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Case 2 :-

“Naughty Rule”

Dr. Reddy Instruments is a medium-sized the Industrial Estate on the outskirts of Hyderabad. The company is basically involved with manufacturing surgical instruments and supplies for medical professionals and hospitals.

About a year ago, Madhuri, aged 23, niece of the firm’s founder, Dr. Raja Reddy, was hired to replace Ranga Rao quality control inspector, who had reached the age of retirement. Madhuri had recently graduated from the Delhi College of Engineering where she had majored in Industrial Engineering.

Balraj Gupta, aged 52, is the production manager of the prosthesis dept., where artificial devices designed to replace missing parts of the human body are manufactured. Gupta has worked for Dr. Reddy Instruments for 20 years, having previously been a production line supervisor and, prior to that, a worker on the production line. Gupta, being the eldest in his family, has taken up the job quite early in life and completed his education mostly through correspondence courses.

From their first meeting, it looked as though Gupta and Madhuri could not get along together. There seemed to be an underlying animosity between them, but it was never too clear what the problem was.

Venkat Kumar, age 44, is the plant manager of Dr. Reddy instruments. He has occasionally observed disagreements between Madhuri and Gupta on the production line, Absenteeism has risen in Gupta’s department since Madhuri was hired as quality control inspector. Venkat secretly decided to issue a circular calling for a meeting of all supervisory personnel in the production and twelve quality control departments. The circular was worked thus:

 

Attention: All Supervisors Production Quality Control Departments

 A meeting is schedule on Monday, Feb 20, at 10 a.m. in room 18. The purpose is to sort out misunderstanding and differences that seem to exist between production and QC personnel.

Sd. Venkat Kumar

Plant Manager

 

 

Venkat starred the meeting by explaining why he had called it and then asked Gupta for his opinion of the problem. The conversation took the following shape:

Gupta: That Delhi girl you recruited is a ‘fault finding machine’ in our dept. Until she was hired, we hardly even stopped production. And when we did, it was only because of a mechanical defect. But Madhuri has been stopping everything even if ‘one’ defective part comes down the line.

Madhuri: That’s not true. You have fabricated the story well.

Gupta: Venkat, our quality has not undergone any change in recent times. It’s still the same, consistently good quality it was before she came but all she wants to do is to trouble us.

Madhuri: May I clarify my position at this stage? Mr. Gupta, you have never relished my presence in the company. I still remember some of the derisive remarks you used to make behind my back. I did take note of them quite clearly!

Suresh (another quality control supervisor): I agree with Madhuri Venkat. I think that everyone knows that the rules permit quality control to stop production if rejections exceed three an hour. This is all Madhuri has been doing.

Gupta: Now listen to me. Madhuri starts counting the hour from the moment she gets the first reject. Ranga Rao never really worried about absolute reject rule when he was here. She wants to paint my department in black. Is not that true Riaz Ahmed?

Ahmed (another production supervisor): It sure is Gupta. Every time Maduri stops production, she is virtually putting the company on fire. The production losses would affect our bonuses as well. How long can we allow this ‘nuisance’ to continue?

Thirty minutes later Madhuri and Gupta were still lashing out at each other. Venkat decided that ending the meeting might be appropriate under the circumstances. He promised to clarify the issue, after discussion with management, sometime next weel.

QUESTIONS:

  1. Should Venkat have called a meeting to sort out this problem? Why or Why not?
  2. What do you say about the rule calling for production to halt if there are more than three rejects in an hour? Should it have been enforced? Explain.
  3. What do you feel is the major problem in this case? The solution?

 

 

Case 3 :-

ABC LIMITED

M/s. ABC Ltd. is a medium – sized engineering company production a large-range of product lines according to customer requirements. It has earned a good reputation as a quick and reliable supplier to its customers because off which its volume of business kept on increasing. However, over the past one year, the managing director of the company has been receiving customer complaints due to delays in dispatch of products and at times, the company has to pay substantial penalty for not meeting the schedule in time.

The managing director convened an urgent meeting of various functional managers to discuss the issue. The Marketing Manager questioned the arbitrary manner of giving priority to products in manufacturing line, causing delays in products that are in great demand and over-stocking of products which are not required immediately. Production control manager complained that he does not have adequate staff to plan and control the production function; and whatever little planning he does, is generally overlooked by shop floor manager. Shop floor manager complained of unrealistic planning, excessive machine breakdowns, power failure, shortage of materials for schedule. Maintenance manager, say that he does not get important spares required for equipment maintenance because of which he cannot repair machines at a faster rate. Inventory control manager says that on the one hand the company often access him of carrying too much stock and on the other hand people are grumbling  over shortages.

Fed up by mutual mud-slinging, the managing director decided to appoint you, a bright management consultant with training in business management to suggest way and means to put his “house in order”.

QUESTIONS:

  1. How would you examine if there is any merit in the remarks of various functional managers?
  2. What, in your opinion, could be the reasons for different managerial thoughts in this case?
  3. How would you design a system of getting correct information about job status to identify delays quickly?
  4. List some scientific decision aids that you may prescribe to improve the situation.

 

Case NO. 2

A JAPANESE BRIBE

In July 1976, Kukeo Tanaka, former prime minister of Japan , was arrested on charges of taking bribes ($ 1.8 million) from Locjheed Aircraft Company to secure the purchase of several Lockheed jets.  Tanaka’s secretary and serial other government officials were arrested with him.  The Japanese public reacted with angry demands for a complete disclosure of Tanaka’s dealings. By the end of the year, they had ousted Tanaka’s successor, Takeo Miki, who was widely believed to have been trying to conceal Tanaka’s actions.

In Holland that same year, Prince Bernhard, husband of Queen Juliana, resigned from 300 hundred positions he held in government, military, and private organizations.  The reason : He was alleged to have accepted $ 1.1 million in bribes from Lockheed in connection with the sale of 138 F – 104 Starfighter jets.

In Italy , Giovani Leone, president in 1970, and Aldo Moro and Mariano Rumor, both prime ministers, were accused of accepting bribes from Lockheed in connection with the purchase of $ 100 million worth of aircraft in the late 1960s.  All were excluded from government.

Scandinavia , South Africa , Turkey , Greece , and Nigeria were also among the 15 countries in which Lockheed admitted to having handed out payments and at least $ 202 million in commissions since 1970.

Lockheed Aircraft’s involvement in the Japanese bribes was revealed to have begun in 1958 when Lockheed and Grumman Aircraft (also an American firm) were competing for a Japanese Air Force jet aircraft contract.  According to the testimony of Mr. William Findley, a partner in Arthur Young & Co. (auditors for Lockheed), in 1958 Lockheed engaged the services of Yoshio Kodama, an ultra right – wing war criminal and reputed underworld figure with strong political ties to officials in the ruling Liberal Democratic Party.  With Kodama’s help, Lockheed secured the Government contract.  Seventeen years later, it was revealed that the CIA had been informed at the time (by an American embassy employee) that Lockheed had made several bribes while negotiating the contract.

 

In 1972, Lockheed again hired Kodama as a consultant to help secure the sale of its aircraft in Japan .  Lockheed was desperate to sell planes to any major Japanese airline because it was scrambling to recover from a series of financial disasters.   Cost overruns on a government contract had pushed Lockheed to the brink of bankruptcy in 1970.  Only through a controversial emergency government loan guarantee of  $ 250 million in 1971 did the company narrowly avert disaster.  Mr. A. Carl Kotchian, president of Lockheed from 1967 to 1975, was especially anxious to make the sales because the company had been unable to get as many contracts in other parts of the world as it had wanted.

This bleak situation all but dictated a strong push for sales in the biggest             untapped market left-Japan.  This push, if successful, might well bring in    revenues upward of $ 400 million.  Such a cash inflow would go a long way             towards helping to restore Lockheed’s fiscal health, and it would, of      course, save the jobs of thousands of firm’s employees. (Statement of Carl Kotchian)

Kodama eventually succeeded in engineering a contract for Lockhed with All – Nippon Airways, even beating out McDonnell Douglas, which was actively competing with Lockheed for the same sales.  To ensure the sale, Kodama asked for and received from Lockheed about $9 million during the period from 1972 to 1975.  Much of money allegedly went to then – prime minister Kukeo Tanaka and other government officials, who were supposed to intercede with All – Nippon Airlines on behalf of Lockheed.

According to Mr. Carl Kotchian, “ I knew from the beginning that this money was going to the office of the Prime Minister.”   He was, however, persuaded that, by paying the money, he was sure to get the contract from All-Nippon Airways.  The negotiations eventually netted over $1.3 billion in contracts for Lockheed.

In addition to Kodama, Lockheed had also been advised by Toshiharu Okubo, an official of the private trading company, Marubeni, which acted as  Lockheed’s official representative.  Mr. A. Carl Kotchian later defended the payments, which he saw as one of many “Japanese business practices” that he had accepted on the advice of his local consultants.  The payments, the company was convinced, were in keeping with local “ business practices.”

Further, as I’ve noted, such disbursements did not violate American laws.          I should also like to stress that my decision to make such payments            stemmed from my judgment that the (contracts) …… would provided   Lockheed workers with jobs and thus redound to the benefit of their          dependents, their communities, and stockholders of the corporation.  I should like to emphasize that the payments to the so-called “ high           Japanese government officials” were all requested y Okubo and were not      brought up from my side.  When he told me “ five hundred million yen is necessary for such sales,” from a purely ethical and moral standpoint I       would have declined such a request.  However, in that case, I would most    certainly have sacrificed commercial success….. (If) Lockheed had not remained competitive by the rules of the game as then played, we would       not have sold (our planes) ……… I knew that if we wanted our product to have a chance to win on its own merits, we had to follow the functioning           system.  (Statement of A. Carl Kotchian)

In August, 1975, investigations by the U.S. government led Lockheed to admit it had made  $ 22 million in secret payoffs.  Subsequent senate investigations in February 1976 made Lockheed’s involvement with Japanese government officials public.  Japan subsequently canceled their billion dollar contract with Lockheed.

In June 1979, Lockheed pleaded guilty to concealing the Japanese bribes from the government by falsely writing them off as “marketing costs”.  The Internal Revenue Code states, in part.  “ No deduction shall be allowed….. for any payment made, directly or indirectly, to an official or employee of any government …. If the payment constitutes an illegal bribe or kickback.’  Lockheed was not charged specifically with bribery because the U.S. law forbidding bribery was not enacted until 1978.  Lockheed pleaded guilty to four counts of fraud and four counts of making false statements to the government.  Mr. Kotchian was not indicated, but under pressure from the board of directors, he was forced to resign from Lockheed.  In Japan , Kodama was arrested along with Tanaka.

 

 

 

 

Questions :

  1. Fully explain the effects that payment like those which Lockheed             made to the Japanese  have on the structure of a market.  
  2. In your view, were Lockheed’s payments to the various Japanese            parties “bribes” or “extortions” ?  Explain your response fully.
  3. In your judgment, did Mr. A. Carl Kotchian act rightly from a       moral   point of view ?  (Your answer should take into account the effects of the payments on the welfare of the societies affected, on          the right and duties of the various parties involved, and on the         distribution of benefits and    burdens among the groups involved.)        In your judgment, was Mr. Kotchian morally responsible for         his       actions ?  Was he, in the end, treated fairly ?
  4. In its October 27, 1980, issue, Business Week argued that every             corporation has a corporate culture – that is, values that set a     pattern for its employee’s activities, opinions and actions and that           are instilled in succeeding generations of employees (pp.148-60)         Describe, if you can, the corporate culture of Lockheed and relate that culture to Mr. Kotchian’s actions.  Describe some strategies            for changing that culture in ways that    might make foreign    payments less likely.

 

 

 

 

CASE I                                                                                                                                     

 

Sunder Singh

Sunder Singh had studied only up to high school. He was 32-years of age, lived alone in a rented room, and worked eight-hour shift at one petrol pump, then went to the other one for another eight-hour shift. He had a girl friend and was planning to marry.

 

One day when he returned from work, he got a note from his girl friend that she was getting married to someone else and he need not bother her. This was a terrible shock to Sunder Singh and he fell apart. He stopped going to work, spent sleepless nights, and was very depressed. After a month, he was running Iowan his savings and approached his earlier employers to get back his job, but they would not give him a second chance. He had to quit his rented room, and sold few things that he had. He would do some odd jobs at the railway station or the bus terminal.

 

One day, nearly two years ago, he was very hungry and did not have any money and saw a young man selling newspapers. He asked him what he was selling and he told him about Guzara (an independent, non-profit, independent newspaper sold by the homeless, and economically disadvantaged men and women of this metro city). Sunder Singh approached the office and started selling the newspaper. He did not make a lot of money, but was good at saving it. He started saving money for a warm jacket for next winter.

 

He was reasonably happy; he had money to buy food, and no longer homeless and shared a room with two others. One day, with his savings he bought a pair of second-hand Nike shoes from flea market.

 

Sunder Singh is not unique among low-income consumers, especially in large cities, in wanting and buying Nike shoes. Some experts believe that low-income consumers too want the same products and service that other consumers want.

 

The working poor are forced to spend a disproportionate percent of their income on food, housing, utilities, and healthcare. They solely rely on public transportation, spend very little on entertainment of any kind, and have no security of any kind. Their fight is mainly day-to-day survival.

 

 

QUESTIONS

  1. What does the purchase of a product like Nike mean to Sunder Singh?
  2. What does the story say about our society and the impact of marketing on consumer behavior?


 

CASE II

Key to Buyers’ Minds

 

Consumer buying research has turned a new leaf in India. The era of demographics seems to be on the backbench. Now, Marketing Research people are less likely to first ask you about your age, income, and education etc. Instead, there is a distinct shift towards inquiries about attitudes, interests, lifestyles, and behaviour – in short towards a study of consumers’ minds called psychographics.

 

Pathfinders, the marketing research wing of Lintas, occasionally came out with its highly respected “Study on Nation’s Attitudes and Psychographics (P:SNAP). The first in this series was released in 1987 with an objective to develop a database of lifestyles and psychographics information on the modem Indian women. The second was in 1993, and the third in 1998. Pathfinders choose woman for the study because of the belief that more often than not, in urban areas, it is the woman who makes buying decision.

 

The Pathfinders’ study involves interviewing over 10,000 women over the entire country and segmenting them in clusters according to their beliefs, attitudes, lifestyles, and lastly their demographics profile. The idea is to identify groups of consumers with similar lifestyles who are likely to behave towards products or services.

 

For advertisers and advertising agencies, this profile helps enormously. For example, an advertiser may want to give a westernised touch to a commercial. The profile of the target customer, as revealed by this study, tells the advertising people the perimeter within which she/he must stay, otherwise the ad may become an exaggerated version of westernised India.

 

For the purpose of this study, Pathfinders divided the Indian women in 8 distinct cluster of varying values and lifestyles. Figures from two studies are available publicly and are given below:

 

Cluster 1987 (%) 1993 (%)
Troubled homebody 15.9 18.3
Tight-fisted traditionalist 14.8 10.0
Contended conservative 7.0 9.3
Archetypal provider 13.0 8.8
Anxious rebel 14.1 15.8
Contemporary housewife 19.2 22.1
Gregarious hedonist 8.7 6.6
Affluent sophisticate 7.3 9.1

 

The studies seek to track the macro level changes and movements within these 8 clusters in a period of time.

 

We note from the table that in 1987, 8.7% of the women could be classified as “gregarious hedonist” – those who consider their own pleasure to be supreme in life. ‘In 1993, this figure fell to 6.6%. The “troubled homebody” segment – those with large families and low-income, increased from 15.9% in 1987 to 18.3% in 1993.

 

Information, such as this, is obviously useful to assess the collective mood. That’s why Pathfinders have an impressive list of clients fort heir P:SNAP, which includes Hindustan Lever, Cadbury, Johnson and Johnson, and Gillette.

 

SOME PSYCHOGRAPHICS PROFILES OF INDIAN WOMEN

 

Rama Devi, the Contended Conservative

The lady lives a ‘good’ life – she is a devoted wife, a dotting mother of two school-going sons, and a God fearing housewife. She has been living her life by the traditional values she cherishes – getting up at the crack of dawn, getting the house cleaned up, having the breakfast of ‘Aloo Parathas’ ready in time before the children’s school-bus honks its horn, laying down the dress her ‘government servant’ husband will put on after his bath, and doing her daily one-hour Puja. She fasts every Monday for the welfare of her family, looks at the ‘freely mixing’ and ‘sexually liberal’ youngsters with deep disdain and cannot understand the modem young woman’ s 19reed’ for money, jewellery, and jobs.

 

Her one abiding interest outside the household is the Ganesh Mandir that she has visited every Wednesday, ever since she got married. She lacks higher education and hence has little appreciation for the arts, the literature, and the sciences. Her ample spare time is spent watching the TV, which is her prime source of entertainment and information.

 

 

 

 

 

Shobha, the Troubled Homebody

Shobha married young to the first person she fell in love with, Prakash. Four children came quickly before she was quite ready to raise a family. Now, she is unhappy. She is having trouble in making ends meet on her husband’s salary who is employed as clerk in a private business and is often required to work up to late hours. She is frustrated, as her desire for an idyllic life has turned sour. She could not get education beyond high school and hence there are hardly any job opportunities for her. Her husband also keeps on complaining of the long hours of backbreaking work he has to put in. He consumes country-made liquor routinely.

 

Shobha finds escape in Black and White TV soap operas and films that transport her into the world of her dreams. She watches TV almost all through the day and her children roam around in the locality streets and cannot expect any help from their’ ever-grumbling’ mother. Purchases are mostly limited to ‘essentials’ and any discretionary purchases are postponed till it becomes possible.

 

Neeru, the Archetypal Provider

Neeru epitomises simplicity. Her life is untangled. It runs on a set timetable with almost clockwork precision. She works as a primary school teacher in a rural government school about 50 kilometers from her district town residence. She is married to a social worker in an NGO whose income is erratic. Her three children, two teenaged sons and l0-year old daughter are getting school education.

 

The day begins with the lady getting up before anybody else and finishing the household chores as fast as she can. There is no room for delay as the State government ‘Express’ bus, on which she ravels to her school will be at the bus stop across the road precisely at 8.00 A.M. If she misses that, the next ordinary bus comes at 11.15 A.M, quite useless as it will reach her school only at 1.00 P.M. The school closes at 2.00 P.M. There are private Jeeps running sporadically, but the fare is high and Neeru does not believe in wasting hard earned money. Besides, she travels on husband’s ‘free pass’. Neeru prides herself on her monthly savings ofRs.1000 for the last many years. The money will go toward the wedding of her daughter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vandana, the tight-fisted traditionalist

For Vandana, saving money is ‘in-born’ discipline. When she was young and unmarried, she remembers her mother was extremely tight-fisted and ran the household in under Rs.800 per month. It was the necessity of those times as her father retired at a princely salary of Rs.1800 per month. All through her childhood, she saw deprivation and hardship. She would not join the annual class picnic in her school days as it meant’ avoidable expenditure’.

 

Now she is married and mother of two school going children. The husband works in a bank as a clerk. He has taken all the loans that he could from the bank and invested the money in real estate. As a result of monthly deductions toward repayment of loans, his take home salary is now very little. But Vandana can manage. The school dresses are sewn by her at home, the stationary required comes from a wholesale market, and the books are second-hand from ‘friends’, cultivated for the purpose. On birthdays, Vandana prepares a sweet dish at home and they spend on a film. There is a cow and calf at home, being kept as a source of revenue and milk. She sells half the milk to a neighbour and the family consumes the rest. Life in general is hard and frugal. There is a colour TV at home, but they disconnected the cable connection ever since the rates went up. Now they watch Doordarshan only.

 

Aditi, the Anxious Rebel

Daughter of a Freedom Fighter, Aditi has always fought her values and principles.

People still remember when she walked out of the exam half in a huff as a mark of protest against mass cheating’ sanctioned’ by the centre superintendent in a tough paper. While every body else passed with high marks, Aditi failed.

Even though she repeated the paper, Aditi never learned to swim along the flow. She always swam against the current. She joined the Communist Party in her college and gave rousing speeches against the teachers and authorities. This resulted in her getting very poor marks and left her jobless.

Later, Aditi joined an NGO and now works on social issues. She says she is a creature of the mind, not materialism. Her favourite dress is a long flowing Kurta, and slacks. She wears loosened hair and chappals. She reads voraciously. Financially, she is independent and lives with her parents. Her disdain for the institution of marriage and contempt for the modern Indian male keep her single and unattached. She will continue-to be so as she prefers this status, but may adopt a baby later in life.

 

 

Reema, the Gregarious Hedonist

Just 19, and Reema is already divorced. Her father is a wealthy businessman. During Reema’s childhood, her father was mostly away in Dubai and Africa, trying to amass a fortune. That he did but he lost on his chance to be a good father. Both his children started feeling like’ orphans’ after their mother got involved with another man.

 

Reema was ever longing for her family when alone came Harsh, her private high school tuition teacher. Harsh was all of 22 and very caring. He was tall, handsome, and very popular in school and many girls had a crush on him. Reema was sixteen then and a great fan of Harsh. For her, Harsh was a prize catch as he combined the loving qualities of a father with a mix of being a good teacher. She was soon dazzled and surrendered in a physical relationship.

 

Marriage followed. She never understood how Harsh changed overnight from a caring father figure to a demanding husband. And she could never cope with the six hours she had to spend in the kitchen everyday. Why should she do the cooking, she asked Harsh, as it was something that the ‘Ayas’ did? The reality of a humdrum middle-class existence hit her hard and she soon walked out of ‘the hell’.

 

Her father understood her need to recover and made her allowance rather generous. He bought her a Red Sports Car and got her an admission in a private college.

 

College is entertainment for her. She attends college only on days when there is some function like a cultural evening or the sports meet. Now, Reema spends on alcohol, dresses, parties, and holidays. She consumes a mood elevating drug every evening and keeps sending SMS messages on her mobile to her friends all through the night. For her, life means ‘buying pleasure endlessly’.

 

Shruti, the Contemporary Housewife

Shruti is an urbane woman. She is well educated and genteel. She is an officer in a national bank, and active in her club affairs and community activities. Socialising is an important part of her life. She is a doer, interested in watching cricket, politics, and current affairs. Her life is hectic as she has a lot to do for home and office everyday. Still she often enjoys viewing movies on TV every week.

 

 

 

Shruti shops for Sarees, jewellery, and cosmetics for herself on a regular basis. However, family needs come before her own needs. Her home is a double income household and she has one kid. All the modern gadgets are present and the standard of living is upper middle-class.

 

Momeeta, the Affluent Sophisticate

Momeeta was born Mamta, but elevated herself to Momeeta after marriage to a business tycoon. Momeeta is an elegant woman with style. She lives in Mumbai because that is where she wants to be. She likes the economic and social aspects of big city living and takes advantage of her’ contacts’. She has built up friendship and cultivated the city bigwigs by inviting them to the numerous parties she throws in her luxurious penthouse.

 

Momeeta is a self-confident, on-the-go woman, and not a homebody. She is fashion conscious and clothes herself in the latest designer dresses. Even at 40, she can carry off a mini with aplomb. She is financial very secure and hence does not shop with care. She shops for quality, exclusivity, and the brand name, not the price. She frequently travels abroad, buys expensive gifts for friends, and has an international understanding on what is “chic” at the moment.

 


Three psychographics profiles of Indian women and their food shopping habits:

 

Type I Type II Type III
Money conscious Careful shopper Gourmet/satisfaction
Food shopping is done  on necessity and is postponed as long as possible.

 

Makes out shopping lists and makes weekly/ monthly purchases. General liking for food shopping and food related activities.
Minimum amount of money spent. This is enabled through comparative evaluation of many shops, even if it takes more time. Can purchase larger quantities if there is an incentive like lower prices or a gift scheme. Food budget is flexible. Collects and files food recipes. Experiments with new food products and methods of cooking. Likes to exhibit her culinary skills to her friends and family.

 

Operates within the food budget. Does not buy larger quantities to save money.

 

Checks labelling for price, nutrition and expiry date information Spends a lot of time in kitchen as preparing food is an enjoyable activity.
Price and immediate outflow of cash is the dominant purchase concern. Goes for tried and trusted brands even if they cost a little more. This is an important purchase concern. Food items are bought either based on the past satisfaction from them or for their novelty value. Unknown food items are purchased if they excite the senses. This is the dominant purchase concern.
Who fits in where?

Shobha, Neeru, and Vandana,

 

Shruti, Aditi, and

Rama Devi

 

Momeeta (she is a food lover).

 

(Prof Deepak Khanna, colleague, has developed these profiles based on his perceptions of certain personality types).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTIONS

  1. Explain how the above-mentioned information is likely to benefit a marketer?
  2. Which of the above mentioned types are likely to respond to sales promotion? Explain.
  3. A manufacturer of personal care products in the premium segment starts frequent sales promotions. What is likely to be the impact on the above-mentioned types?