Academic Year 2019 – 2020

1. Management is said to have universal application. How do you justify the
Universality of Management? Give examples to illustrate your arguments.


Managing is necessary whenever one needs to get things done.

It may be called the practice of consciously and continually shaping organizations.

Every organization has people who are assigned the responsibility of serving the organization to achieve its goals.

Management is a universal phenomenon in the sense that it is a common and essential element in all enterprises. Every group effort requires setting objectives, making plans, handling people, co-coordinating and controlling activities, achieving goals and evaluating performance directed towards organizational goals.

These activities relate to the utilization of 4 types of inputs or resources from the environment—human, monetary, physical, and informational.

Human resources include managerial talent, labor, and so forth. Monetary resources are the financial capital the organization uses to finance both ongoing and long-term operations.

Physical resources include raw materials, office and production facilities, and equipment. Information resources are data and other kinds of information utilized by the organization.

The job of the manager is to combine and coordinate these resources to achieve the organization’s goals.

If we see our society closely, we will found management practices are being used everywhere, our praying place, social parties, transport system, schools and.

The concept of universality of management has several implications.

  1. First, managerial skills are transferable from one person to another.
  2. Secondly, management skills can be transferred from one organization to another.
  3. Thirdly, managerial skills can be important and exported from one country to another.
  4. Fourthly, this principle of universality serves as the basis of a general theory of management -a set of common principles.

Some experts support the universality of management on the group that whatever the situation and whatever the level of management, the management function is common

2. “The importance of strategic planning is now fully realized by the Indian
corporate sector than before.” – Discuss.
3. Explain about the personal challenges involved in becoming a manager and a
leader in today’s turbulent environment.
4. Without effective management the resources will remain as resources cannot be
converted into productive utilities. – Do you agree? Give reasons.
1. “The objective of Managerial Economics is to provide framework for analysing
business decisions. Instead of presenting detailed list of rules for specific
decision-making, managerial economics addresses the larger economic forces
that shape day-to-day decision-making”. Critically analyse the above statement.


Managerial economics serves several purposes in business decision-making. To start with, managerial economics provides a logical and experiential framework for analyzing the question. To the somewhat vague question of “what or how much should I make, and who should I sell it to?”, or “should I try to retail something like ‘this’?”, it provides the framework for applying to your question concepts such as supply and demand, market segmentation, competition, and so on. It takes your question from something vague and applies tested concepts to frame a more precise question (and answer).

Second, it provides an opportunity for a quantitative question: “how much should I make?” or “what price should I charge?” Rather than punting at an answer, managerial economics provides either a pre-existing framework for obtaining a direct answer, or at least provides a framework for testing volume or pricing in this case.

Third, it lends meaning to the answer. If you get back an answer “price it at $88.50 if you want to sell 2,000, or at $115.50 if you want to sell 600,” you have an answer with much more utility and you can both test the answer (which is important) and extrapolate, say, to production limited to 400. At this point, you have used managerial economics to help make important business decisions.

Managerial economics is the application of economic theory to economic practice with an aim of ensuring that business decisions meet their intended goal. It is through management economics that a business understands how to access and utilize scarce resources to ensure optimal performance of the same to generate revenues and profits. The application assists in decision making with regards to issues about optimum production, profit maximizing prices and type of product among other economic variables. For instance, a manufacturing company needs to understand what type of product or which additional features would boost the utility
2. “Outline the various steps which would be necessary if you were asked to
forecast demand for a typical mass consumption item”.
3. “If the production function is homogeneous with constant returns to scale
everywhere, the returns to a single variable factor will be diminishing.”
– Comment.
4. “Short-run average variable cost curve is saucer-shaped but the short-run
average total cost curve cannot be saucer-shaped”. Discuss in detail.
1. Enumerate the ratios that measure a firm’s overall effectiveness and specify the
related formula.
2. “Depreciation is a process of allocation and not of valuation.” – Comment.


In accounting, the term depreciation refers to the allocation of cost of a tangible asset to expense to the periods in which the asset is expected to be used to obtain the economic benefit. For example, a company purchases a piece of equipment for $20,000 and estimates that the equipment will be used for a period of 10 years. The cost of the equipment (i.e., $20,000) will be allocated to each of 10 years using some systematic and rational allocation method.

The cost of an asset is initially recorded as an asset in accounting records because the asset will be used for many periods in future. Afterward, the portion of cost is allocated to a particular period is removed from the total cost of the asset and becomes the expense of that particular period and is matched against revenue like any other expense.

The statement that depreciation is a process of allocation and not valuation is quite interesting and asserts a point of view that coincides with a specific type of depreciation.  The definition of allocation as well as valuation in their specific form is also of importance to distinguish the difference.  For example, straight-line depreciation is a cost allocation methodology that breaks the cost of an asset down into specific periods that does not establish any particular metric for valuation. Therefore, depreciation as process of allocation is a form of depreciating an asset that is indifferent to the underlying valuation with concern to the particular use of the asset and the specific period the asset is used.  Valuation will take into consideration the accelerated depreciation methodology that considers an asset as depreciating at a faster rate early in the useful cycle of the asset and slowing down to zero value with regard to depreciation of the asset as the asset approaches salvage value.

3. It is said that only cash cost are relevant for capital budgeting decision.
However, depreciation which is a non-cash cost is a prominent part of cash flow
analysis for such an investment decision. How do you explain this paradox?
4. It is said, “cost accounting is a system of foresight and not post-mortem
examination; it turns losses into profit, speeds up activities and eliminates
wastes”. Discuss in detail this statement
1. What is market segmentation? What are the different ways of segmentation?
Suggest the segmentation strategy for the following products: edible oil, table
top wet grinder and business magazine.
2. What strategies you would recommend to be followed during the four stages of
PLC? Identify one product and one service for each stage in the plc. Give
reasons for your answer.
3. What are the objectives of pricing strategies? Discuss the merits of different
pricing techniques that you would recommend for the following products.
Laptop, sports utility vehicle, designer tiles.
4. Do you think that social media advertisements would kill all other traditional
MEDIA? Discuss your answer with proper justification. Also explain under what
circumstances online advertisements would be highly recommended.
1. “Human resource planning is a pre-requisite for effective management of human
resources.” In the light of this statement, analyse the significance of human
resource planning.
2. Explain a sample HR departmental structure for a large manufacturing
organization and explain the functions.
3. You are appointed as HR manager for a mid size leather company which is new.
Now you are asked to fix pay scale for the employees. Explain your process of
pay fixation.
4. Performance Appraisal System helps employees to identify the areas in which
they need to improve – Do You agree or disagree? Justify with the suitable
1. Suggest the factors governing the choice of site for a manufacturing plant in a
city or sub- urban part of a city.
2. Give a specimen of Gantt Charts which is normally used in the production
planning and control department and describe briefly how it could be used for
checking the actual progress of a job against the schedule.
3. Discuss the functions of purchasing department in an industry. Explain some
methods of purchasing commonly adopted in an industrial purchasing. Why
should the purchasing documents be legally sound?
4. Elaborate the various costs that are involved in inventory problems with suitable
examples. How are they inter related?
1. “Research is much considered with proper fact finding, analysis and
Evaluation.” – Do you agree with this statement. Substantiate your view with
the following situation. You are the HRD Manager with ABB (India) .ABB has
recently taken over a major unit in Kolkata. You are sent on a posting there and
are given the task of introducing a new operation scheme which your parent
organization feels will improve efficiency. But you perceive during your stay
that there is an underlying dissatisfaction amongst the employees and it is
essential to gauge their views and opinion about the takeover and their
expectations before introducing the scheme.
2. In order to improve the importance of chi square analysis, correlation analysis
and t test. Create tables with imaginary and appropriate values and explain the
3. “Every data collection method has its own built-in biases. Therefore, resorting to
multi method of data collection is only going to compound the biases”. How do
you critique this statement?
4. “Data processing is an intermediary stage of work between data collection and
data analysis”- Explain the statement by enumerating the various operations
involved in it.
M.B.A. Assignment /I.S./1ST YEAR /AUP/709/C-250