logical
norms are provided for buyers who want to be “rational.”
The model suggests useful behavioral hypotheses, such as: (a) the lower the price of the product, the
higher the sales; (b) the lower the price of substitute products, the lower their sales; (c) the lower the
price of complementary products, the higher their sales, provided they are not “inferior” goods; and
(d) the higher the promotional expenditures the higher the sales. In striving to meet these hypotheses,
consumers are not only assumed to be aware of all available alternatives in the marketplace; they are
also assumed to be able to rationally rank order the available alternatives by preferences. This is the
case of perfect information in the marketplace and unlimited ability of tile consumer.
In applying these assumptions to actual consumption, several problems became apparent. First of all,
consumers do not have perfect information in the marketplace. Second, they do not all have the same
information about the existing alternatives or attributes of known alternatives. instead, each consumer
has fragmented knowledge of his or her own set of known alternatives; as a result, consumers can not
always rank a set of alternatives available to them. In addition, preferences often violate utility
theory, because different people prefer different styles, have different tastes, and hence make choices
built on preferences rather than objective information such as price.
Problems arise with applying economic theories to gifts. Increasing the price of goods may actually
make them more desirable, defying basic economic theory. Hence, inverted demand curves reflect
products where increasing prices stimulate increasing sales. Perfume is a perfect example of this type
of good. Most perfume or cologne is bought as a gift, and the connotations of bringing home a $2
bottle of cologne or a $50 bottle for a loved one are implicit. A relationship may not last upon receipt
of the cheaper good. Hence the economic model ignores the fundamental question of how product
and brand preferences are formed.
THE IRRATIONAL CONSUMER
After becoming aware that goods have “hidden meaning,” scholars of consumer behavior in the
1950s took to the notion of the consumer as an irrational, impulsive decision maker. Consumers were
seen as passive, open, and vulnerable to external influences. This position was an obvious reaction to
the “economic man” and also represented a time when business schools were developing. Earlier,
faculty trained in economics were the first to be hired, but in the 1950s psychologists were added to
the payroll. Their insights from Freud to Maslow, from personality to motivation theory, seemed ever
so relevant to our study of the consumer.
The two major psychological theories underlying this era were the Pavlovian learning model and the
Freudian psychoanalytic model. The Pavlovian model is based on four central concepts-those of
drive, cue, response, and reinforcement. Drive or motives can be primary, such as hunger and sex, or
secondary, such as fear. A drive is very general and impels a particular response only in relation to a
particular configuration of cues. The Pavlovian model emphasizes the desirability of repetition in
advertising. Repetition fights the tendency for learned responses to weaken in the absence of practice
and provides reinforcement.
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The model also provides guidelines for copy strategy. To be effective as a cue, an advertisement must
arouse strong drives in the person. For candy bars, it may be hunger; for safety belts, fear; for hair
tonics, sex; for automobiles, status.
In the Freudian psychoanalytic model, the guilt or shame man feels toward his sexual urges causes
him to repress them from his consciousness. Through rationalization and sublimation, these urges are
denied or become transmuted into socially approved expressions. These urges are never eliminated or
under perfect control and they emerge in dreams, in slips of the tongue, or in neurotic or obsessive
behavior.
Because of these urges, the consumer’s motivations for behavior are not obvious or deeply
understood. As a result, Freudian psychology gave consumer behavior the tool of in-depth
interviewing to get at the motives and symbols behind a purchase. If a consumer is asked why lie
purchased an expensive foreign sports car, he may reply that he likes its maneuverability and its
looks. At a deeper level he may have purchased the car to impress others, or to feel young again. At a
still deeper level, lie may be purchasing the sports car to achieve substitute gratification for
unsatisfied sexual strivings.
Other Freudian consumer research findings included men wanting their cigars to be odoriferous to
prove they were masculine, and women being very serious when baking cakes because unconsciously
they were going through the symbolic act of birth. These theories were certainly more interesting
reading than the graphs and curves of economics.
One major study of this era (Haire 1950) found that when a shopping list included instant coffee
rather than drip grind, the owner of the list was perceived to be a very different person. The owner of
the list with instant coffee was lazy, a poor planner, a spendthrift, and a bad wife. Meanwhile, the
owner of the list with drip coffee was perceived to be thrifty and a good wife. Fortunately a
replication of this study was done in 1970 and housewives were no longer judged by their coffee
(Wilkie 1986). However, Haire’s study provided good insight to the fact that products have meaning
and significance that go far beyond the physical attributes of the products themselves. Furthermore,
these hidden values were thought to be a major influence on consumer decisions. To tap into the
consumers’ hidden motives for purchase, more indirect methods of data gathering were necessary.
Toward the end of the 1950s an empirical article started to throw doubt on the heavy reliance on
psychological perspectives. A study by Evans (1959) sought to determine the personality
characteristics of Ford versus Chevrolet owners. In the 1950s these were the major automobile
manufacturers. Wider choice and Japanese imports did not exist. If the differences between the cars
were not major, the train of thought was that the personality of the owner must be significantly
different and motivate the consumer to buy one brand or the other. A carefully controlled survey of
personality characteristics of 1,600 owners of Fords and Chevrolets showed no major significant
differences in personality characteristics of the car owners. The importance of this line of behavioral
research to consumer products was questioned. By this time, in the early and mid-1960s, business
schools were producing their own scholars and faculty. Researchers were trained by business schools
rather than only economics and psychology departments. Researchers of consumer behavior gained
from this marriage of economics and psychology and began to develop their own theories of the
consumer.
Page 1 Out of 1
THE PROBLEM SOLVER
In the 1960s John Kennedy became president of the United States and gave the consumer elevated
status. In his message to Congress on March 15, 1962, he put forth the Consumer Bill of Rights
(1963) as a social contract between business and society. Government was tile ultimate guarantor of
these rights, which included the right to safety, the right to be informed, the right to choose, and the
right to be heard (redress). The government took Kennedy seriously and began an activist role
The marketplace was becoming more diversified. The concept of market segmentation became even
more important. Goods that the consumer ted were now being produced, rather than just the goods
the manufacturer wanted to make. Choice prevailed for the consumer, and the consumer was
recognized by the highest official in the country. Consumers had the right to he informed and
protected.
The government poured millions of dollars into departments whose goal was to make sure the
consumer had access to information. The Federal Trade Commission flourished. Labels were put on
products listing all ingredients. Advertising was regulated and measured; if it was misleading, then
corrective advertising was necessary. Information was in great supply to the consumer. Ralph Nader,
with his book Unsafe At Any Speed, emerged as the hero of the 1970s, taking on corporate giants in
the name of the little man. Consumerism was everywhere.
As a result of this environment, consumer behavior researchers started to see the consumer as a
“cognitive man.” The irrational psychotic purchaser of the 1950s and early 1960s was left behind.
The consumer was now a problem solver. He or she was receptive to products or services that
consciously met his or her needs. Consumers were thought to actively search for information about
the products and services they bought. Consumer Reports was born. Consumers were seen as striving
to make the best decisions possible given their limitations.
However, consumer researchers told us that even though consumers are given information, they often
fail to use it to make decisions. In an initial experiment (Jacoby, Speller, and Kohn 1974) and a
follow-up (Scammon 1975), consumers were given objective product information concerning several
brands available in the marketplace. The results of the first study showed that consumers felt better
about their brand selections with more information, but actually made poorer choices. The study by
Scammon corrected for weaknesses in the original study but still found that recall of product
attributes decreased with increasing information. Consumers were still limited by the extent of their
knowledge about the marketplace and their capacity to store information about the marketplace in
short-term memory. Miller’s (1956) rule of seven plus or minus two) pieces of information as
cognitive capacity held for the consumer.
The information in the marketplace was not organized for the ease of the consumer. Unit pricing was
fine, but comparing prices across brands and sizes for products was quite a challenge. Only when unit
prices were posted on one sheet in a simple linear manner by decreasing prices across all sizes and
brands did the consumers shift in their decision making toward lower-priced brands. You can imagine
the national brand manufacturer’s enthusiasm toward presentation of this information at point of
purchase.
Page 1 Out of 1
The overriding conclusion of consumer research in the 1970s was that people can only attend to
limited information at one point in time. The consumers’ existing skills, habits, reflexes, values, and
goals shape the way they search and use information to make their decisions. The 1970s told us that
consumers’ skills were limited, but at the same time the number of choices available to the consumer
kept increasing. More and more choices became available in the 1980s.
THE COGNITIVE MISER
Today’s consumer uses decision-making skills originally developed in the 1970s, but the 1980s
consumer went farther than just recognizing man’s cognitive limitations. Researchers have labelled
the low-involvement decision maker (or cognitive miser) as unable or unwilling to engage in
extensive decision-making activities in many cases and settle instead for “satisfactory” decisions
(Olshavsky and Granbois 1979). There is too much choice and not enough discretionary time to
engage in extended cognitive effort for purchases. Instead the consumer develops rules of thumb or
heuristics to simplify purchase behavior. An in-store study showed that consumers go through almost
no brand price comparison behavior (Hoyer 1984). Rules such as “buy the cheapest,” “buy name
brands,” or “buy what my friend bought” give the consumer a satisfactory choice in the marketplace
that supplants an optimal choice. This is a very adaptive and rational course for the consumer to have
taken in the 1980s, given the cluttered choice environment with little time for decision making and
virtually no support in information handling. The cost of thinking was recognized as a limiting factor
in processing choices.
The 1980s brought a focus on business and conservatism, and many came to feel that governmental
regulation was more of a hindrance than a help. This was expressed in the election of Ronald Reagan.
As quickly as Kennedy had made the consumer important, Reagan made him unimportant. With
strokes of a pen, the FTC experienced a sharp reduction in its budget and influence. Whole
departments set up by the government to service the consumer were abandoned. Consumer programs
developed for the 1970s folded.
The 1980s were for business. This focus was a result of several factors. First, the “baby boomer
bulge” had a greater number of people for a smaller number of jobs. In the early 1970s a college
graduate decided what job to take, or perhaps a trip to Europe, then work. In the early 1980s the
concern was for getting any job at all. The economy was slow and competition was stiff. Business
looked to the MBA to turn companies around. The student was serious and conservative due to the
competitive environment. Business and engineering were in; the humanities were out. The
marketplace became more competitive, more diversified. Deregulation prevailed.
Too many goods cluttered too many store shelves for the consumer. For example, the average number
of products in supermarkets soared from 13,000 in 1981 to 21,000 in 1987. There are said to he 400
different brands of beer available to the American beer drinker. A new car purchaser might have 300
different types of cars and light trucks, domestic and imported, to choose from.
Along with the “over choice” and market diversity of the 1980s came decreased leisure time for the
consumer, not more leisure time as predicted in the 1940s. The number of free hours a person
possesses decreased from four to one since the 1970s. The reason for this is that the average time
spent at work has increased seven to eight hours a week since 1978 (Stern 1987). More than 50
percent of all women are working, so household duties are done after 6 p.m. or on weekends. Single
working mothers have virtually no free time and can’t take care of all they want to do. This scenario
has led to a demand for convenience products and convenience shopping. Home catalogs, home TV
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shopping, home computer shopping, and home shopping parties are part of this easier access to goods
that will prevail in the 1990s. The efficiency of in-home shopping, especially through direct
marketing, is exemplified by the fact that American Express sold 7 percent of all the luggage bought
in the U.S. by sending mailings to affluent cardholders whose charge records showed they spent
heavily on travel-related merchandise.
This the cognitive miser of the 1980s is a product of decreased time for shopping decisions and
increased choice in the marketplace. It is an adaptive strategy to suit the decision-making
environment.
THE COLLECTIVE BUYER OF THE 1990s
The focus on individual decision processes for personal purchase of products and services will be
replaced by a more collective decision-making style during the 1990s. This will be caused by the
changing cultural patterns of North America combined with the decrease in purchasing power of the
individual consumer. The culture of North America is changing due to: (1) the rapid increase in the
percent of elderly people who are neither healthy nor wealthy; (2) the aging of the baby boomers,
causing a shift in values and needs; and (3) increased immigration from Asian cultures with high
birth rates to offset the North American decline in population. All three categories of this cultural
shift will have to rely on joint decisions for purchase of goods and services, since goods and services
will be shifting to a collective consumption style rather than individual consumption in the North
American marketplace.
Individuals will combine households in an increasing rate to make life more affordable. The evidence
that this joint living may be a trend for the future is exemplified by the fact that 6.2 percent of all
employed people are working two jobs, mainly to meet living expenses. When the economy turns
down these extra jobs will not be available, and people will have to decrease their standard of living
to meet day-to-day expenses. More unmarried people will share apartments, more single-parent
families will couple up, and more children will live at home longer. Thus, more people will be
sharing consumer goods just due to living arrangements. Also, through the changing face of North
American consumers, the marketplace will continue to change and supply more and more services for
these groups. The changing face of the consumer will alter the marketplace and the mode of decision
making.
Much has been written about the marketing opportunities for the senior segment. Right now
approximately 7.3 percent of the population is over 65. By the year 2000, this group will increase by
20 percent, making it the fastest-growing segment of our population. This is one reason why
marketers focus on the elderly. However, this group is not all that wealthy or all that healthy. It is
estimated that 80 percent of people over 65 have chronic health problems, and 16 percent have severe
physical problems. One in five Americans over the age of 85 resides in a nursing home.
The Baby Boomers
A full one-third of the population is bulging at middle age. In the year 2000 they will be 36 to 54
years old and at the middle of peak earnings. They are important to our view of consumer behavior
because they will head 44 percent of all households and still account for a majority of purchasing
power. Due to the conflicting structure of the population versus the corporate culture, there will be
less moving around among this group, and they will be more stable in their jobs. Hence, their values
and attitudes will change dramatically to reflect this stability. The collective decision-making style
will be based on their stable environment.
Page 1 Out of 1
Questions
Discuss as to how the consumer behavior has evolved post 1950?


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Sales Management
Case Studies
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Auckland Engineering plc Jim Withey, sales manager for Auckland Engineering plc, a well-established engineering company based
in the Midlands, had been contemplating the memo he had received two days earlier from his newly appointed marketing director.
Memo To: J Withey, sales manager From: D C Duncan, marketing director Date: 16 January 2008 Subject: Preparation of annual
marketing plan You will recall that, at our series of preliminary meetings to discuss future marketing plans for the company, I
suggested that I was unhappy with the seemingly haphazard approach to planning. Accordingly, you will recall it was agreed
between departmental heads that each would undertake to prepare a formal input to next month’s planning meeting. At this stage, I
am not seeking detailed plans for each product market, rather I am concerned that you give some thought to how your department
can contribute to the planning process. Being new to the company and its product/markets, I am not entirely up to date on what has
been happening to the market for our products, although as we all know our market share at 3.5 per cent is down on last year. I
would particularly like to know what information ‘our department could contribute to the analysis of the situation. To help you in
your own analysis I have summarized below what I feel came out of our first planning meetings. • Business definition. It was agreed
that the business needs redefining in customer terms. An appropriate definition for our company would he as follows: ‘Solutions to
engine component design and manufacturing problems.’ • Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, i.e. SWOT analysis. The
main strengths of our company are as follows. — We have excellent customer awareness and an image of reliability and quality. —
Our sales force is technically well qualified. — Our manufacturing flexibility is second to none. We can respond quickly and
effectively to individual customer needs. Our main weaknesses are as follows. — Our prices are approximately 10 per cent above the
industry average. 3 — We are spending a far higher proportion of our turnover on advertising than some of our main competitors. —
Our sales force is not skilled in generating new leads. Major opportunities are as follows. — Some of our major competitors are
having difficulty keeping their customers because of quality and delivery problems. Buyers in the industry seem particularly prone to
switching their suppliers. — Recent legislation in the industry means that our research and development programme on the new
TDIX component with its emphasis on lower exhaust emission levels, should prove advantageous. — Recent and forecast trends in
the exchange rate should help our export marketing efforts. Major threats are shown below. — Our largest customer is threatening to
switch to another supplier because of our higher average prices. — Apart from the TDIX programmer, we have not been keeping
pace with the rapid technological change in the industry. — Some of our major export markets are threatened by the possibility of
import restrictions. • Objectives. Financial. – To increase our return on capital employed by 5 per cent after taxes. — Our net profit in
the forthcoming year to be £2.0 million. Marketing. — Sales revenue to be increased to £18 million in the forthcoming year. •
Marketing strategy. Target markets. — Major manufacturers of diesel engines worldwide. Positioning. — Highest engineering quality
and after-sales service in the supply of specialist low-volume diesel engine components. I would of course welcome your comments
on my analysis of the situation, together with ‘our views on the appropriateness of the objectives I have set. In addition, for the next
meeting, I suggest that as sales manager you give some thought as to where the relative emphasis should be placed in our
promotional effort. As I have already mentioned in my summary of our preliminary meetings, we seem to be spending an excessive
amount on advertising compared with our competitors. Perhaps you could appraise me of your thoughts on this, as I understand that
you were instrumental in raising our advertising budget from 3 per cent to 5 per cent of our turnover last year. As you are well
aware, from a limited budget we must decide where to place the relative emphasis in our promotional mix. Perhaps, you would
indicate what you feel are the major considerations in this decision.
Answer the following question.

Q1. Give a brief outline of the ways in which you as sales manager can contribute to the marketing planning process at
Auckland Engineering.
Q2. Looking at Mr. Duncan’s analysis of your previous meetings, what issues/problems do you see which are of
particular relevance to the activities of the sales force?
Q3. How would you respond to Mr. Duncan’s comments on the promotional mix and, in particular, to his comments
about the level of advertising expenditure?
Q4. What is the point in conducting a SWOT analysis?
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Swish flow Ltd.—Hiring Salespeople “Why two out of five salespersons have resigned within six months of joining the company?”
asked marketing director to the sales manager, Sunil Kumar, of Swish flow Ltd. “I think, there is something wrong with our staffing
process,” responded Sunil Kumar, without knowing the real reasons for the turnover of salespeople. Swish flow Ltd started
manufacturing and marketing consumer durables like fans and water purifiers for household consumers and commercial firms in
1993. The sales and marketing office was located in Mumbai, the commercial capital of India. Swish flow was a newly established
company and for its first year of operations, the company decided to recruit five salespersons to cover major metros and cities of
Maharashtra. The staffing process included the sales manager deciding the job qualifications of salespersons based on what he learnt
in the MBA programmer. The administration manager was asked to place the advertisement in the local newspapers. The resumes of
applicants were forwarded to Sunil Kumar, who screened the same and sent interview calls to about ten applicants. The interviews
were conducted by Sunil Kumar and the marketing director and the selected candidates were given the appointment letters. Some of
the candidates had a problem of finding suitable residence, but the company policy did nor provide any consideration for the same.
Sunil Kumar conducted one-week training programmer and generally guided the new Salespersons, who reported to him directly.
There was a delay in the receipt of the fans front the factory, located at Baroda in Gujarat. During this period of three months, Sunil
Kumar was asked to conduct market surveys and look after advertising function of the entire group. He asked the salespersons to
collect market information on various other products like water purifiers, power tillers, and so on in which the group was interested
to diversify. During this period, two salespersons suddenly stopped coming to work, after collecting their salaries of the previous
working month.
Answer the following question.
Q1. What improvements do you suggest in the staffing process followed by the company?
Q2. Was Sunil Kumar right in getting market surveys done by the new salespersons?
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
Plastic Products Ltd Plastic Products Ltd is a company that produces and markets plastic cups, teaspoons, knives and forks for the
catering industry. The company was established in 1974 in response to the changes taking place in the catering industry. The growth
of the fast-food sector of the market was seen as an opportunity to provide disposable eating utensils which would save on
manpower and allow the speedy provision of utensils for fast customer flow. In addition, Plastic Products has benefited from the
growth in supermarkets and sells consumer packs’ through four of the large supermarket groups. The expansion of sales and outlets
has led Jim Spencer, the sales manager, to recommend to Bill Preedy, the general manager, that the present sales force of two
regional representatives he increased to four. Spencer believes that the new recruits should have experience of selling fast-moving
consumer goods since essentially that is what his products are. Preedy believes that the new recruits should he familiar with plastic
products since that is what they are selling. He favors recruiting from within the plastics industry, since such people are familiar with
the supply, production and properties of plastic and are likely to talk the same language as other people working at the firm.
Answer the following question.
Q1. What general factors should be taken into account when recruiting salesmen?
Q2. Do you agree with Spencer or Preedy or neither?
Q3. Distinguish between the job description and the personnel specification. For an industry of your choice, write a
suitable job description and personnel specification for a salesperson.
Q4. Discuss the role of psychological testing in the selection process for salespeople.
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
C. G. Engineering Company Achieving Quotas Ashok Desai was transferred from western region, where he worked as area sales
manager of CQ Engineering Company, to eastern region as regional marketing manager —industries. He was told by the company’s
general manager (Sales) that he was transferred from western region to eastern region to set things right, as eastern region was not
performing well on sales and profits. Ashok’s main responsibilities were to manage effectively 11 sales engineers and achieve the
sales volume and contribution (to profits) quotas. For Ashok, not only the industrial customers but also the sales engineers were new.
3/19/2019 Aeren Foundation
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The sales engineers were compensated based on straight salary and perquisites like house rent allowance and medical
reimbursement. There was no incentive scheme. The territory of eastern region consisted of states of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam,
and Orissa. Ashok felt that the sales engineers were not covering the market adequately and were not following any system of
routing and scheduling. He also thought that sales people were spending more time in travelling and less time in selling activities.
After talking to sales engineers individually, he got an impression that most of them were not motivated, as they were not given
adequate freedom of operations and recognition whenever they got good orders. Ashok thought that there was a good scope of
applying what he had learnt in the management institute and achieve superior results as expected by the general manager (Sales).
Answer the following question.
Q1. If you were Ashok, what would you do to achieve the sales volume and contribution quotas?


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INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT
Total Marks: 80
Note : All Questions are Compulsory
Each Question Carries Equal Marks
CASE STUDY : 1
(20 Marks)
Zhuhai of Shanghai
“I’m not sure whether they understand that a firm cannot he a bundle of discreet businesses.
Most of the senior
Chinese executives I talk to arc convinced that they can make anything . . . absolutely
anything that will make
money. After so many years of command economy, managers are oblivious to the concept of
market ……they aren’t
keen to get into bilateral trading even when it makes sense. They would rather pursue
different ventures totally
unrelated to each other,” said a financial analyst of an American brokerage firm located in
Shanghai.
Mr. Dong Hong is the president of Zhuhai To Zi Company (Zuhai) which was founded in
1980 as a construction
company. Before joining the company in 1989, Hong was a high ranking army officer in the
People’s Republic of
China. As president of Zhuhai, he attended an executive management programme at Harvard
Business School.
Although Hong enjoyed the programme, he came back with some reservations about the
relevance of what he
learned. One of his oft-repeated summation of the programme was: “I have problem with the
terms like core
competency and synergy. At this point in time, there are ample opportunities in China to
make good return in any
business. You don’t mean to say that we simply stick to the knitting and pass these
opportunities to others? China is a
virgin land, you need to understand that.”
HISTORY OF SGL
Zhuhai has received a favorable media splash in China upon its taking a controlling interest
of Shanghai Gue Za Liao
Company (SGL), a poly-crystal manufacturer. SGL was founded in 1969. At that time, it was
the largest
manufacturer of poly-crystal in China employing 900 people. It received quality awards for
six consecutive years. In
1992, SGL was authorized by the Shanghai Municipal Government to become a joint stock
company. In less than 15
days, it sold RMB ¥(yen) 1.1 million worth of stock at RMB ¥22.00 per stock (¥10 par value)
to the public and to
the employees of the firm. The registered capital was RMB ¥33.799 after the fund raising.
The Government owned
RMB ¥18.799 million worth of stock. The stock was floated through the Shanghai Securities
Exchange Centre. In
1993, the market price per stock was RMB ¥l8.79, with a price of RMB ¥7.85 at its lowest
point. By being a listed
company, SGL cased its cash flow problems but the rate of return was getting depressingly
low and its market share
went down from 51 per cent in 1970 to 36 per cent in 1993.
MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY OF POLY-CRYSTAL
Poly-crystal is a crystalline specimen which contains many small individual crystals. There
are different methods of
making this product. The most common and widely used method is called Chemical Vapour
Disposition or CVP. In
this process, the material to be crystallised is vaporised in a chamber and then condensed on a
substrate to form
crystals. Silicon crystals are mostly used in semiconductor (i.e., computer chips) and solar
power applications for
their unique properties and inexpensive raw materials (mainly sand). Though it is not a
labour-intensive process, it
requires rather sophisticated technical skills.
The electronic industry in the developed countries produces its own crystals. IBM, RCA,
Motorola, and Texas
Instruments are the major producers of crystals in the U.S. Application of semiconductors
and use of photovoltaic
cells will continue to rise, and with it the demand for poly-crystal is expected to increase.
OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY OF SGL
Since China started allowing imports, SGL’s market share had shrunk for a combination of
reasons. First was the
slow rate of growth of Chinese electronic industry where poly-crystal is mostly used. Second
was that imports had
been consistently of high quality which SGL could not match due to lack of skilled labour
and obsolete technology.
Third was the ever-increasing costs of power and raw materials contributing much to
increasing cost per unit of
production.
Pricewise, SGL could not compete with the major importers from the U.S., Russia, Ukraine,
and Germany inspite of
the fact that the labour rate in China is about one-third of the U.S. and Germany. In 1994,
SQL sold 34 tons of
polycrystal where the total domestic demand was estimated to be about 105 tons.
In an attempt to diversify the company, the board of directors decided to get into the taxi
business as the city
experienced a surge in the tourist market. As of 1994, Shanghai had about 35,000 taxis. A
taxi owner typically
receives V300 per day per taxi irrespective of the driver’s earnings. The driver makes on an
average about V150 to
200 each day but he is responsible for buying gas and paying for repairs of any mechanical
defects. In addition, he
has to pay the police for any traffic violation.
The time SGL entered this market, the Chinese banks eased their lending process allowing
many of the existing
drivers to buy their own taxis with easy repayment schedules. This had the salutary effect, for
SQL, of not finding
enough “qualified” drivers without lowering the owner’s usual income of 300 per day.
Managing this line of business
was becoming a headache. SGL asked several of its managers to move into the taxi-sector.
Some of them flatly
refused and a few accepted the assignment grudgingly. SQL, though doing poorly both in
crystal and taxi business,
did not lay-off employees or reduce their benefits.
SGL’s top management thought that the company had gone as far as possible with its
restructuring efforts and
decided to be taken over either by a foreign or a domestic firm. It also tried in vain to form
alliances. In April 1994,
the Government decided to sell its RMB Vl2 million worth of stock of SGL to Zhuhai To Zi
company, making it the
largest stock holder holding 35.5 per cent of the entire stock. Immediately after the takeover,
Zhuhai asked SGL to
produce quartz glass for a particular Japanese company. The outsourcing attempt by this
Japanese firm to SQL lasted
about a year as it was not satisfied with the variance in quality and delivery schedule. With
the available technology
of SGL, Zhuhai decided to get into manufacturing electric energy meters for state-owned
facilities. These stateowned
operations had been the major customer base for SGL’ s poly-crystal. Working with
the similar customer
base, SGL started to make money with its energy meters. The two business segments, real
estate and the energy
meters, contributed much of Zhuhai’s net return of 15 per cent, providing an overall liquidity
ratio of 2.7 per cent and
a quick ratio of 1.94. The financial position of Zhuhai is provided in the Table 1.below
RESTRUCTURING OF ZHUHAI
The president of Zhuhai restructured the company making each division a separate strategic
business unit (SBU). The
revised organisation structure is provided below.
Note that the positions immediately below the unit vice presidents and under them there were
a cadre of personnel
doing various jobs as directed by their bosses. Mr. Hong made it clear to all SBU vice
presidents (VPs) that decisions
regarding product development, pricing, procurement and human resource management
would be taken by the
president himself in consultation with the board of directors. Mr. Hong stated in a recent
meeting that the VPs were
responsible for making at least 20 per cent rate of return for their units. “Lower than 20 per
cent will mean either
demotion or transfer for that particular VP”, he said. “We have started making short cuts,
saving money in every
possible way…. but I’m not sure whether any strategic business unit can function without
strategy. Just a promise of
fixed rate of return at the end of the year? Is that all in the name of strategy?”, asked the vice
president of an SBU.
Question :
1) Discuss the typicality’s of Chinese Industrial system vis-à-vis the Western/global
Industrial system.
2) Where does the Chinese system fault?
3) Is over production and mis-match in marketing leads to poor prices of Chinese products
in the International
market?
4) If you are offered, views as a top consultant, what would you like to suggest the
Chinese Government and
industry. Give your reasons.
Case-2
(20 Marks)
Toyota Comes to Georgetown
Mrs. Friers, in her early sixties, of Georgetown’s new Wal-Mart store cannot be anything but
polite when she
discusses Toyota. In a low voice to my companion, the doctor at the local Scott County
General Hospital, Friers said,
“You know Doe, Toyota did not offer that job to my daughter.” “I am sorry to hear that,” the
Doctor commented
casually. “Are you all glad that Toyota came to town?” I asked Mrs. Friers, somewhat to fill
the void. “Yes and no …
we were all excited when they first announced it . . . it kind of sank in now, I guess.”
Toyota’s labour practices was the hot topic at the local drug store too. A middle aged man,
who had worked in an
iron foundry for 31 years, commented, “In Toyota you have to earn every penny . . . there is
never a slag . . . never
the time to say hello.” His youngest son, Dwayne, is currently employed in the Toyota plant.
He is extremely pleased
that the company has abandoned the practice of workout in the morning. A skeptical Baptist
preacher asked, “what
the heck have we got because of Toyota? Most of their people come from Indiana and Ohio. I
hear some of them
even commute from Arkansas.”
TOYOTA COMES TO GEORGETOWN
Georgetown, about 25 miles south of Lexington, Kentucky is the Scott County’s heartland.
The county’s population
is 25,000 out of which 22,000 are white. Over 53 per cent of the household income is
between $15,000 to $49,999
per year. It has 93.7 males for every 100 females. About 43 per cent of the population are
between the ages of 18 to
44 years.
It was a puzzle to many residents as to why Toyota selected this sleepy town for their new
venture. Some of them
argued that the then Governor of the State, Martha Lay Collins, charmed the Japanese so
much that they lost their
way and their heads too. Some others contended that the State made huge tax concessions to
the company and wrote
blank checks. The local paper cashed in by printing all possible undocumented stories about
Toyota.
However the present Mayor of Georgetown denied charges of any underhanded deal. He
rationalized the process of
selection thus: Toyota selected this location mainly to take advantage of the transportation
network of 1-75 (North
and South) and 1-64 (East and West). He added, “the topography of the land here is very
similar to the land around
the Toyota City in Japan. I assume the company was also attracted because of non-union
focus in this State.”
The original plant location was about three miles outside the Georgetown city limit. The
office of the Mayor made it
clear to the Toyota people that since the city was the closest municipality it would end up
providing most of the
infrastructural services to the plant but without any return from Toyota. Why should the
taxpayers of Georgetown
accept this liability without any tax revenue coming from the company?
The company’s vice-president had asked the Mayor to attend a series of breakfast meeting
with him and other
officials to sort out this and other related problems. The Mayor described the outcome of
these meetings thus: “We
were aware that this was a huge economic development opportunity but was also conscious
of the fact that the town
people should not be shortchanged in any shape or manner.” In April 1987, Toyota confirmed
the setting up of the
plant in Georgetown.
TOYOTA’S OPERATIONS
In May 1988, the first Kentucky Camry was introduced at a plantwide celebration. And in the
same year, Camry
received the J.D. Power Gold Plant Quality Award. In November 1988, Toyota announced
plans to double the plant
size and production at the Georgetown plant. In September 1991, Toyota unveiled a major
model redesign for the
year 1992. In January 1992, Toyota announced plans to expand Powertrain Plant to add V-6
productions. By March,
the production of Camry Wagon began. In September 1994, the Georgetown plant began
production of the Avalon, a
new large sedan aimed at the North American market.
In 1988, Toyota was able to produce about 200,000 Camry Sedans of which 20 per cent were
exported. In 1995, it
doubled the production to 400,000 with the hope of exporting 20 per cent to Taiwan, Europe
and Japan.
With this tremendous pace of change, the company demanded from its workforce nothing
short of total dedication.
The pace became such that the workers started using “Kaizen”, “Kieretsu”, “Kanban” and
few other similar Japanese
phrases even in dealing with their own family members. In 1995, the employees were told
that since the sales had
declined by 2.5 per cent, the process had to he streamlined, using fewer model variations and
increasing white-collar
productivity. An assembly line worker said, “Gosh, how could any more speed be achieved
without killing each other
. . . but this is Toyota. Find a way to do it . . . or a way out.”
THE GAINS AND THE BARGAINS
Toyota’s direct employment in the U.S., as of December 1993 was 16,674. including the
1438 Toyota/Lexus dealers,
the company employs over 90,000 people in the U.S. In Georgetown alone, it employs 6000
people representing all
120 counties of the State of Kentucky. What Kentucky gained from Toyota is a question that
ninny people ask. For
instance, the company was provided with an incentive package of $325 million. Out of this
amount, $68 million was
paid for job training, and $40 million went to building roads and sewers. Toyota operates
under the Free Trade Zone
which provides tariff exemption of $14 million a year. The company was allowed to import
parts and machinery
without paying any additional tariffs. The State paid $167.6 million interest costs for its
warehousing distribution.
The balance sheet predicts that the Camry plant could generate $673.4 million in state tax
revenue including
individual and sales taxes. Further, due to Toyota’s plant expansion there will be a whole host
of satellite industries
around the area with vast potential for job opportunities. Estimates suggest that the Camry
plant and its suppliers
based in the State have already created 22,000 jobs in Kentucky.
OTHER STATES FOLLOW LEAD
The State of Tennessee, in order to bring in Nissan, convinced the Federal Government to
approve $5 million-a-year
tax break on plant expansion (production expanded from 250,000 to 450,000), and allowed it
to operate under the
Free Trade Zone as Kentucky did for Toyota. The State of South Carolina in its effort to get
BMW also had to
provide $5 million in state income tax credits and an additional $3 million for employee
training. The State wl1 set
the BMW’s property taxes at the same rate for 5 years at a time and extend the Zone on
Greenville-Spartan airport.
This venture estimates 10,000 additional jobs in the region including about 2,000 at the
BMW location itself.
According to his estimate, the State will benefit by $28 million a year in taxes.
The latest in this league of getting large employers is the State of Alabama. Mercedes Benz
has accepted we location
to manufacture under the following conditions: the State will provide $92 million for site
development, $77 million
for infrastructure, $60 million for job training, and $8.6 million for sales and tax concessions
on equipment. The
State also made a good faith commitment to buy from the company, 2,500 vehicles at an
estimated price of $75
million. Mercedes will employ 1,500 people and it expects a mushrooming of industries
around the plant site.
TOYOTA TRIES TO BE A GOOD CITIZEN
From the day of inception. Toyota officials insisted that the company should be a part of the
community. For
instance, it cited the following contributions: $1 million for the citizens of Scott County to
build a community centre,
$15 million over a 20 year period to the County school system; $141,000 to develop a child
care centre; $500,000 for
the development of a Thoroughbred Park; $25,000 and $30,000 to the Lexington’s Children’s
Museum and
Philharmonic respectively. The city of Georgetown receives one per cent of the payroll tax
and an additional
percentage of the net profit of sales. The city’s general fund budget went up to $6.7 million in
1992 from a mere $2.2
million in earlier years. This allowed the city to extend its police force and add a fire station.
Fire insurance rating for
the city went sown from class 6 to class 4, resulting in savings of about $500,000 a year in
insurance costs for the
homeowners.
Although Toyota has never agreed to give preferential treatment in employing Kentuckians or
people from
Georgetown, the mix at the shop floor level suggests that over 80 per cent of them are not
residents of the county. At
the managerial level, the Japanese are in charge of production control,’ purchasing, finance,
engineering, and quality
control functions. The president is also a Japanese national. The U.S. personnel occupy the
positions of senior vicepresident,
human resources, public affairs, and vehicle assembly production. A majority of
managerial and
supervisory staff live in Lexington and Louisville (Kentucky), and Cincinnati (Ohio).
GEORGETOWN ON THE MAP
Has Toyota not been the single most important factor to bring prominence to this area? The
existence of two
interstate highways 1-64 and 1-75 was what had attracted Toyota to Georgetown. Yet these
two highways
contributed negatively by moving people away, towards bigger cities like Lexington,
Kentucky and Cincinnati, Ohio.
Lexington and Cincinnati, for example, have better schools, shopping centres, cultural
activities, and have legal
liquor sales. The Director of Georgetown-Scott County Planning Commission notes, “the
originally anticipated large
increase in population has not occurred . . . and is not anticipated to rise substantially beyond
the normal growth for a
community of our size.” The Director agreed that traffic had dramatically increased since
Toyota’s arrival and this
was much to the annoyance of the local people. But on the plus side, he claims, the local
schools have benefited from
the company’s contributions.
To Mrs. Friers and many others, the presence of Toyota has added to their frustration. They
are angry and dismayed
since the plant has changed their way of life. They feel that the way life was in Georgetown
will never to be back,
and they do not know how to fill the void they now experience. One of them aptly
summarized the feeling of others
thus: “we now see lots of new faces, and we don’t know where they come from, where they
arc going. But they seem
to leave us at night to guard this divided city—that’s the new city where Toyota is . .
Japanese money, fancy cars,
fast foods. The other city is where we folks are—still chewing our deep-fried catfish and
spoon bread while recalling
the long list of small mom and pop shops which used to be on the main street that are now
being sucked up by the
winds of the Wal-Marts and the Krogers of the new world. Do we have to destroy the
yesteryears to get to the year 2000? There used to be a word called co-existen de. I guess, we
don’t care what it
means any more!”
Questions
1. What is the difference between American production policy and Japanese production
policy?
2. Where the Japanese Excel?
3. In quality control of Toyota what do you observe?
4. Can Japanese, be really leader in auto production and marketing, all over the world? Justify
your moves.
Case -3
(20 Marks)
How to Win at Westinghouse
Westinghouse founded the Westinghouse Electric Company in 1886, over 100 years ago.
From the beginning, the
hallmark of the company was one of entrepreneurship and creativity. By inventing a new for
tr3nsmitting electric
current over long distances, the firm penetrated the fledgling electric industry. Its aptitude for
technological
innovation led the firm into the development and creation of diverse products, from
household appliances to watches
to nuclear power equipment. The firm also demonstrated creative diversity, branching into
such endeavours as radio
station operations, softdrink bottling, and low income housing Today, the Westinghouse
Corporation is organized
into six operational groups broadcasting, commercial, electronics systems, energy and utility
systems, financial
services, and industries.
As Westinghouse grew and began its expansion into foreign markets, it became apparent that
the firm’s
organisational structures and communication systems would have to be modernized to
provide the flexibility
demanded by overseas operations. Rigid procedures and red tape had to be eliminated, and
ways had to be developed,
by which key employees around the world could communicate with each other rapidly, so
that their giant company
could adequately react to changing conditions around the world.
To meet this communication support challenge, Westinghouse established a
change-responsive high-tech
communication network to support its far-flung operations. A new commuter system allows
employees at all levels
of the corporation to communicate through decentralized support networks. Westinghouse
employees from different
divisions and different departments can link-up in order to share information around the
world.
The new support system, called the Westinghouse Information Network (WIN), links more
than 600 Westinghouse
facilities, providing both voice and data transmissions as well as an electronic mail system.
Westinghouse employees
can link WIN to their homes or to their lap-tops when travelling. WIN offers
videoconferencing, which reduces or
eliminates the need for costly and time-consuming travel to meetings. WIN also contains an
advanced negotiation
system, called EDGE, which supports sales personnel during complex sales negotiations.
Every working day, over 90000 Westinghouse employees utilize the WIN system, which
provides the flexible on-line
support that Westinghouse needs to expand its global enterprises. (16).
QUESTIONS
1. Describe the ways in which international business has an impact on your life.
2. Pick an Indian corporation with which you are familiar and analyse the reasons why it
might be motivated to
expand its internationalism.
3. What sorts of adjustments might McDonald’s have to make in its operations in India?
4. What do you believe India must do to improve its international competitiveness?
5. How do you perceive your managerial career will have an impact by the phenomenon of
international business?
Case-4 (20
Marks)
Doing Business with the East—Motorola Style
When Motorola decided to do business with the East, it was done in a big way. Motorola has
penetrated virtually
every niche in Asia’s booming telecommunication and semiconductor markets. It’s Asian
strategy has already
accounted for 13 new factories in nine countries. Its dynamic growth in Asia is exemplified
by Tam Chung Ding,
President of Motorola’s Asia-Pacific semiconductor division. His office is located in
Motorola’s now $400 million
Silicon Harbour complex with a grand view of the Hong Kong harbour. Motorola leans
heavily on Turns instincts
and his aggressive leadership style. Tam’s division is one of the most profitable and
fastest-growing of Motorola’s
far-flung industrial empire. In 1990, Motorola’s chip sales in non-Japan Asia rose by 20 per
cent to $528 million,
making it the world’s third largest chip producer. Motorola is also Asia’s top supplier of
top-of-the-line walkietalkies
and digital cordless telephones.
The East is critical for Motorola, as Asian sales—outside Japan—total more than $1 billion
per year— almost 10 per
cent of Motorola’s total sales. Motorola has long recognised the potential of Asia. It began
dabbling in Asian
business in the early 1960s, when it established sales agencies in Tokyo and Hong Kong. A
decade ago, Motorola
split up its Asian semiconductor headquarters in Tokyo, locating the office for its non-Japan
Asian business to Hong
Kong under the charge of Mr. Tam.
For years, Motorola had complained about Japanese trade barriers to no avail. Then in 1987,
it formed an alliance
with Toshiba. The two formed a successful chip-manufacturing joint venture, with Toshiba
providing essential
marketing services. In 1990, Toshiba executive Isamu Kuru joined Motorola after serving
Toshiba for 28 years. Mr.
Kuru provides the necessary insight and understanding necessary to guide the Motorola’s
Japanese operations.
Other notable Motorola successes have been recorded in India, Australia, Singapore, China,
and South Korea.
However, the latter two ventures have been serious challenges. In June of 1992, Motorola
broke ground for a new
$120 million semiconductor plant in Tianjin, a Chinese port city near Beijing. It will be the
first U.S. semiconductor
plant in China. In addition to making semiconductors, the new plant will produce telephone
pagers, mobile
telephones, and electronic equipment for automobiles. Many observers believe that such an
investment, coming so
soon after the Tiananmen Square disaster, is far too risky. Motorola is willing to take that
risk, believing that China
holds the key to future competitiveness in Asia. Hovever, to test those Chinese waters, while
the new plant was just
starting construction, Motorola opened a make-shift plant—also in Tianjin—to build the first
of its paging devices.
Originally, Motorola assumed that the local demand for pagers would be so small that it
would have to export a large
share of production. However, the plant now produces 10,000 units each week, and the entire
output is sold in China,
with each pager selling for $200. Experts indicate that the Chinese demand for pagers has
risen from 1 million in
1991 to 4 million in 1993. With the make-shift plant performing well, the new plant
scheduled to begin production
by the end of 1993, and a second new plant planned for the near future, Motorola’s
competitive position in China
seems to be on a sound footing.
Motorola had more serious difficulties with its “Motorola Korea”, Limited venture, especially
with respect to labour
problems. At first, the well-educated, hard-working Korean workforce seemed to be ideal for
Motorola’s needs.
However, in the late 1980s, Korean labour became disenchanted with long working hours,
low pay, and poor
working conditions. Noting the growing riches of the Chaebols, the working class wanted a
greater piece of the
economic pie. Thousands of Korean workers took to the streets in massive demonstrations,
demanding economic
reforms and the right to form labour unions.
Motorola’s first taste of trouble co” when 34 of its more than 3,800 Korean workers
petitioned the Korean
government for the right to organise a union. Motorola has held a long-standing policy
against the unionisation of its
workers and refused to negotiate the matter with its employees. Some of them latter
barricaded themselves in the
factory cafeteria and threatened to stay there until their union demands were met. In response,
Motorola closed the
factory for a week in an effort to provide a cooling-off period. However, when the factory
reopened, violence
immediately broke out at the factory gates, and Motorola had to evacuate the facility. In the
following weeks,
violence continued, a union organiser was arrested, and public sentiment moved to the side of
the ernployee. Before
the matter was resolved, Motorola lost an estimated $2 million in property damage and lost
product. The settlement
also required Motorola to improve working conditions and to improve wages for its
employees Despite this setback,
the Motorola operations in Korea are still growing in keeping with the firm’s commitment to
Asian development.
Despite the nagging problems of unionisation, a shortage of engineers and technicians
continuing trade barriers, and
dealing with a divergence of local customs, Motorola continues to press Asian development
strategy—without harm
to its domestic reputation. A 1995 Fortune Corporate Reputation survey ranked Motorola the
fourth most admired
corporation in the U.S. (up from sixth in 1994) and the most admired firm in the electronics
and electrical equipment
industry (for the second year in a row).
QUESTIONS:
1. Describe some recent changes in your life or in your community that reflects
the world’s shift from the West to the East.
2. What factors would you suggest are behind the shift from the West to the East?
3. Did Japanese management style evolve from the Japanese culture, or did Japanese culture
evolve from Japanese
management style?
4. Describe the business-government ties that result in Japanese trade barriers.
5. Which of the Four Tigers of Asia do you believe has the greatest potential for long-term
economic growth? Why?
6. What must China do to realise the magnitude of economic success earned by the Japanese?
7. Outside of Singapore, which of the other ASEAN nations holds potential for economic
success? Why?


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Financial Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Compare and contrast a defined benefit and a defined contribution pension plan. (10
marks)
Q2. Describe the duties of the financial manager in a business firm. (10
marks)
Q3. Where will you show purchase of furniture in cash flow statement ? (10
marks)
Q4. Discuss how Working capital affects both the liquidity and profitability of a business (10
marks)
Q5. Different types of investments time horizons. (10
marks)
Q6. 22. A stock is expected to pay a dividend of Rs.0.75 at the end of the year. The required rate of return is ks = 10.5%,
and the expected constant growth rate is g = 6.4%. What is the stock’s current price?
(10
marks)
Q7. What is the definition of management fraud? (10
marks)
Q8. Why we use WACC? (10
marks)

 

Quantitative Methods
Case Studies
A monte Carlo Case Study (20
Marks)
Laura,’ a 57 year old unmarried woman, earns around 68,000 dollars per year with expenditure of 37,500 dollars. She hit away
14,000 dollars each year and collected 330,000 dollars in her RRSP and TFSA, and also a rented apartment worth 250,000 dollars.
She has a iixed pension given by her employer, although it is not indicated to price rise, and Is entitled to get complete benefits of
Canada Pension Plan and Old Age Security, for retirement. She did not have a very competent portfolio: one fourth of cash is there,
and most of it was in contracted sector ETFs, single stocks and business bonds. Due to wrong entry of ETFs in the account,
unnecessary taxes were charged. Even before reconstructing Laura’s portfolio,”he had to make certain that it matched with.her
financial aims. Laura’s main aim was to ascertain if she could retire before the age of 65, maybe as early as 60, therefore she had to
know if her investments could produce enough flow of cash after she retires. Monte Carlo may show a top possibility of success with
the allotment of equity of 70% ot 80%. Through a risky questionnaire and art open interview, Justin Ill ‘ascertain that Laura was the
best person for a portfolio of 60% fixed income and 40% equities. . Through Monte Carlo software, Justin entered the current
portfolio . size of Laura, her rate of savings, projected retirement expenditure, and other employer income and government pensions.
If Laura feels that working till the age of 63 was unpleasant, she could go for the reproduction again and with different estimation.
Increasing her anticipated returns or bringing down the rate of inflation, is only a thought, therefore, she will have to make some
stronger decisions: she will have to making some more savings, or bring down her rate of planned expenses after retirement.
Amazingly, by bringing up the allotment to fixed salary could increase her opportunity to succeed: in spite of th returns being lower
than the equities, the volatility is also less, which lessens the risk of helpless decline in the early years. At last, Laura decided to work
for 6 more years and plan her retirement at the age of 63. After this, Justin decided to help her make a fresh ETF portfolio to match
that goal: it was finalized at 30% short term business bonds, 30% GICs, and the rest of it was divided among Canadian, L’S and
global equities. Laura was able to make a notified decision through the Monte Carlo simulation, but this wasn’t the end of the
procedure. In two or three years time, she will have to visit the location again to see that she is still on the right path of her retirement
goal, as many issues like, loss of job, a legacy, new connections, increase in the interest rates, all these could bring a change in the
main suppusitions 1 ; and she will have to redo her plans. The possibilities are different before the age of 63. For each added year
that Laura works, her portfolio will addition instead of a decrease and this will lead to a thrilling difference: the success rate will rise
up by 25% points if she continues to work till the age of 61 instead of 60.
Answer the following question.
Q1. How much was Laura earning at the age of 57? (Hint: 68,000 dollars per year)
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The cost of fuel in running of an engine is proportional to the square of the speed and is Rs 48 per hour for speed of 16 kilometers
per hour. Other expenses amount to Rs 300 per hour. What is the most economical speed?
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is most economical speed?
3/19/2019 Aeren Foundation
2/2
Q2. What is a chi-square test?
Q3. What is sampling and what are its uses.
Q4. Is there any alternative formula to find the value of Chi-square?
Finoplastika Industries Ltd, Nigeria (20
Marks)
Time series analysis has two important aims: 1) recognizing the quality of the phenomenon shown by the series of studies, and 2)
Both the aims need the plan of the viewed time series data is recognized and somewhat officially explained: A time series is said to
be a ‘collection of observations made in sequence with time’. For example: recording level of daily rainfall, periodical total domestic
product of US, and monthly strength of the. workers in Marine Corps for a specific rank and MOS. The evaluation of time series
gives instruments for picking a symbolic model and delivering forecasts. There are two sorts of times series data: • Continuous: in
this the data consists of study at every moment, for example, seismic movement recorded on a seismogram. • Discrete: the data
contains recordings taken at different periods ,like, statistics of each month crime. Until the data is absolutely haphazard, studies in
time series are usually related to each and the following studies could be partly ascertain by the last values. For instance, the reasons
pertaining to the meteorology which have an effect on the temperature for any given day tend to have some affect on the next day’s
climate. Hence, the observations of the past temperature are helpful for predicting temperatures for the following days. • A time
series can be deterministic if there are no haphazard or feasible features but goes in a set and foreseeable manner. The data gathered
during the classical physics experiment like showing Newton’s Law of Motion, is one example of a deterministic time series. The
stochastic type of series is more appropriate to the econometric function. Stochastic variables contain undefined or arbitrary
viewpoint. Though the worth of each study cannot be precisely foreseen, calculating the various observations could follow the
expected method. These methods can be explained through the statistical models. According to these models, studies differ
erratically on the underlying mean value whtch is the role of time. Time series data can be put in the following categories: one or
more performance factors; trend, seasonality, cyclical function and random sound. Various kinds of time series predicting models
give forecasts through extrapolating the previous performance of the values of a specified \’l!riable of interest. Consecutive study in
econometric times series are generally not free and forecast can be made on the basis of last observations. Although precise
predictions can be made with deterministic time series, predictions of stochastic time series are restricted to ‘conditional statements
regarding the future on the basis of particular hypothesis.’ Armstrong (2001) says, “The basic Assumption is that the variable ui!!
continue in the future as it has behaved in the past. ” Particularly, the time series predictions are suitable for stochastic type of data in
which the fundamental root cause of variation like, trend, cyclical performance, seasonality, and uneven variations, do not change
radically m time. Therefore, modeling is considered to be more suitable temporarily instead of permanent predictions.
Answer the following question.
Q1.
Write briefly on time-series analysis. (Hint: recognizing the quality of the phenomenon shown by the series of
studies, and, both the aims need the plan of the viewed time series data is recognized and somewhat officially
explained)
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The price P per unit at which a company can sell all that it produces is given by the function P(x) = 300 — 4x. The cost function is
c(x) = 500 + 28x where x is the number of units produced. Find x so that the profit is maximum.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Find the value of x.
Q2. In using regression analysis for making predictions what are the assumptions involved.
Q3. What is a simple linear regression model?
Q4. What is a scatter diagram method?


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Business Administration
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss – The unit of planning (10 marks)
Q2. What is the meaning and aims of filin (10 marks)
Q3. Write a note on staffing (10 marks)
Q4. Explain preparation of the product (10 marks)
Q5. Give advantages of soletradership (10 marks)
Q6. Explain origin of business policies (10 marks)
Q7. Explain the rise of management as a profession (10 marks)
Q8. What is flexibility of policies (10 marks)

Business Administration
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give advantages of card index system (10 marks)
Q2. Explain Liason Men and coordination (10 marks)
Q3. Give the benefits of admitting a partner (10 marks)
Q4. Discuss pricing of the product (10 marks)
Q5. Explain Single use programmes (10 marks)
Q6. How to set a new project (10 marks)
Q7. Explain specific features of the Gandhian Business Management (10 marks)
Q8. Write a note on controlling (10 marks)

 

Business Communication
Answer the following question.
Q1. Give 10 foreign words of in Common use (With meaning) (10 marks)
Q2. Give 10 pairs/groups of words that confuse (With meaning) (10 marks)
Q3. What does good business behavior includes (10 marks)
Q4. What is the time honored conventions for conducting Interviews? (10 marks)
Q5. Draft a sample notice of meeting & Agenda (10 marks)
Q6. Explain 7 phases of negotiating tactics (10 marks)
Q7. Write a note on Silence as Communication (10 marks)
Q8. List the measures to overcome Communication barriers. (10 marks)

 

Business Environment
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss resumption of MAPIN. (10 marks)
Q2. What do you think about airport privatisation. (10 marks)
Q3. What does management transfer involve. (10 marks)
Q4. What is information collection system. (10 marks)
Q5. Discuss economic upliftment. (10 marks)
Q6. What points are included in assessment of performance during plans . (10 marks)
Q7. Give a chart of River systems in India. (10 marks)
Q8. Water has critical importance in human lives, explain. (10 marks)

 

Business Ethics
Answer the following question.
Q1. What are attributes of profession. (10 marks)
Q2. What is code of conduct for citizens. (10 marks)
Q3. Explain need for a check on quackery. (10 marks)
Q4. What is cultural ethos? (10 marks)
Q5. What are some ethical problems in business. (10 marks)
Q6. Write a note on national consumer duputes redressal commission (10 marks)
Q7. Write a note on consumerism. (10 marks)
Q8. Write a note on human culture and civilization. (10 marks)

 

Business Management
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss test of partnership (10 marks)
Q2. Explain integration of plans (10 marks)
Q3. Explain origin of business policies (10 marks)
Q4. Explain policies as help in delegation of authority (10 marks)
Q5. Explain setting up a new project (10 marks)
Q6. How is the team effort achieved (10 marks)
Q7. Write a note on organizing (10 marks)
Q8. Compare administration versus management (10 marks)

Quantitative Methods
Case Studies
A monte Carlo Case Study (20
Marks)
Laura,’ a 57 year old unmarried woman, earns around 68,000 dollars per year with expenditure of 37,500 dollars. She hit away
14,000 dollars each year and collected 330,000 dollars in her RRSP and TFSA, and also a rented apartment worth 250,000 dollars.
She has a iixed pension given by her employer, although it is not indicated to price rise, and Is entitled to get complete benefits of
Canada Pension Plan and Old Age Security, for retirement. She did not have a very competent portfolio: one fourth of cash is there,
and most of it was in contracted sector ETFs, single stocks and business bonds. Due to wrong entry of ETFs in the account,
unnecessary taxes were charged. Even before reconstructing Laura’s portfolio,”he had to make certain that it matched with.her
financial aims. Laura’s main aim was to ascertain if she could retire before the age of 65, maybe as early as 60, therefore she had to
know if her investments could produce enough flow of cash after she retires. Monte Carlo may show a top possibility of success with
the allotment of equity of 70% ot 80%. Through a risky questionnaire and art open interview, Justin Ill ‘ascertain that Laura was the
best person for a portfolio of 60% fixed income and 40% equities. . Through Monte Carlo software, Justin entered the current
portfolio . size of Laura, her rate of savings, projected retirement expenditure, and other employer income and government pensions.
If Laura feels that working till the age of 63 was unpleasant, she could go for the reproduction again and with different estimation.
Increasing her anticipated returns or bringing down the rate of inflation, is only a thought, therefore, she will have to make some
stronger decisions: she will have to making some more savings, or bring down her rate of planned expenses after retirement.
Amazingly, by bringing up the allotment to fixed salary could increase her opportunity to succeed: in spite of th returns being lower
than the equities, the volatility is also less, which lessens the risk of helpless decline in the early years. At last, Laura decided to work
for 6 more years and plan her retirement at the age of 63. After this, Justin decided to help her make a fresh ETF portfolio to match
that goal: it was finalized at 30% short term business bonds, 30% GICs, and the rest of it was divided among Canadian, L’S and
global equities. Laura was able to make a notified decision through the Monte Carlo simulation, but this wasn’t the end of the
procedure. In two or three years time, she will have to visit the location again to see that she is still on the right path of her retirement
goal, as many issues like, loss of job, a legacy, new connections, increase in the interest rates, all these could bring a change in the
main suppusitions 1 ; and she will have to redo her plans. The possibilities are different before the age of 63. For each added year
that Laura works, her portfolio will addition instead of a decrease and this will lead to a thrilling difference: the success rate will rise
up by 25% points if she continues to work till the age of 61 instead of 60.
Answer the following question.
Q1. How much was Laura earning at the age of 57? (Hint: 68,000 dollars per year)
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The cost of fuel in running of an engine is proportional to the square of the speed and is Rs 48 per hour for speed of 16 kilometers
per hour. Other expenses amount to Rs 300 per hour. What is the most economical speed?
Answer the following question.
Q1. What is most economical speed?
3/19/2019 Aeren Foundation
2/2
Q2. What is a chi-square test?
Q3. What is sampling and what are its uses.
Q4. Is there any alternative formula to find the value of Chi-square?
Finoplastika Industries Ltd, Nigeria (20
Marks)
Time series analysis has two important aims: 1) recognizing the quality of the phenomenon shown by the series of studies, and 2)
Both the aims need the plan of the viewed time series data is recognized and somewhat officially explained: A time series is said to
be a ‘collection of observations made in sequence with time’. For example: recording level of daily rainfall, periodical total domestic
product of US, and monthly strength of the. workers in Marine Corps for a specific rank and MOS. The evaluation of time series
gives instruments for picking a symbolic model and delivering forecasts. There are two sorts of times series data: • Continuous: in
this the data consists of study at every moment, for example, seismic movement recorded on a seismogram. • Discrete: the data
contains recordings taken at different periods ,like, statistics of each month crime. Until the data is absolutely haphazard, studies in
time series are usually related to each and the following studies could be partly ascertain by the last values. For instance, the reasons
pertaining to the meteorology which have an effect on the temperature for any given day tend to have some affect on the next day’s
climate. Hence, the observations of the past temperature are helpful for predicting temperatures for the following days. • A time
series can be deterministic if there are no haphazard or feasible features but goes in a set and foreseeable manner. The data gathered
during the classical physics experiment like showing Newton’s Law of Motion, is one example of a deterministic time series. The
stochastic type of series is more appropriate to the econometric function. Stochastic variables contain undefined or arbitrary
viewpoint. Though the worth of each study cannot be precisely foreseen, calculating the various observations could follow the
expected method. These methods can be explained through the statistical models. According to these models, studies differ
erratically on the underlying mean value whtch is the role of time. Time series data can be put in the following categories: one or
more performance factors; trend, seasonality, cyclical function and random sound. Various kinds of time series predicting models
give forecasts through extrapolating the previous performance of the values of a specified \’l!riable of interest. Consecutive study in
econometric times series are generally not free and forecast can be made on the basis of last observations. Although precise
predictions can be made with deterministic time series, predictions of stochastic time series are restricted to ‘conditional statements
regarding the future on the basis of particular hypothesis.’ Armstrong (2001) says, “The basic Assumption is that the variable ui!!
continue in the future as it has behaved in the past. ” Particularly, the time series predictions are suitable for stochastic type of data in
which the fundamental root cause of variation like, trend, cyclical performance, seasonality, and uneven variations, do not change
radically m time. Therefore, modeling is considered to be more suitable temporarily instead of permanent predictions.
Answer the following question.
Q1.
Write briefly on time-series analysis. (Hint: recognizing the quality of the phenomenon shown by the series of
studies, and, both the aims need the plan of the viewed time series data is recognized and somewhat officially
explained)
CASE STUDY (20
Marks)
The price P per unit at which a company can sell all that it produces is given by the function P(x) = 300 — 4x. The cost function is
c(x) = 500 + 28x where x is the number of units produced. Find x so that the profit is maximum.
Answer the following question.
Q1. Find the value of x.
Q2. In using regression analysis for making predictions what are the assumptions involved.
Q3. What is a simple linear regression model?
Q4. What is a scatter diagram method?

 

Research Methodology
Answer the following question.
Q1. Discuss Interview as a technique of data collection. (10
marks)
Q2. Why is questionnaire still widely used in spite of its limitations? Mention some important points to be kept in mind
while constructing a questionnaire.
(10
marks)
Q3. Explain ‘Data Reduction’ and ‘Data Display’ in Qualitative Research (10
marks)
Q4. For the cost function y = 500x – 40×2 + 3×3 for x units, find the average cost, marginal cost and marginal average cost. (10
marks)
Q5. The monthly income of two persons are in the ratio 4:5 and their monthy expenditures are in the ratio 7:9. If each
saves rs. 50 per montrh, find their monthly incomes.
(10
marks)
Q6. A manufacturer can sell x items per month at a price of P = 300 – 2x rupees. Producing x items cost the manufacturer
y rupees where y = 2x + 1000. How much production will yield maximum profit.
(10
marks)
Q7.
There are two branches of an establishment employing 200 and 160 persons respectively. If the AMs of the monthly
salaries paid by the two branches are rs. 550 and rs. 450 respectivvely, find AM of the salaries of the employees of the
establishment as a whole.
(10
marks)
Q8. The monthly income of two persons are in the ratio 4:5 and their monthy expenditures are in the ratio 7:9. If each
saves rs. 50 per montrh, find their monthly incomes.
(10
marks)